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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 03 SEPTEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 03 SEPTEMBER 2018

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1) In order to safeguard the rights of the transgender community in India, there is an urgent need for affirmative action. Examine in the light of the shortcomings of the transgender bill.(250 words)

epw

Economictimes

Why this question

Transgender community in India is one of the most discriminated community. Facing economic deprivation and social ostracisation, they have very limited opportunities for development. In this context, it is essential to examine the need for affirmative action in their case.

Directive word

Examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the shortcomings of the Transgender bill and discuss the reasons as to why there is a need to provide affirmative action to the transgender community in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines highlighting the plight of transgender persons in India. E.g Recently, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) conducted the first-ever nationwide survey of the transgender community in India and found that 92% of the people belonging to the community are subjected to economic exclusion.

Body-

  • Discuss the shortcomings of the Transgender bill. E.g the bill has neglected to incorporate two crucial recommendations made by a standing committee to review its provisions in 2017. The first recommendation made a case for reservation for transgender persons in educational institutions and for jobs; denial of legal recognition of the rights of transgender persons to marriage and partnerships, which is difficult in a country that largely recognises only two genders. Indians have stubbornly stuck to the gender binary as a basis for defining their sociocultural reality etc.
  • Discuss the discrimination and deprivation faced by the transgender community in India. E.g they have to either resort to—or are forced into—begging or sex work since they remain socially circumscribed from other forms of employment; denial of sexual citizenship; face social rejection;  cannot inhabit public spaces and command the same respect that a heterosexual cis-man would receive from his fellow citizens because their bodies themselves are stigmatised presences. The transgender community occupies a very specific intersection among marginalised communities that makes them uniquely vulnerable to sexual violence and medical neglect. Largely, they are estranged from their families, which removes them from one of the most primary forms of social legitimacy. As per the NHRC survey, only 2% of transgender persons in India live with their families; face sexual violence and are more predisposed to sexual diseases etc.

Conclusion– Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic–  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2) The growing countrywide demand for the inclusion of new castes in the reservation quotas has entered an interesting phase. Analyze.(250 words)

epw

Why this question

Reservation policy of the government of India has entered an interesting phase. The discourse around reservation policy has witnessed a remarkable shift which needs to be probed in detail.

Directive word

Analyze- Here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the issue of reservation policy in India and bring out the change in the discourse around it, as has happened in the recent years. We have to look at the issue through a wide lens and appreciate the changes therein.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the reservation policy in India- e.g mention the historical wrongs inflicted on the communities which were given reservation. Mention the constant and fierce criticism of reservation policy by groups not covered under reservation etc.

Body-

Discuss how the discourse on reservation policy has changed recently in India. E.g mention that a few decades ago, the critics of reservation  sought to stigmatise the reservation principle by deploying a morally ­offensive language to describe its beneficiaries, more particularly the Scheduled Castes (SCs), as the “sons-in-law” of the government and “enemies of merit” and “stumbling block for efficient functioning.” Thus, the target of such malicious critiques was specifically a concrete social group. The opponents used public good such as institutional well-being as the pretext to express their hate and anger against a particular group rather than ­reservation itself; Today, in the wake of the growing demand for reservation across several castes, those  opponents in their public expression seem to be underplaying at least some words like “merit” and “efficiency.” However, at the subterranean level or even on social media, the language against reservation continues to remain quite vicious; today opposition to quota is less on grounds of merit and efficiency, and more on those of integration of society and development of the nation; The new turn in the discourse on reservation has helped us separate the principle of reservation from the stigma that was attached to the SCs. This could be seen as a gain since it is satisfying to see that the ­democratisation of the demand for reservation would neutralise the harsh and malicious ire against the system of reservation. And some may think it a welcome development in terms of ­easing out the social tension that seems to be active among ­several caste groups in India etc.

Conclusion-Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Effects of liberalization on the economy.

3) Informalisation of employment in India is policy induced and a corollary of neoliberalism. Comment.(250 words)

epw

 

Why this question

Employment is a critical issue for any country, especially for India which is home to the world’s largest demographic dividend. Thus it is important to discuss how informalization of employment is a result of neoliberalism and policy environment.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on the statement- Informalisation of employment in India is policy induced and a corollary of neoliberalism. Whether we agree or not we have to present our facts/ arguments and then sum up the discussion with an overall opinion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines impressing upon the informalization of employment in India. E.g While the low level of education and skill is used to explain away the unorganised sector informalisation, informalisation in the organised sector, with presumably higher level of education and skill, is widespread and perplexing.

