Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 AUGUST 2018

Are you Ready for Insta 75 Days Revision Plan (UPSC Prelims - 2020)?


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 25 AUGUST 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

1) Critically examine whether accepting bilateral or multilateral assistance would impact India’s superpower status?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Recently the matter of taking funds from abroad has been in news. The article discusses the issue and analyzes the reasons why India is reticent in accepting funds from abroad. The issue is linked to the overall objectives of India’s foreign policy and merits discussion.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine the reasons why India is reticent in accepting funds from abroad for disaster management purposes. Thereafter, analyze whether this stand taken by the government makes sense by discussing its pros and cons. Give your view on whether accepting funds from abroad makes sense.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss why this topic is in news by mentioning the offer of RS 700 cr for flood assistance from UAE and India’s stand on it.

Body –

  • Explain that  decided not to seek external assistance for disaster relief — from foreign countries or even the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross. The context of that decision was India’s superpower dream. It was felt that India should demonstrate that it had the strength to withstand and counter calamities and also help its neighbours
  • Examine whether this stand makes sense – in its favour we need to discuss that taking funds from abroad would reflect poorly on India’s aspirations of becoming a permanent member of UN etc. Against it we need to point out the practical realities of rebuilding, the fiscal constraints etc

Conclusion – Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion on India’s decision of not accepting foreign aid for relief efforts and discuss the way forward.

Background:-

  • Recently India told it will not accept the generous help that has been offered by foreign governments after the floods in Kerala. The UAE, Qatar and Maldives have all pledged assistance to India for relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction in the state

Why is India rejecting bilateral assistance:-

  • India’s superpower dream:-
    • Over the years governments have decided not to seek external assistance for disaster relief — from foreign countries or even the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross. The context of that decision was India’s superpower dream.
    • It was felt that India should demonstrate that it had the strength to withstand and counter calamities and also help its neighbours, as it did in the case of the December 2004 tsunami and piracy attacks in the Indian Ocean.
  • India had felt that this would strengthen its case for seeking to be a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and also hasten the prospect of superpower status by 2020. 
  • Foreign influence:-
    • Other concern was the fear of the foreign hand, the spies who would come with the package, interfere in the country’s internal affairs, and also take away valuable information. 

India needs to accept bilateral assistance due to the following reasons:-

  • Its needs for technology and best practices can be obtained from the UN by careful planning and consultations. 
  • In the case of UAErejecting the assistance may also have a negative impact on India’s relations with the UAE, whose authorities were directly involved in raising the funds.
  • Chapter 9 of the National Disaster Management Plan on international cooperation accepted that in time of severe calamity, voluntary aid given by a foreign government can be accepted.
  • Even major powers accept aid in the time of need:-
    • It is misleading to say that only poor states accept foreign aid in times of natural disasters. For instance, India’s offer of aid was accepted by the U.S. in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and by China after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
  • Countries reeling under natural calamities routinely accept emergency aid from other countries irrespective of how rich or poor they are.
  • There is an urgent need to evolve sensible, practical and empathetic guidelines on receiving emergency aid for the federal units in times of dire need.
    • Unilateral decision to not let humanitarian assistance reach a needy State also does not befit the federal character of the country as the spirit of federalism demands that such crucial decisions be taken after consultations with the stakeholders.
  • India already has enormous fiscal constraints.

India need not accept foreign help due to the following reasons:-

 

  • India’s economy grows at a healthy rate and it can afford to reset its own house in order after natural disasters. India has done its own rebuilding and rehabilitation work after successive disasters like the 2013 Uttarakhand floods, the 2014 Kashmir floods etc .
  • India is self-sufficient and hence does not need relief material to deal with natural disasters. 
  • Past experiences:-
    • It has in the past accepted developmental assistance from Western nations or the World Bank. Aid and loans often came with demands of economic restructuring or resetting governance priorities, and an occasional sermon on human rights.
  • Airdropping monetary aid doesn’t help in the absence of pre-existing administrative capacity for proper distribution, reconstruction and governance. 

Topic–  Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

2) Evaluate the claim that the challenge of Naxalism in this country is on its last legs?(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

The Home minister recently made this claim that the threat of Naxalism is on its last legs in India. Naxalism presents one of the most significant challenge to internal security of Indian state and India’s progress in tackling Naxalism needs to be probed in depth.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine whether the challenge of Naxalism is on its last legs in India. We need to discuss the strategy of tackling Naxalism in the country, the effectiveness of that strategy, the challenges faced still and the way forward.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the problem of Naxalism in the country and mention that it has posed one of the most significant internal security challenge for the Indian state. Highlight the recent comment made by the Home Minister with regards to Naxalism.

