[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 01 SEPTEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 01 SEPTEMBER 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1) Examine whether shoddy implementation of standards make children’s homes in India dens of exploitation and abuse?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

Several reports have come to light where children have been subject to exploitation in shelter homes. This raises questions over the measures and laws in place for protecting children from being subjected to such crimes. The matter has gained prominence and thus the laws, bodies and mechanisms to protect our children needs closer examination.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first highlight the incidents which has led to this topic being in news. Next, we need to examine why is it that despite several mechanisms, laws and bodies in place, the system failed to check such crime. Thereafter, we need to highlight the steps that needs to be taken to ensure that such actions of child abuse are not repeated in future.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight the recent incidents of child abuse in shelter homes which has led to this issue being in news.

Body

  • Discuss the constitutional provisions related to protection of children, laws such as POCSO, scheme such as ICPS, bodies such as NCPCR which are responsible for protection of children from child abuse
  • Highlight the report of NCPCR that just 54 of a total of 2,874 child-shelters responsible for housing children who are either in the need of care and protection or in conflict with the law—in segregated quarters—could be given positive reviews
  • Bring out the other lacunae in the status of child protection homes – overcrowded facilities, no segregation of children based on offence or age etc that leads to such cases of child abuse
  • Bring out the need therefore to bridge the infrastructure lag, but also to ensure that reformation and protection agenda is implemented, and not paid just lip service. Discuss the need for educating children and other measures that can be undertaken to protect children

Conclusion – emphasize on the need to protect children by bringing in reforms and discuss way forward.

 


Topic–  mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2) Discuss the role of CDSCO in protecting the interests of Indian patients? Examine how can we ensure that such gross negligence that happened in Johnson and Johnson’s case is not repeated in the future?(250 words)

The hindu

Indianexpress

Why this question

The recent findings of the expert committee constituted by Ministry of health has highlighted the case of JnJ’s faulty prosthetic devices which means there is a need to review the regulatory architecture and our response to such incidents to ensure that such incidents of gross negligence does not take place in future.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the role of CDSCO. Thereafter, we need to explain the case to highlight where CDSCO was found wanting. We need to bring out the lacunae in India’s regulatory architecture for such approval, quality control. Finally, we need to give suggestions to ensure that such incidents do not take place again.

Directive word

Discuss – Here you need to bring out the role of CDSCO and explain their linkage to this case

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the case due to which this issue is in news.

Body

  • Explain about the role of CDSCO – Under the Drug and Cosmetics Act, the regulation of manufacture, sale and distribution of Drugs is primarily the concern of the State authorities while the Central Authorities are responsible for approval of New Drugs, Clinical Trials in the country, laying down the standards for Drugs, control over the quality of imported Drugs, coordination of the activities of State Drug Control Organisations and providing expert advice with a view of bring about the uniformity in the enforcement of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
  • Explain the case of JnJ, where faulty prosthetics were approved, with little action being taken in the aftermath. Discuss the report of the expert committee.
  • Highlight the findings of the committee which suggests ways through which such incidents can be avoided in future

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need of improving the regulatory architecture and suggest way forward.


General Studies – 3


TopicIndian Economy : Issues

3) In light of the recent RBI report regarding demonetization, critically analyze whether demonetization helped in curbing black money?(250 words)

Financialexpress

The hindu

 

Why this question

The issue of demonetization is back in the news due to RBI report highlighting that 99.2% of 500 and 1000 Rs notes in circulation have found their own back into the formal system. One of the key objective of demonetization was tackling the issue of black money and the article examines the effectiveness of demonetization in tackling black money.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the findings of RBI report, examine the success of demonetization in tackling black money, discussing why it failed to curb black money evident by the released reports. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced view on demonetization effectiveness in tackling black money.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that tackling black money was one of the key objectives of demonetization.

Body

  • Bring out the findings of RBI report and assess what it implies.
  • Discuss the rationale given that suggests that demonetization has been moderately successful in tackling black money – increasing tax base, formalization of economy etc
  • Discuss why demonetization was an abject failure in tackling black money. Highlight reasons such as logistical difficulty in penalising all those who converted unaccounted money into legal tender, demonetisation worked as an unintended amnesty scheme etc
  • Examine the other impacts of demonetization which negated any small gains that were made – slow down in GDP, loss of jobs, hit the informal sector etc

Conclusions – Give a fair and balanced view on the success of demonetization.

 


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “ Indian Ocean Dipole”

4) What is Indian Ocean Dipole? Discuss its combined impact with El Nino on monsoons in India?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what IOD is and discuss in detail how it impacts monsoons in India along with El Nino.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain IOD – The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is defined by the difference in sea surface temperature between two areas (or poles, hence a dipole) – a western pole in the Arabian Sea (western Indian Ocean) and an eastern pole in the eastern Indian Ocean south of Indonesia.