Body

  • discuss how this is a result of policy environment in India. E.g Driven by the traditional perception that the government is the most secure employer in the country, the pressure of aspiration that the public sector handles has been perpetually high; the cost of entering the government job market is prohibitive. Jobseekers, unable to crack though such a system, are more likely to fall back on informal arrangements;pay hikes through successive pay commissions, have made recruitment an expensive affair for the government itself, particularly for the state governments, who find it difficult to match up to the central government pay-packages with their limited resources. Permanent posts lie vacan and are replaced with increasing number of contractual or casual recruitment etc.
  • Discuss how neoliberalism is responsible for informalization of employment in India. E.g From the perspective of businesses, informal employment (casualisation per se) can keep costs down, a factor that is perhaps more important than incremental productivity, in staying competitive. At the same time, it gels well with the principle of fiscal austerity of the neo-liberals etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 


Topic – Indigenization of technology and developing new technology

4) With growing applications of drones, regulatory framework of drones has come not a day too early. Examine the lacunae and impact of the policy?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The application of drones in recent years has seen a marked increase. While this opens up several new opportunities, it also highlights the need for having regulations for drone usage. The article highlights this issues and examines the lacunae in the policy.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain whether the application of drones is growing and how. Through this we have to establish the need for a policy regulating usage of drones. Next, we need to highlight the details of the policy and the issues in them. Finally, we need to highlight how this policy will impact us in the days to come.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – In the initial section of your answers establish the necessity for a policy regulating drone usage. You can highlight the growing application in sectors as diverse as defence to YouTube videos.

Body

 

  • Mention that the  government has done well to set up a regulatory framework for drone operations, including commercial use.
  • Highlight the details of the policy –
  • Requirement of UIN and UAOP
  • Who all can obtain license
  • Other details related to drone usage such as substantial ownership etc
  • Creation of buffer zones
  • Discuss the impact of the policy in  the area of security, disaster management etc
  • Highlight the gaps in the policy or where some changes could have been made – strict criteria for grant of licenses, whether the safety criteria in deciding buffer zones could have been changed etc

 

Conclusion – Give your view on the policy and the way forward.


Topic –   Climate change ; Disaster Management

5) What do you understand by climate resilient infrastructure? Evaluate whether our infrastructure is climate resilient, and suggest steps to better it, in light of the recent Kerala floods? (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article highlights how the lack of climate resilient Infrastructure and related policies played a role in magnifying the impact of the disaster in Kerala. With the frequency of extreme weather events seeing an upswing in recent years, we need to upgrade our disaster preparedness. One area is creation of climate resilient infrastructure. The article explains the need, gaps in policy and implementation which needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what climate resilient infrastructure is, examine why it needs to be focussed upon, the gaps in our current policy and implementation. Finally we need to come up with suggestions to improve the situation.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that While a lot is being planned to ensure that the march of climate change is halted, the truth is that we are not investing enough in resilience and adaptability. In this context, mention that climate resilient infrastructure is the need of the hour.

Body

  • Explain climate resilient infrastructure – Climate change will affect all types of infrastructure, including energy, transport and water. Rising temperatures, increased flood risk and other potential hazards will threaten the reliable and efficient
    operation of these networks, with potentially large economic and social impacts. Decisions made now about the design, location and operation of infrastructure will determine how resilient they will be to a changing climate.
  • Discuss why investing in climate resilient infrastructure is important – disaster preparedness, prevention of economic losses, minimal disruption to society etc. Give illustration from the recent floods in Kerala and elsewhere to explain why this issue needs redressal.
  • Highlight the gaps in our approach to climate resilient infrastructure – lack of finance despite promising steps by central and state governments, lack of research in the area, policy not formulated, reactive rather than proactive approach to disaster management etc

Conclusion – Summarize your answer by establishing that our preparedness should improve and suggest ways to do so.


Topic–  Part of static series under the heading – “Major climatic regions of the world”

6) Discuss the main features of equatorial vegetation and explain why tropical countries are net timber importers?(250 words) 

GC Leong Physical Geography Ch 15

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the type of vegetation found in equatorial climate, their key features. Based on that, we need to explain the reason why they are timber importers.

Directive word

Discuss – Here you need to explain the features of equatorial vegetation and the reason why they are timber importers.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the type of climate found in equatorial region

Body

  • Discuss the type of vegetation found in equatorial forests. Explain their key features – great variety, distinct layer arrangement, multiple species and forests clearings.
  • Explain the reason why they are timber importers – presence of tropical hardwood, poor quality of secondary vegetation and multiple species

Topic- Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

7) India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) is a historic decision towards achieving the goal of financial inclusion. Discuss.(250 words) 

pib

Economictimes

Why this question

India recently launched IPPB, which is a historic step towards financial inclusion, due to the sheer extent of its penetration and potential. It is important to discuss in detail the benefits and advantages offered by the system and know its working.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about IPPB- what it means, how it is a significant step towards financial inclusion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about IPPB- e.g IPPB is a public sector company under the Department of Posts and the Ministry of Communication with a 100 percent equity of the Government of India, and governed by the Reserve Bank of India.

Body-

Write about the IPPB further in detail. E.g

IPPB will focus on providing banking and financial services to people in rural areas, by linking all the 1.55 lakh post office branches (that’s nearly 2.5 times the bank network) with IPPB services by the end of 2018; Postmen in rural and urban areas will provide doorstep banking services. This will create the country’s largest banking network with a direct presence at the village level; it will enable money transfer, transfer of government benefits, bill payments and other services such as investment and insurance etc.

Conclusion– mention how IPPB complements Jan Dhan Yojana and how Aadhaar can be leveraged to faster and more reliable transactions, verifications etc.

 


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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