Body

  • Discuss the strategy employed by Indian state – government of India’s National Policy and Action Plan, with its emphasis on security and development, is definitely making an impact, Winning Hearts and Minds etc
  • Discuss the impact of these strategies employed – highlight the recent advances made, developmental projects undertaken in red zone areas etc
  • Discuss why this is a problem which might have subsided but is likely to rear its ugly head – perceived historical wrongs, the lack of presence of state infrastructure in certain districts etc
  • Suggest the way forward for ensuring that the gains made in tackling Naxalism is sustained – whether we should extend an olive branch from a position of strength or whether we need to crush the naxal movement when their chips are down

Conclusion – Give your view on the status of naxal challenge and the way forward for dealing with this challenge.

Background:-

  • Recently  Home Minister stated that the serious challenge of  Naxalismin the country has entered its last leg.

Challenge of naxalism is in the last leg in India:-

  • Fatalities:-
    • According to the South Asia Terrorism Portal, at least 122 Maoists have been killed across the country in the first six months of 2018. This is the highest number of fatalities suffered by Maoists over the same period during the last eight years.
  • Area dominated by them has reduced:-
    • The total area affected by Naxalism has shrunk to 90 districts of the country.
  • The trajectory of Maoist violence has been showing a downward trend. A number of central committee and politburo members have been neutralised.
  • Government’s measures:
    • The government of India’s National Policy and Action Plan, with its emphasis on security and development, is making an impact. Under this plan, as many as 307 fortified police stations were constructed in Naxal-hit areas in last three years.
      • Besides, 1,391 km roads were constructed in some of the most difficult areas under the road requirement plan phase-I. Additional roads were approved for construction in nine Naxal-hit areas as well
    • The reduction in Naxalite activity is mainly attributable to Operation Green Hunt, which was launched in 2009 and is undertaken jointly by the security forces of the central and state governments to eliminate Naxalites.
    • Operation ‘SAMADHAN’ stands for Smart leadership, Aggressive strategy, Motivation and training, Actionable intelligence, Dashboard Based KPIs (key performance indicators) and KRAs (key result areas), Harnessing technology, Action plan for each theater, and No access to financing.
    • The MHA has suggested the use of trackers for weapons, and bio-metrics in smart guns.
    • Unique Identification number (UID) for Gelatin sticks and explosives.
    • At least one UAV or Mini UAV for each of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) battalions deployed in the Maoist hotbed.
    • More helicopter support for operations. Helicopters to be used to rush in supplies and reinforcement. Increased number of flying hours.
    • Joint Task Forces for operations along inter-State boundaries to be set up. Better inter-state coordination and intelligence sharing.
    • 400 fortified police stations to be set up in Naxal belt.
    • Resumption of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) – specific schemes such as SRE, SIS, IAP/ACA, CIAT schools.
    • Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) to be reviewed to ensure effective choking of fund flow to LWE groups.
    • Fast tracking building infrastructure, with a focus on solar lights, mobile towers with 3G connectivity, and road-rail connectivity.
    • Indian Army or specialized forces – such as Greyhounds – to train forces to take on Naxals.
    • Forces should be more proactive and aggressive in owning operations, rather than being reactive.
  • Apart from the construction of roads, mobile towers, setting up of banks, post offices, Kendriya Vidyalayas, etc, the most significant achievement has been in poverty reduction. A recent study published in a Brookings blog says that by 2022, less than 3 per cent of Indians will be poor and that extreme poverty could be eliminated altogether by 2030.
  • Choking the financial funding of Naxals forms the foundation of the new strategy. Evidence shows that demonetisation curbed naxal funding
  • The security-related expenditure (SRE) scheme, special infrastructure scheme (SIS), integrated action plan (IAP) and a few other schemes will be extended for a few more years if the finance ministry’s approval is received.

Naxalism is no where near its end:-

  • Past experiences:-
    • There were two occasions in the past when the government of India thought that the Naxal movement had been disintegrated but that did not happen.
  • Basic problems which gave rise to the Naxal problem continue to exist even now.
    • Expert Group of the Planning Commission pointed back in 2008 that the development paradigm pursued since Independence has aggravated the prevailing discontent among marginalised sections of society because the benefits of this paradigm have been disproportionately cornered by the dominant section at the expense of the poor, who have borne most of the costs.
  • New regions:-
    • There are also reports that the Maoists have made a dent in the Northeast and that they are active at the tri-junction of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. All these are dangerous portents.
  • As many as 12,000 people have lost their lives in Maoist violence over the last two decades, including 2,700 personnel of the security forces.

Conclusion:-

  • Present situation offers an ideal opportunity to solve the problem and save the future generations from the anger and frustrations of a disgruntled and disaffected group of people. In addition to security-related efforts, political and developmental activities, too, need to pick up pace.

