SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 AUGUST 2018

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 AUGUST 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1) The recent incidents of rampant physical and sexual abuse of minors and women in childcare institutions (CCIs) and shelter homes in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh reveal how the state as well as the civil society have failed in their role as protectors and watchdogs. Comment. (250 words)

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Vikaspedia

Why this question

The recent news about physical and sexual abuse of the children in CCIs has taken everybody by surprise and shock. These institutions meant to protect such children instead of providing care and protection have become the dens of criminal activity and exploitation. It is important to know why these institutions along with other similar provisions for child protection have failed to deliver the results.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding as to why the state as well as the society has failed to play their role of protector and watchdogs of the children especially those which are living in various CCIs across the country. We have to substantiate our opinion with proper and valid arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the protection guaranteed to the children under the constitution and the law- e.g Article 21, Right to Education and National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), POCSO act etc. Mention the recent controversy regarding CCIs.

Body

  • Discuss the lapses in the regulation and functioning of CCIs which led to the unrestrained physical and sexual abuse of the children in these CCIs. e.g -All CCIs are required to be registered under the JJ Act and every district needs to have a child protection officer, a child welfare committee, and a juvenile justice board. However, in practice, their functioning has not been effective enough to prevent the widespread misuse of power and money by those running these institutions. An NCPCR survey has shown that only 32% of CCIs were registered under the JJ Act, while 33% were not registered with any authority. The Ministry of Women and Child Development, which provides funding to CCIs under the Integrated Child Protection Scheme, is duty-bound to carry out social audits in order to deter malpractices. However, either these institutions are allowed to function without any routine inspections, or inspections by multiple state agencies over the years find nothing amiss despite widespread abuse being present. While taking punitive action is necessary, often the government’s actions stop at just that, with any effort at alleviating the situation of these children and women and keeping checks on the functioning of shelter homes falling by the wayside once the furore over the issue dies down. etc.
  • Discuss how the society has failed to protect those children. E.g by giving up their responsibility towards the underprivileged children, not creating enough public pressure to force the institutions and the state to ameliorate the situation of such children, a patriarchal mindset of the society which leads to not taking such children into confidence while formulating laws and devising mechanisms for their protection etc.

ConclusionBased on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • The recent incidents of rampant physical and sexual abuse of minors and women in childcare institutions (CCIs) and shelter homes in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh reveal how the state as well as the civil society have failed in their role as protectors and watchdogs.
  • This has happened despite the enactment of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 (JJ Act) and the existence of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR).

Failure of institutions:-

  • Lack of monitoring and absence of inspection committees have led to the current predicament.
    • All CCIs are required to be registered under the JJ Act and every district needs to have a child protection officer, a child welfare committee, and a juvenile justice board. However, in practice, their functioning has not been effective enough to prevent the widespread misuse of power and money by those running these institutions.
    • Home Management Committee:-
      • This body has to conduct a meeting every month to ensure that all shelters in the district are being run according to the guidelines of the Juvenile Justice Act. These norms were clearly not followed .
    • Facts:-
      • An NCPCR survey has shown that only 32% of CCIs were registered under the JJ Act, while 33% were not registered with any authority.
    • Ministry failure:-
      • The Ministry of Women and Child Development, which provides funding to CCIs under the Integrated Child Protection Scheme, is duty-bound to carry out social audits in order to deter malpractices. However, either these institutions are allowed to function without any routine inspections
    • In the case of the Muzaffarpur CCI, inspections by multiple state agencies over the years find nothing amiss despite widespread abuse being present.
      • The District Inspection Committee is supposed to conduct a check on the shelters every three months. It is headed by the district magistrate and also has a member of the civil society on its board. Each of these bodies and members failed to detect what was happening at the shelter.
    • Action taken too late:-
    • Although the NCPCR has now been ordered to complete social audits of all CCIs and the state governments have ordered probes, this has come too late for the numerous lives traumatised by their very protectors.
    • Even the society failed :-
      • By giving up their responsibility towards the underprivileged children.
      • People have not created enough public pressure to force the institutions and the state to ameliorate the situation of such children
      • A patriarchal mindset of the society which leads to not taking such children into confidence while formulating laws and devising mechanisms for their protection etc.

