Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 SEPTEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 SEPTEMBER 2018

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

1) In its recent judgement on hate crimes, the Supreme  Court has put forward a comprehensive set of measures to deal with the issue. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Recent spurt in incidents of hate crimes and violence has prompted the highest court of the country to put forward several measures in the form of instructions to the executive, police, administration. These measure need to be thoroughly discussed.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the recent SC judgment on hate crime and write in detail about the measures it has put forward to deal with the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the history of hate-crimes in India and mention their increased frequency observed in recent years which has prompted the SC to intervene in the issue.

Body-

Discuss in detail about the SC judgement on hate-crimes. E.g the trial court must ordinarily award maximum sentence as provided for various offences under the provisions of the IPC; concerned governments to file appeals forthwith to the superior courts against judgments of acquittals and/or granting of bail in all such cases; bail ought not to be granted in such cases except in the rarest of rare cases and that too for the cogent reasons provided in the order; direct disciplinary action against concerned police and administration officials for their failure to prevent hate crimes within their territorial jurisdiction after holding an enquiry by an independent commission of enquiry; hold registered political parties and other registered entities accountable for the acts of commission or omission by their members involved in hate crimes and direct suitable penal action against them; prohibit those holding constitutional and public offices including as ministers, members of Parliament or state assemblies, panchayat and municipal office bearers from identifying themselves with lynch-mob accused publicly in any manner and in case of any infraction hold them responsible and subject to immediate disqualification from such offices; sensitise subordinate judiciary and higher judiciary dealing with such hate crimes so as to protect the vulnerable sections of the society including those belonging to minority communities as well as women, children and Dalits by holding seminars and workshops at regular intervals involving social activists, psychologists, other activists, lawyers and responsible citizens from all communities etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


 

Topic– Disaster Management

2) With the likelihood of extreme weather patterns increasing because of global warming, operational management of dams deserves equal importance. Analyze. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Kerala floods is one of the most important topic to be prepared for disaster management section of paper 3. This article highlights the reasons why the floods in Kerala were so destructive. One of the key role was played by dams and understanding their role in floods would pave the way for enhancing our readiness.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how operational management of floods is critical in mitigation of impact of floods. We need to explain why this is so, along with lacunae in our dam management. Finally we need to discuss the way forward for improving the status of dam management.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the recent Kerala floods, Chennai floods etc have shown the devastating impact of poor operational management of dams.

Body

  • Discuss the role played by operational management of dams in catalysing the devastating impact of floods. Cite illustrations from the recent Kerala floods and Chennai floods before that to show that release of water by dams enhances the destructive impact of floods. Highlight the other associated problems caused by dams in accentuating the destruction caused by floods – silting of rivers, problems in hilly areas etc
  • Discuss the issues with dam management in India – dam management is engineering oriented in its approach, detailed holistic study determining the impact of dams is not done, impact on community not ascertained, evaluation of spillway capacity not done etc
  • Suggest ways in which the same can be improved

Conclusion – Give your view on how important operational management of dams is in mitigating the devastating impact of disasters and discuss the way forward.

 


Topic–  Disaster and disaster management.

3) There has to be a change from focussing only on managing natural disasters to improving resilience. Comment in the context of India’s preparedness for disasters and its disaster policy. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

India is highly vulnerable to various kinds of natural disasters. Climate change, environmental degradation and increasing stress on natural resources exacerbates the hazard potential of these disasters. In this light, it is important to know the focus of our country’s disaster management  and its preparedness, and deliberate on its shortfalls so that we could be better prepared.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on the need to change our focus from disaster management to building resilience. It wants us to highlight India’s disaster preparedness and use it build our opinion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about India and its vulnerabilities to disaster- e.g India is prone to disasters. About 70% of its coastal areas are prone to tsunamis and cyclones, about 60% of its landmass vulnerable to earthquakes, and 12% of its land to floods.

Body-

  • Discuss India’s disaster preparedness. E.g There are few guidelines on construction in flood-prone regions, or even a map of safe zones; lack of forecast and alert systems infrastructure; risk management is still in its infancy; Few States have prepared emergency action plans for the over 5,000 large dams in India, with reports of just 200 dams having been covered so far; Mitigation projects for upgradation of the observatory network have barely commenced. The effectiveness of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has been hampered by a shortage of trained manpower, training, infrastructure and equipment etc.
  • Discuss the need to revise our disaster policy- e.g Disaster norms are also skewed more towards rural areas, focussing on agriculture, fisheries, livestock and handicrafts from a relief perspective. Typically, after a disaster, revenue officials are responsible for visiting affected areas and identifying people for relief, in turn offering scope for misuse and corruption. In addition, any disaster relief will typically exclude anyone living in an unauthorised area. Such norms also exclude sharecroppers and agricultural labourers, while focussing only on small and big farmers. The former are also the ones excluded from the rural credit market, while facing significant risk from agricultural uncertainty; unlisted disasters which are not neatly bucketed in the specifications under the Calamity Relief Fund are restricted to a relief of 10% of the fund’s annual allocation etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


TopicIssues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices

4) Critically examine whether the MSP formula of 50 per cent over cost A2+FL is ill-advised?(250 words)

Indian express

 

Why this question

The article evaluates the merit of focussing on MSP for improving the status of farmers, and highlights the issues involved therein. The article then discusses the overzealousness of states like Maharashtra in implementing norms wrt MSP and the challenges that it might create. The government has recently come out with the new MSP formula and thus issues related to MSP need to be prepared in detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the pros and cons of the new MSP formula and examine the challenges, if any, posed by the decision of Maharashtra government to make procurement of wheat at MSP compulsory for traders. Finally, we need to provide our point of view and suggest alternatives to MSP for improving the status of farmers.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the recent decision of the government with respect to fixing of MSP and the steps taken by states like Maharashtra etc to improve the status of their farmers by focussing on MSP.