Topic –  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3) Discuss how The Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018, seeks to end the discrimination against leprosy patients.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

A plethora of laws exist in the Indian legal framework, which discriminate against leprosy patients. Advances in medicine and science have led to demystifying various medical, social as well as religious misconceptions about the disease. Under these circumstances it is imperative to discuss the legislation which intends to remove  the discriminations against leprosy patients.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the salient provisions of the Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018, and write in detail as to how it seeks to end the discrimination against leprosy persons.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the nature of leprosy disease. E.g It is an infectious but very less contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae etc. Mention that India has the world’s largest no. of leprosy patients and also runs the world’s largest anti-leprosy programme- National Leprosy Eradication Program.

Body-

DIscuss how the   Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018, seeks to end the discrimination against leprosy persons.

E.g it seeks to amend five Acts.  These are: (i) the Divorce Act, 1869, (ii) the Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, 1939, (iii) the Special Marriage Act, 1954, (iv) the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and (v) the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956.  The Bill eliminates leprosy as a ground for dissolution of marriage or divorce. The condition under Section 18 (2) (c) of the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, that a Hindu wife is entitled to live separately from her husband without forfeiting her claim to maintenance if the latter is “suffering from a virulent form of leprosy”, has been omitted. The amendments introduced in the Bill omit the provisions which stigmatise and discriminate against leprosy-affected persons and provide for the integration of leprosy patients into the mainstream etc.

Mention that the provisions of the bill are in line with UN General Assembly Resolution of 2010 on the ‘Elimination of discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members’ that it was introduced. India has signed and ratified the Resolution.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Leprosy is one of the world’s oldest diseases with India accounting for over 60% of the annual new cases of leprosy.
  • Official data says that the number of new Leprosy cases detected during 2016-17 is around 140000 and the prevalence Rate per 10000 population as on March 2017 for India is 0.66, it is established that the number underestimates the real Leprosy burden.
  • In 2017, India along with Brazil and Indonesia are the only countries where more than 10000 new cases are reported per year.
  • Over 110 Central and State laws discriminate against leprosy patients. These laws stigmatise and isolate leprosy patients and, coupled with age-old beliefs about leprosy, cause the patients untold suffering. So there is a need for a separate bill.

Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018:-

  • Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018, seeks to make a start in amending these statutes. It attempts to end the discrimination against leprosy persons in various central laws: the Divorce Act, 1869; the Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939; the Special Marriage Act, 1954 etc.
  • The Bill eliminates leprosy as a ground for dissolution of marriage or divorce.
    • The condition under Section 18 (2) (c) of the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, that a Hindu wife is entitled to live separately from her husband without forfeiting her claim to maintenance if the latter is suffering from a virulent form of leprosy has been omitted.
  • The amendments introduced in the Bill omit the provisions which stigmatise and discriminate against leprosy-affected persons.
  • The Bill is meant to provide for the integration of leprosy patients into the mainstream. It is in keeping with the UN General Assembly Resolution of 2010 on the ‘Elimination of discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members’ .India has signed and ratified the Resolution.
  • The proposed law follows a National Human Rights Commission recommendation a decade ago to introduce amendments in personal laws and other statutes.

Way Forward :-

  • The emphasis must shift to more policy level changes and sustaining quality of services. 
  • The government must implement the key recommendations of the Law Commission on rights and special privileges. 
  • Continued training of medical officers, nurses, physiotherapists, and paramedical workers about 
    quality diagnosis and treatment of leprosy must also be given prime focus. 
  • Public education on the fact that leprosy can be cured and is not to be feared is imperative. 
  • Those who have been cured at an early stage and can work often need to given opportunities to learn skills and trades that would enable them to work
  • Basic investigations such as skin smear services need to be reintroduced in the leprosy programme of India, as this bacteriological test is often found as useful as advanced PCR techniques.
    • It may be learnt that re-introduction of bacteriological diagnosis indeed has changed the diagnostic landscape of tuberculosis, facilitating better case detection and control. 
  • There is need for wider awareness about the signs and symptoms of leprosy and reactions among general health care staff as well as in the community to promote self-reporting, as well as early diagnosis and proper management of the disease and its complications in an integrated setting
  • To reduce the burden, it is important to develop a multi-pronged approach that includes public education campaign, sustainable livelihood programmes, skill training workshops and generate employment, identify interventions to dispel stigma and mainstream the affected people.
  • Continued training of medical officers, nurses, physiotherapists, and paramedical workers about quality diagnosis and treatment of leprosy must also be given prime focus.
  • There is a need to expand the repertoire of drugs to treat Clinical and laboratory studies suggest the emergence of secondary drug resistance in treated/relapsed patients to dapsone, and rifampicin.
  • It is also important to recognize that leprosy can be associated with other comorbidities such as tuberculosis, HIV, and diabetes which could affect clinical manifestations and complications hence, therapeutic management strategies need to be tailored to such situations.
  • Overall lack of a comprehensive approach towards battling the disease, which requires collaboration between different ministries and sometimes between countries.
  • Supreme Court Ruling 
    • The Supreme Court asked the Centre, states and Union Territories to undertake a campaign to spread awareness about the curability of leprosy so that those suffering from it are not discriminated. 
    • It recommended for repealing archaic provisions from 119 statutes that stigmatise leprosy patients. 
    • No government hospital shall decline treatment to leprosy patients. 
    • People suffering from leprosy also have the right to live with human dignity. 
    • Programs should be telecast on All India Radio and Doordarshan. 
    • The campaign should be done even at ‘gram panchayat’ level to help end ‘discrimination and ostracisation’ of those suffering from leprosy.

Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4) Excellence  is not just about governmental recognition, but ought to be the raison d’etre of all higher education institutions. Comment, in the light of the recent government policy to create “institutes of eminence” in the country.(250 words)

Indian express

hindubuisnessline

Why this question

The centre has in the recent past, accorded the status of institutes of eminence to six institutes in India. The concept is aimed at improving the quality of higher education in India and specifically improve the ranking of Indian institutes at global level. It is therefore important to discuss the efficacy and potential of this policy.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express or opinion as to why  Excellence is not just about governmental recognition, but ought to be the raison d’etre of all higher education institutions. We can also object to the opinion. Whatever our opinion, we have to back it with sufficient and proper arguments/ facts/ examples.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the institutes of eminence concept- the reason for their making, facilities available to them etc.

Body-

Discuss why excellence  is not just about governmental recognition, but ought to be the raison d’etre of all higher education institutions.

E.g The terms of references under which the Empowered Committee was tasked to identify universities were not made public. The process of selecting the empowering universities was arbitrary;  The attention should have been on empowering existing brown-field universities, rather than recognising non-existing universities as contenders; Institution building is about a deeper recognition of what it takes to build a culture of excellence. Lived experiences of individuals matter more in universities than in any other organisation; Even if there was a vision to recognise green-field institutions, there should have been a separate criteria and process to evaluate them. At a policy level, identical treatment of existing and green-field institutions was unfair and a grave mistake; the key characteristics that are vital to any world-class university were missing from the exercise of selecting institutions. This includes, for instance, internationalisation of faculty, research, students, courses and outlook. Moreover, the selection process should have had a holistic approach to disciplines. By giving pre-eminence to the sciences and engineering, we have completely neglected the humanities and social sciences etc

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

Background:-

  • Six higher education institutions have been given the freedom to educate as they deem fit, in the best interest of their students, using the full potential of their faculty without the incubus of governmental control on their backs. Three of the government universities will even get additional funds to pursue their dreams.
  • The government will be spending around Rs 10 billion towards funding the institutes of eminence. 
  • Six higher education institutions, including IISc, Bengaluru, IIT at Mumbai and Delhi, and the proposed Jio Institute have been named Institutions of Eminence (IoE) by the Centre. 
  • An empowered committee, under former Chief Election Commissioner N. Gopalaswami, recommended these institutions. 

Eminence tag has significant advantages:-

  • Institution of Eminence tag frees universities from government interference. 
  • This will enable them to be free from regulations of the AICTE, UGC, or the Higher Education Commission of India that is set to replace the UGC. 
  • The institutes of eminence will have added funds for the state-run institutions, and more collaboration opportunities with top global universities. 
  • It can transform the higher education sector and strengthen the foundations of a knowledge economy.
  • The universities can fully focus on their students, faculty, research and social outreach.
  • For knowledge to translate into a wealthy society, we need to create a conducive knowledge ecosystem. Institutions of higher education help in creating such an ecosystem. 
  • These six universities can fully focus on their students, faculty, research and social outreach to prove that they are among the best in the world.
  • Unlike the current regime, institutes of eminence will have the freedom to not only fix remuneration for foreign faculty but also admit about 25 per cent foreign students at their campuses.

Why excellence is not about governmental recognition but being the best but the eminence tag fails :-

  • In all, 114 institutions applied on the basis of a promise laid down in policies announced by the government. The terms of references under which the Empowered Committee was tasked to identify universities were not made public.
  • The process of selecting the empowering universities was arbitrary.
  • The attention should have been on empowering existing brown-field universities, rather than recognising non-existing universities as contenders.
  • Key characteristics that are vital to any world-class university were missing from the exercise of selecting institutions.
    • This includes, for instance, internationalisation of faculty, research, students, courses and outlook. Moreover, the selection process should have had a holistic approach to disciplines.
    • By giving pre-eminence to the sciences and engineering, this tag has completely neglected the humanities and social sciences etc.
  • The model for the sector remains dependent on state patronage. Besides, entry into the global education race could now become an overriding concern. To gauge institutions principally by their prospective rankings, without regard for the relevance of outcomes, would be reductionist.
  • There is already a debate, for instance, over why the Reliance Foundation’s greenfield Jio Institute has been chosen.