Way forward:-

  • To bring about a transformation in the conditions of vulnerable groups under state protection, it is essential that the primitive and patriarchal mindset which denigrates fellow human beings as unworthy of dignity and respect while perpetuating and reproducing violence against them needs to change.
  • More importantly, vulnerable groups need to be empowered by being treated as fully rights-bearing citizens and facilitated to playing an active role in addressing matters concerning them and their welfare.
  • The criminals running these institutions in the guise of protectors need to be weeded out of the systems of social protection and given due punishment, and systematic vetting of those running such shelters needs to be carried out, before basic human rights and a sense of self-worth can be restored among the multitudes condemned to live in these institutions.

Topic-Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

2) Analyze some of the significant changes in India’s polity witnessed in recent years, which characterise the nature of democracy in today’s  India.(250 words) 

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Why this question

The question seeks to analyze India’s nature of democracy as it stands today. Thus it is an important question in itself as well as for the UPSC exam.

Directive word

Here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deep into the nature of Indian democracy in the present and link it with some significant political changes witnessed in the past few years. Here we have to remain least biased and bring out the objective aspects of the changes and the nature.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the foundation of Indian democracy and its evolution since independence.

Body

  • Discuss the recent significant changes witnessed in Indian polity in recent years.E.g a strong mandate at centre after a long period; NOTA option in EVMS; RTI act; caste inclusion and rising role of business persons in India’s polity etc..
  • Discuss how each of them brings out the character of Indian democracy- India’s democracy has long coexisted with several authoritarian strains, albeit in ways that have shifted in balance across time. These, among others, include a hierarchical style of leadership based on cults of personality, heredity among the ruling class, limits on dissent, and the militarisation of everyday life etc.

ConclusionBased on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background :-

  • India adopted a parliamentary over presidential system as a means to enshrine the supremacy of the legislature, facilitate regular and routinised debate, and prevent a separation of power through an elected presidency that could create alternative power centres.

Significant changes in Indian polity witnessed in recent years:-

  • Legislature:-
    • Many bills have been passed as money bills and without discussion due to absolutr majority in Loksabha
    • Many of bills or amendments have been introduced as ordinances in the recent years
    • The discussions in the Parliament have been largely disrupted
  • Elections:-
    • “None of the Above” (NOTA) that citizens may choose while voting. This measure has provided potential new means of expressing discontent.
    • If NOTA may be opening up new forms of citizen–state engagement that could ultimately provide alternative forms of democratic accountability, new laws such as the “Right to Information” have also expanded the range of tools open to citizens to hold the state to account.
  • Due to absolute majority of the government many of the ministries have been merged and the motive of minimum government maximum governance has been followed leading to quicker decision making.
  • Judiciary:-
    • The judgments were in national and public interest with radical changes made for instance SC made right to privacy a fundamental right, made triple talaq invalid, allowed women in to temples where their entry was restricted earlier etc
  • India’s democracy has long coexisted with several authoritarian strains, albeit in ways that have shifted in balance across time. These, among others, include a hierarchical style of leadership based on cults of personality, heredity among the ruling class, limits on dissent, and the militarisation of everyday life etc.
  • Wide acceptance of potentially controversial ideas by linking ideas of “development” and “Hindutva” with “nationalism” This results in an ideological dominance.
  • Present-day politics in India can be seen as a fight between two paradigms:- one, for the positive change of political, social, economic and cultural life of India, and the other of status quoof its model of politics and governance.
  • Caste and religion based politics have intensified leading to divisions in the society.

General Studies – 3


TopicConservation, environmental degradation

3) Various committees have been formed to give recommendations on preservation of Western Ghats, but not a lot has happened on that front. Examine. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The recent Kerala floods have brought the attention on Gadgil committee recommendation on Western Ghats and reveals the frailness of the Ghats. The non implementation of Gadgil committee report has been touted as one of the reason why Kerala floods were this severe. Thus the committees formed for the preservation of Western Ghats in particular and Western Ghats in general has become important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the recommendations of Gadgil committee, Kasturiranjan Committee and Oommen v Oommen Committee and how the recommendations of the three committees varied from each other, along with the impact that the non implementation of the recommendations have had.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the ecological criticality of Western Ghats and the details of the 3 committees mentioned above.