Body – Here discuss in detail how both IOD and El nino impact monsoons in India. Discuss the impact of both positive IOD and negative IOD. Discuss the combined impact of IOD and El Nino.


Topic –  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

5) The recently approved policy, allowing exploration and exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbons in contract areas that were primarily allocated for extracting conventional hydrocarbons, is fraught with many environmental problems. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The policy has important implications for the environment especially the water resources which are already highly stressed in our country. It is therefore essential to discuss the issue.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to form an opinion as to whether the given policy poses some environmental problems. We have to build our opinion based on a proper discussion highlighting how the policy does/ does not pose problems for the environment.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the recent policy of allowing private and government players to explore and exploit unconventional hydrocarbons (including shale gas) in contract areas that were primarily allocated for extracting conventional hydrocarbons.

Body-

Discuss in points what are the environmental problems posed by such a policy decision. E.g , a mixture of ‘pressurised water, chemicals, and sand’ (shale fluid) is required to break low permeable rocks in order to unlock the shale gas reserves. The process requires around 5 to 9 million litres of water per extraction activity, posing a daunting challenge to India’s fresh water resources; pollution due to the disposal of flowback (produced) water; No differentiation has been made in the EIA notification between conventional and unconventional oil and gas exploration in this sector; MoEFCC is yet to come out with a manual specific to fracking activities; shale fluid could possibly penetrate aquifers leading to methane poisoning of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation purposes etc.

ConclusionBased on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

6) In the wake of major changes in its strategic environment there is an urgent need to revise India’s nuclear power doctrine. Analyze.(250 words) 

Reference

Livemint

Reference

Reference

Why this question

There have been calls from various intellectuals, journalists and politicians to revise India’s nuclear power doctrine which is 19 years old now. There have been significant changes globally as well as in our neighbourhood which warrant such a revision.

Directive word

Analyze-Here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to delve deep into the issue and bring out the need to revise India’s nuclear power doctrine under the conditions of major changes in our strategic environment. We have to discuss the changes and then need for revision and present our answer as a whole in summary .

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the history of India’s nuclear doctrine- e.g Until the May 1998 nuclear tests, almost nothing was known about India’s nuclear doctrine in the public domain. A draft nuclear doctrine was prepared by the National Security Advisory Board chaired by the late K. Subrahmanyam and handed over to the government on August 17, 1999. The government issued a statement in 2003, spelling out India’s nuclear doctrine.

Body-

  • Discuss the salient aspects of the doctrine. E.g India will build and maintain a credible minimum deterrence; follow a no-first-use posture; and will use nuclear weapons only “in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian territory or on Indian forces anywhere.” etc.
  • Discuss the changes in our strategic environment which warrant a revision of the nuclear doctrine. E.g the rapid rise in the employment of dual-use platforms and delivery vehicles by India, China and Pakistan. This elevates the risk of escalation based on a single misperception;  increasing relevance of seaborne deterrence in all the three countries. Juxtaposed with the first trend, this introduces new complexities into naval engagements; Pakistan has moved from “credible minimum deterrence” to “full spectrum deterrence”, marked by acquisition of tactical nuclear weapons; China is also witnessing a debate between traditional advocates of a “minimum deterrence” and new arguments for a more flexible “limited deterrence”; India has removed the phrase “minimum” from “credible minimum deterrence” etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic-  Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) Life extension – using science to slow or halt human aging so that people live far longer than they do naturally – may one day be possible. Discuss the ethical concerns involved in the issue.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the ethical issues involved in the issue. We have to identify the main ethical issues here and deliberate upon them. We can be as exhaustive as possible (while keeping the word limit in mind).

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the man’s pursuit for longevity of life and its present status, future possibilities.

Body– Discuss in points  (paragraphs) about the ethical problems involved in the issue.

  • Immortality would become intolerably boring if one never changed. If people changed enough to avoid intolerable boredom, they would eventually change so much that they’d be entirely different people.
  • Everyone has the right to liberty and decide for themselves. Thus the pursuit of immortality is not bad in itself. However, our liberty right is limited by the “harm principle.” The harm principle says that the right to individual liberty is limited by a duty not to harm others. There are many possible harms: Dictators might live far too long, society might become too conservative and risk-averse and pensions might have to be limited, to name a few.
  • Life extension would be available only to the rich and make existing inequalities even worse.Indeed, it is unjust when some people live longer than the poor because they have better healthcare. It would be far more unjust if the rich could live several decades or centuries longer than anyone else and gain more time to consolidate their advantages etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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