Way Forward 

  • For any development in higher education to bear fruit, it will have to be supported by the strengthening of primary education. China succeeded in this. 
  • Universities, teachers and students need to create more forums for interaction with the wider world. It is such interaction that would lead to generation of workable ideas and workable courses that can generate wealth. 
  • Internships for students, work on real world problems and building databases of knowledge that could be useful for artificial intelligence. 
  • Universities need to set up structures to encourage people willing and able to devote their time to real world problems and to improving productivity.
  • Funding can be sourced from Special cess, CSR, alumina fund, easy loans from banks, progressive fee structure etc. 
  • Link major R&D centres of country with government colleges in all states, to encourage inclusion of students in research initiatives in the country 
  • Ensure ease in movement of personnel between universities and industry. 
  • The apprenticeship system in Germany has produced great results is the existence of a curriculum developed by educational institutions in collaboration with business groups and with employees.

 


General Studies – 3


TopicLinkages between development and spread of extremism.

5) In the face of a downgrade in the Maoist movement, it is vital for India to adopt a conciliatory approach and carry out sincere measures to redress grievances. Critically examine. (250 words)

Indian express

Reference

Why this question

Maoist movement has been at its ebb in the recent years and is downgrade can be conspicuously felt. Under these circumstances it is imperative to discuss as to what should be the response of the govt and what policy it should follow.

Directive word

Critically Examine- Here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. Based on our discussion we have to form a  personal opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the present status of maoism in India and then deliberate upon the need to adopt a conciliatory approach in dealing with maoism. We have to discuss both the sides of adopting such an approach and then form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the history and phases of maoist movement in India. Mention the present situation when the movement has been virtually uprooted from large swathes of affected areas.

Body-

  • Discuss why there is a need for a conciliatory approach. E.g mention the relationship between development and extremism. Discuss how fruits of development have not reached the naxal affected areas; discuss the propensity for reinvigoration of the movement in the face of an aggressive approach by the government; discuss the need to enhance the pace of development in such areas, providing gram sabhas with effective powers etc.
  • Discuss the risks involved and precautions to be adopted while maintaining a conciliatory approach. E.g there is risk that a conciliatory approach may provide time for rebuilding the movement etc; need to improve people’s confidence and involve them in the development agenda etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. Your conclusion should be substantive and presented in the form of a way forward- e.g initiate a peace process on the lines of the Colombia deal etc.

Maoist movement in India:-

  • Since its inception at Telangana in the 1930s, the insurgent movement has become one of the major threats to the democratic structure of the Indian nation.
  • The feudal state machinery and oppression of land workers and farmers prominent in pre-independent India led to the rise of Naxalism.
  • Even in post independent India, the Naxal movement continued to flourish in states such as West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra where tribals and land workers were oppressed or ignored by government officials and big businesses.

Approach followed is criticized and needs change:-

  • Since the beginning of Naxal movement, the government of India has treated it as a mere law and order problem and followed a standard repetitive strategy of mounting a massive police response after each Naxal attack.
  • The few developmental programs, such as training and placement of tribal youth (under Pandit Deen Dayal Upayadhaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana) and skill development centers, are also not able to reduce the spread of Naxalism.
  • Although the government attempted to tackle rural poverty by enacting sweeping land reform and tenant reform policies immediately after independence, poor implementation of laws and numerous loopholes made such reforms unsuccessful.
  • Similarly, continued access to forest produce became a bone of contention between the government and tribal people.
  • The problem is compounded by the fact that the LWE/Maoists corridor spreads across several States and the perceived lack of a common plan has left each State government combating the Naxals as per their own strategy. This is costing lives of scores of our CRPF and police personnel and the patience of people to tolerate these slaughters is wearing thin.
  • Lack of institutionalised intelligence-sharing between States and regions and regional coordination is being clearly utilised by the LWEs/Maoists.
  • CRPF lags on strategy and tactics:-
    • The use of technology (including drones) to increase surveillance around patrols to prevent ambushes is inadequate.

