Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
4) Bioremediation process is a better, alternate low-cost solution to capping of solid waste management and disposal in our cities. Analyze.(250 words)
Why this question
Open dump sites and mismanaged landfills are the harsh realities of most of the Indian cities today. They contribute to air and water pollution, compromise the public health and also decrease the aesthetic appeal of an area making it less desirable for residential and commercial purposes.
Analyze-Here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and compare bioremediation as an alternative to capping of landfills. We have to bring out the limitations of the latter and highlight the benefits of the former.
Structure of the answer
Introduction- write a few lines about the problem of solid waste management in Indian cities- growth of poorly managed landfills and open dump sites which due to the growth of city limits have come in close association with the population.
- Discuss the limitations and disadvantages of capping of landfill sites. E.g capping is successful only when the landfills have a certain height which has been already crossed in most of the landfills; it requires proper scientific designing and construction in the absence of which the structure faces the same problems as open dump sites- leakage of gases, foul smell, leachate etc.
- Define the term bioremediation and discuss its desirability and advantages. E.g Bio-remediation and bio-mining are clearly specified as the first choice under Rule 15 (zj) of The Rules for the Safe Treatment of Legacy Waste in all open dumpsites and existing operational dumpsites in India; near-zero emission of harmful gases (such as methane, hydrogen sulphide, and ammonia) and leachate; organic fraction of the original waste is degraded biologically by the bioculture. Specific microbes are also used for leachate treatment. Once the waste is stabilised, it is ready for bio-mining, and can be separated into different fractions which can then be used for different purposes — for compost, road subgrade, making RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) pellets, recycling plastics, or inert for landfills etc.
Conclusion- sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.