Body

  • Highlight the pros and cons of focussing primarily on MSP for improving the economic status of farmers. Discuss whether fixing the MSP through new formula would ensure that the economic status of farmers improves.
  • Examine whether the step taken by Maharashtra government in making procurement at MSP for wheat would ensure that farmers get fair price for their produce.
  • Evaluate other alternatives to MSP for improving farmers welfare and economic condition

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view on the MSP formula and role of MSP and suggest way forward.

 


Topic – Indigenization of technology and developing new technology

5) What are biosimilars? Analyze why focussing on biosimilars will be advantageous for Indian pharma industry?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article highlights the challenges faced by pharma manufacturers in India and how biosimilars provide a good opportunity for them. Biosimilars have gained in importance in recent years and our ability  to indigenise this technology would play a key role in the future of pharma sector in India.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what biosimilars are along with its properties. Next, we need to bring out the challenges faced by pharma industries in India. Thereafter, we need to highlight the opportunities and challenges presented by biosimilars for the pharma industry in India. We need to conclude with the way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give the overall impact of pharma industry on Indian economy and mention that it is one of the pillars of Indian economy both on account of its contribution to India as well as it’s role in making India the pharmacy of the world.

Body

  • Explain what biosimilars are.
  • Discuss the issues plaguing pharma sector in India – consolidation in the industry, competition from Chinese manufacturer, decreasing price of medicines requirement of Indian pharma manufacturers to create new market.
  • Discuss the opportunities and challenges presented by biosimilars to the pharma manufacturers. In opportunities, one can highlight the huge application, advantages offered by biosimilars etc. In challenges, one needs to bring out the lack of regulations, need for forming new partnerships to make it commercially viable etc

Conclusion – Summarize the advantages offered by biosimilars to Indian pharma manufacturers and discuss the way forward.


Topic–  Part of static series under the heading – “climate change”

6) What do you understand by heat budget of the earth? Examine how anthropogenic factors are impacting the heat budget of the earth? (250 words)

NCERT class XI Physical Geography Pg 81

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what is meant by heat budget of the Earth. Next, we need to bring out human actions impact the heat budget and how it results in climate change.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is meant by heat budget of the Earth. Discuss how much insolation is received and how much is reflected back and absorbed.

Body -Explain how human actions impact the heat budget. discuss the impact of the altered heat budget and how it leads to climate change and associated impacts.

Conclusion – Discuss the ways in which we can restore the heat budget of the Earth.


Topic-Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance

7) Discuss the exit, voice and loyalty theory as put forward by Albert Hirschman.(250 words)

Lexicon- Ethics book; Values and ethics in public administration

Wikipedia

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the exit,voice and loyalty theory proposed by Albert Hirschman. We have to bring out our understanding of the theory, its applicability etc.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the theory in question. E.g

Exit, Voice, and Loyalty is a treatise written by Albert O. Hirschman. The work hinges on a conceptual ultimatum that confronts consumers in the face of deteriorating quality of goods: either exit or voice.

Body-

Discuss the theory further in detail. E.g As per the theory, members of an organization, whether a business, a nation or any other form of human grouping, have essentially two possible responses when they perceive that the organization is demonstrating a decrease in quality or benefit to the member: they can exit(withdraw from the relationship); or, they can voice (attempt to repair or improve the relationship through communication of the complaint, grievance or proposal for change). For example, the citizens of a country may respond to increasing political repression in two ways: emigrate or protest. Similarly, employees can choose to quit their unpleasant job, or express their concerns in an effort to improve the situation etc.

While both exit and voice can be used to measure a decline in an organization, voice is by nature more informative in that it also provides reasons for the decline. Exit, taken alone, only provides the warning sign of decline. Exit and voice also interact in unique and sometimes unexpected ways; by providing greater opportunity for feedback and criticism, exit can be reduced; conversely, stifling of dissent leads to increased pressure for members of the organization to use the only other means available to express discontent, departure. The general principle, therefore, is that the greater the availability of exit, the less likely voice will be used. However, the interplay of loyalty can affect the cost-benefit analysis of whether to use exit or voice. Where there is loyalty to the organization (as evidenced by strong patriotism politically, or brand loyalty for consumers), exit may be reduced, especially where options to exit are not so appealing (small job market, political or financial hurdles to emigration or moving). Loyal members become especially devoted to the organization’s success when their voice will be heard and that they can reform it.

Conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

Subscribe to Blog via Email

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.