India has changed its approach in the recent years :-

  • Government’s measures:
    • The government of India’s National Policy and Action Plan, with its emphasis on security and development, is making an impact. Under this plan, as many as 307 fortified police stations were constructed in Naxal-hit areas in last three years.
      • Besides, 1,391 km roads were constructed in some of the most difficult areas under the road requirement plan phase-I. Additional roads were approved for construction in nine Naxal-hit areas as well
    • The reduction in Naxalite activity is mainly attributable to Operation Green Hunt, which was launched in 2009 and is undertaken jointly by the security forces of the central and state governments to eliminate Naxalites.
    • Operation ‘SAMADHAN’ stands for Smart leadership, Aggressive strategy, Motivation and training, Actionable intelligence, Dashboard Based KPIs (key performance indicators) and KRAs (key result areas), Harnessing technology, Action plan for each theater, and No access to financing.
    • The MHA has suggested the use of trackers for weapons, and bio-metrics in smart guns.
    • Unique Identification number (UID) for Gelatin sticks and explosives.
    • At least one UAV or Mini UAV for each of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) battalions deployed in the Maoist hotbed.
    • More helicopter support for operations. Helicopters to be used to rush in supplies and reinforcement. Increased number of flying hours.
    • Joint Task Forces for operations along inter-State boundaries to be set up. Better inter-state coordination and intelligence sharing.
    • 400 fortified police stations to be set up in Naxal belt.
    • Resumption of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) – specific schemes such as SRE, SIS, IAP/ACA, CIAT schools.
    • Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) to be reviewed to ensure effective choking of fund flow to LWE groups.
    • Fast tracking building infrastructure, with a focus on solar lights, mobile towers with 3G connectivity, and road-rail connectivity.
    • Indian Army or specialized forces – such as Greyhounds – to train forces to take on Naxals.
    • Forces should be more proactive and aggressive in owning operations, rather than being reactive.
  • Apart from the construction of roads, mobile towers, setting up of banks, post offices, Kendriya Vidyalayas, etc, the most significant achievement has been in poverty reduction. A recent study published in a Brookings blog says that by 2022, less than 3 per cent of Indians will be poor and that extreme poverty could be eliminated altogether by 2030.
  • Choking the financial funding of Naxals forms the foundation of the new strategy. Evidence shows that demonetisation curbed naxal funding
  • The security-related expenditure (SRE) scheme, special infrastructure scheme (SIS), integrated action plan (IAP) and a few other schemes will be extended for a few more years if the finance ministry’s approval is received.

Approach which India can follow in future:-

  • One of such promising avenues can be bringing the rebels to the negotiation table by creating a holistic process of disarming the rebels, integrating them into society, and ensuring that the socioeconomic conditions are improved.
  • International experience:-
    • The Colombia peace deal can provide a skeleton for developing such an approach. The Colombia peace process was signed between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People’s Army (FARC-EP), which ended the approximately five-decade-old civil war
  • Comprehensive rural reforms would be a positive step toward addressing the socioeconomic issues behind Naxalism.
    • Comprehensive rural reform for India would include land access and use reform such as proper implementation of Schedule 5 and 9, a special rural land legal system to resolve land conflicts between government officials and tribals, and improving laws for equitable access to forest produce
  • There is a need to empower local governments giving adequate powers to Gram sabha and building confidence in the people of government’s developmental agenda

Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “winds”

6) Explain local winds and how they impact the weather condition of a region ?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what local winds are, how they originate and the role that they play in impacting the local climatic conditions of the region.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what local winds are and how they originate. mention that local winds occur on a small scale over relatively small period of time and are controlled by local conditional factors. Explain the reasons why they are generated such as – topographical discontinuity, differential heating of Earth’s surface,  and caused due to cyclones, anticyclones etc

Body – Discuss the impact that local winds have on the climate of a region such as the effect caused by sea breeze and land breeze, sudden temperature changes caused in deserts due to local winds, help in melting ice such as Chinook, mention winds like Harmattan which results in decreased humidity etc

Local winds:-

Local Winds are produced due to local variability in temperature and pressure condition. Thus, they are more localised in their extent and cover limited horizontal and vertical dimensions and confined to the lower levels of the troposphere. However, it is important to remember that some of the local winds can have very large dimensions like, Northers of North America, which originate in Arctic Canada and reach as south as the Gulf of Mexico.

Types of local winds:-

1.Periodical

  • The winds originating from diurnal temperature and pressure variation are known as Periodical and they generally complete their cycle in a day/ 24 hour like Land & Sea Breeze and Mountain & Valley Breeze.
  • Land and Sea Breeze
    • Land and Sea Breeze is generated by the diurnal variation of pressure .Due to this reason,the Land and Sea Breeze are sometimes known as diurnal Monsoon.
    • Land Breeze
      • At night reversal of sea breeze may occur but with somewhat weaker characteristics as the temperature and pressure gradient are less steeper during the night.
      • During night land breeze is established since land cools to a temperature lower than the adjacent water setting up a pressure gradient from land to sea
      • The horizontal and vertical extent of the Land Breeze helps in moderation of temperature of a coastal area during night time as it maintains regular circulation
      • Land Breeze usually attains its maximum intensity in the early morning hours and dies out soon after sunup.

  • Sea Breeze
    • The sea breeze develops along seacoasts or large inland water bodies when the land heats much faster than the water on a clear day and a pressure gradient is directed high over the water to low over the land.
    • Impact of Sea breeze rapidly declines landward and impact is limited to 50km.
    • Land- Sea Breeze system is very shallow as the average depth of the land and sea breeze, varies from 1000-2000M in tropical regions and over the lakes, the depth is even lesser.
    • Sea Breeze brings cool marine air and thus help in moderation of coastal temperature and due to the sea breeze, coastal regions record a drop of 5-10 0C in their temperature

 

  • It also frequently causes late afternoon rainfall in these coastal areas, particularly during summer.
  • Due to the location nearer to the lakes, places experience the Lake Effect like Chicago, due to its location near a lake presents a typical example of lake effect- where lakeside areas are cooler than the much warmer outlying areas in the summer.

 

  • Mountain and Valley Breeze
    • These winds develop over areas with large differences in relief and majorly caused by the temperature gradient that exists between Mountain Slopes and valleys.
    • Valley Breeze
    • Due to the intense insolation during the daytime, the slopes of the mountain heat up rapidly but the free atmosphere above the lowlands is not heated to some extent.
      • As the valleys receive comparatively lesser insolation so relatively high pressure sets up in the valleys while along the mountain slopes due to more heating the warm air is uplifted, and low pressure sets up. Thus, the air moves from the Valleys towards the slopes (High pressure to the low pressure) and this upslope movement of air is known as valley breeze.
      • Valley breezes are also known as Anabatic Wind.
      • Weather associated with the Valley Breeze
        • This type of upslope winds in the Mountainous region may cause occasional and afternoon thundershowers on warm and humid days.
        • Sometimes, the valley breezes are also accompanied by the formation of cumulus cloud near mountain peaks or over slopes and escarpments.
      • Mountain Breeze
        • On mountain-sides under the clear night sky, the higher land (upslope land) radiates heat and is cooled and in turn cools the air in contact with it. The cool denser air flows down the mountain slope due to the pressure difference since the valley is warmer and at relatively lower pressure.
        • This flow of the air is termed as Mountain Breeze and they are also known as Katabatic wind.
        • Weather associated with the Mountain Breeze
          • By the morning the mountain breeze produces temperature inversions and valley bottom becomes colder than the Mountain Slopes. Thus, the valley floors are characterised by frost during the night while upper part/ hill-side are free from frost in cold areas.

2.Non-Periodical

  • Only present during a season and are classified as Hot and Cold Winds.
  • Hot Local Winds
    • Hot Local winds are produced generally by the mechanism of downslope compressional heating also known as adiabatic heating. The examples of the Hot Local Winds include Chinook, Harmattan, Foehn, Sirocco, Norwester, Brickfielder, Khamsin, Santa Ana, Loo etc.
    • Chinook
      • These are warm and dry winds blowing on the eastern slopes (leeward side) of the Rocky Mountain. They are the result of adiabatic heating which occurs due to downslope compression on the leeward side, as the mountain barrier creates frictional drag which tends to pull the air from the higher level down on the leeward and air forced down is heated adiabatically and at the same time its relative humidity is also lowered.
      • The temperature in Chinook is so warm that it can remove the underlying snow cover/ice and sometimes these winds are so dry that in spite of their below freezing temperatures the entire snow cover on the ground disappears, by process of sublimation. Thus, these winds are also known as Chinook, which literally means ‘Snow Eater’.
      • Weather associated with Chinook
      • Ordinarily, a Chinook wind is accompanied by the cyclonic activity which produces Cloud and precipitation on the windward side of the Rocky Mountain Range.
      • The latent heat released into the air through the condensation process warms the air and which passes across the mountain range and since the air has lost its moisture it becomes drier.
      • During winter Great Plain of North America are very cold and frozen, Chinook with its arrival increase the temperature and bring relief to the people and at the same time, the rise in temperature due to Chinook also helps in early sowing of spring wheat in the USA.
    • Foehn
      • Foehn is dry and warm wind resulting due to adiabatic heating on the leeward side of the Mountain range.
      • These winds are more common on the northern side of Alps in Switzerland and with the arrival of these winds, there is a rapid rise in temperature.
      • The low relative humidity and high temperature are due to the adiabatic heating of the down-slope winds
      • The Foehn winds are present throughout the winter and due to the presence of such winds the temperature increases, and valleys of Switzerland are called ‘Climatic Oasis’ during the winter season
    • Harmattan
      • These hot and dry wind originate from the Sahara Desert and blow towards the Guinea coast of Africa.
      • Due to their journey over the Sahara Desert, these winds become extremely dry and as they pass over the Sahara Desert they pick up more sand especially red sand and turn dusty.
      • As these winds arrive in the western coast of Africa, the weather which is warm and moist before its arrival, turns into pleasant dry weather with low relative humidity, thus bringing great relief to the people. Due to this reason, they are also known as “doctor” winds in the Guinea coast area of Western Africa
    • Loo
      • It originates from the Thar desert and has north-westerly to a westerly direction.
      • They dominate during early summer in the months of March to May and create heat waves like condition in Northern India and adjoining parts.
      • They have desiccating effects and are considered as environmental hazards.
    • Cold Local Winds
      • Cold local winds are dust-laden winds and as they have a temperature below freezing point, they create Cold Wave condition. The examples of Cold Local winds include-Mistral, Bora, Northers, Blizzard, Purga, Laventer, Pampero, Bise etc.
      • Mistral
        • It is a cold and dry wind which blows in the Spain and France from North-west to South-East direction, mostly occur during winter months.
        • Due to the presence of the Rhome River, these winds are channelized into the Rhome valley due to which they become extremely cold.
        • As they pass through the narrow Rhome Valley, they turn into stormy northerly cold winds
        • Such stormy cold northerly winds cause a sudden drop in temperature to below freezing point.
      • Bora
        • These are cold and dry north-easterly winds which blow from the mountains towards the eastern shore of Adriatic Sea.
        • Bora is more effective in North Italy since here it descends the southern slopes of the Alps, although due to descend it gets adiabatically heated still its temperature is very low in comparison to the coastal area and these are the typical example of fall winds.
        • Bora has often associated with the passage of a temperate Cyclone and at times the Bora winds themselves attain the hurricane force at the foot of the mountain and may cause disastrous impacts on properties.
      • Blizzard
        • Blizzard is cold, violent, powdery polar winds (pick dry snow from the ground)
        • They are prevalent in the north and south polar regions, Canada, USA, Siberia etc. Due to the absence of any east-west Mountain barrier, these winds reach to the southern states of USA.

 


General Studies – 4


TopicEthics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) All ethical theories and concepts have their own strengths as well as limitations. Discuss in the context of deontological ethics. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the strengths as well as limitations of deontological ethics.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about deontological ethics- its approach and key proponents.

Body

  • Discuss in points, the strengths of the deontological ethics.e.g emphasises the value of every human being; provides ‘certainty’ of behaviour/ action; deals with intentions and motives; Kantian duty-based ethics says that some things should never be done, no matter what good consequences they produce. This seems to reflect the way some human beings think; Rossian duty-based ethics modified this to allow various duties to be balanced, which, it could be argued, is an even better fit to the way we think etc.
  • Discuss in points the limitations of the deontological ethics. E.g Duty-based ethics sets absolute rules. The only way of dealing with cases that don’t seem to fit is to build a list of exceptions to the rule; allows acts that make the world a less good place because duty-based ethics is not interested in the results it can lead to courses of action that produce a reduction in the overall happiness of the world; Duty-based ethics doesn’t deal well with the cases where duties are in conflict.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Answer:-

Deontological (duty-based) ethics are concerned with what people do, not with the consequences of their actions.

Under this form of ethics you can’t justify an action by showing that it produced good consequences, which is why it’s sometimes called ‘non-Consequentialist’.

Someone who follows Duty-based ethics should do the right thing, even if that produces more harm (or less good) than doing the wrong thing. So, for example, the philosopher Kant thought that it would be wrong to tell a lie in order to save a friend from a murderer.

Criticism:-

  • Duty-based ethics sets absolute rules. The only way of dealing with cases that don’t seem to fit is to build a list of exceptions to the rule.
  • Allows acts that make the world a less good place
  • Because duty-based ethics is not interested in the results it can lead to courses of action that produce a reduction in the overall happiness of the world.
  • No consequences are considered.
    • Deontology looks at the action be taken on its own. There is no consideration given to the consequence of an action. Even though the concepts of “right” and “wrong” can be taught to others, it is up to each person to decide their individualized ethics.
  • It is selfish.
    • At its core, deontology only considers the individual and what is best for that person, at that time. There is no thought of others, of culture, or of society. It focuses on each decision, in the moment, and determines the ethics of that choice at that time.

Positives:-

  • Emphasises the value of every human being
  • Duty-based ethical systems tend to focus on giving equal respect to all human beings. This provides a basis for human rights – it forces due regard to be given to the interests of a single person even when those are at odds with the interests of a larger group.
  • It creates a level of personal responsibility.
    • Deontology also asks that people act as if they were responsible for creating laws and expectations within their society. Actions should only be taken in a way that would harmonize society if all the laws and procedures enacted were to harmonize. Creating disharmony would be considered ethically wrong, so it would be an action to be avoided.
  • It creates a guideline to follow.
    • In deontology, right is always “right” and wrong is always “wrong.” There are no exceptions to this black-and-white concept, even if the situations rise to the extreme. It is a process where all members of a society can aspire to be virtuous because they understand what is expected of them from an ethical standpoint.
  • It offers motivation.
    • People hesitate when making decisions because they fear what the consequence of a decision will be. In deontology, the consequence is taken out of consideration. Only the action is evaluated for “right” or “wrong,” so that creates a better level of motivation to make decisions.
  • It delivers justice.
    • Deontology may offer an individualized perspective, but there are no shades of gray within this ethical approach. It is a black-and-white evaluation process. Something is either “right” or “wrong,” which dictates that the individual must always choose the option that is “right.”
  • It can still operate under objective guidelines.
    • Deontology can create similarities between individuals with like-minded ethics. It is also something that can be handed down from generation to generation. Individuals can learn what is consistently “right” and consistently “wrong” and teach that knowledge to others.