Body

  • Discuss the key recommendations of the 3 committees
  • Gadgil – classifying entire western ghats into 3 ecologically sensitive zones and imposing the strictest environmental standards in ESZ 1
  • Kasturiranjan – 37% of western ghats to be classified as ecologically sensitive area , but a wider definition of Western Ghats
  • Oommen v Oommen – make changes in environmentally fragile land in western ghats, made several pro farmer recommendations etc
  • Give the status of these reports and the criticism of these reports which led to these reports not being implemented
  • Discuss the fact that Kerala rejected the Gadgil committee report and the impact it has had on Kerala.

Conclusion – in light of extreme climate events, discuss the need for greater protection being accorded to ecologically sensitive areas like Western Ghats and the way forward.

 

 

Background :-

  • The recent monsoon in Kerala brought to attention the recommendations of the committees set up for the conservation of western ghats.
  • Most of the regions impacted by this monsoon were once classified as ecologically-sensitive zones (ESZs) by the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP), also known as the Gadgil Committee.

Gadgil committee:-

  • Committee had suggested that 140,000 kilometres of the Western Ghats be classified in three zones as per the requirement of environmental protection in the areas.
  • In some areas, the committee recommended strong restrictions on mining and quarrying, use of land for non forest purposes, construction of high rises etc. The report was first submitted to the government in 2011.
  • But the Kerala government rejected the committee report and did not adopt any of its recommendations.
  • Committee report had recommended to protect the resources with the cooperation of local self governments and people, but those recommendations were rejected. 

Kasturirangan committee:-

  • While the Gadgil panel identified the entire Ghats as an ESA, it created three categories of protection regimes (ESZ-1, 2 and 3) and listed activities that would be allowed in each based on the level of ecological richness and land use.
    • On the other hand, the Kasturirangan panel used a different method. It recommended removing the cash crop plantations such as rubber, agricultural fields and settlements from the ESZ.
    • Moreover, Kasturirangan panel also removed already modified areas under private control from the protection regime. This was to avoid any sort of conflict between government (licensor) and private parties (licensees).
  • Instead of declaring entire Western Ghats as ESA, the panel said that 90 per cent of the “natural landscape” should be protected. The identification of ESA was based on the fragmentation of the forests, population density of villages and the richness of the biodiversity in villages.
    • This would be around 60,000 Km² ecologically sensitive area spread over six states. Thus, it diluted the protection of 137000 Km² areas as stipulated in the Gadgil report. This implies that according to Kasturirangan committee, around 37.5 % of the total area of the Western Ghats is ecologically sensitive.
  • This committee said that economic options (Businesses and Livelihood) should not be forbade (i.e. allowed to continue), but answer to protection of the Western Ghats lies in providing better incentives to move businesses / livelihoods towards greener and more sustainable practices.
  • The Gadgil panel puts in place a blanket ban on all such activities which may have harmed or will harm the environment including ban of pesticide use, ban on GM crops, decommissioning the hydropower projects and gradual shift from plantation to the natural forests.
    • On the other hand, the Kasturirangan panel recommended restrictions on highly damaging activities including mining (and quarrying), red-category industries, construction in around 20,000 Km² area.
  • While the Gadgil panel recommended a national level Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA), the Kasturirangan panel recommended strengthening the existing framework of environmental clearances and setting up of a state-of-the-art monitoring agency
  • According to environmentalists, if the Madhav Gadgil and Kasturirangan Committee’s recommendations were fully implemented, Kodagu and Kerala would not have been damaged to this extent due to floods. The damage would have been minimal.

Oomen committee:-

  • Oommen V. Oommen Committee appointed by the Kerala Government to review the Kasturirangan panel report has come out with a report that is friendly to the farmers of the Western Ghats in the State.
  • The expert committee, which was asked to review the Kasturirangan report, which in itself was a diluted version of the Madhav Gadgil report, has recommended that the inhabited areas, plantations and agricultural lands in the Western Ghats region be excluded from the scope of ‘ecologically sensitive areas’ (ESA).
  • The committee recommended the government to make changes in the clauses of Environmentally Fragile Land (EFL) in the Western Ghats.
  • The Oommen Committee reported that serious lapses happened in determining the EFL areas. The committee adopted a satellite survey to determine EFL and even plantations and estates were included in it.
  • It also recommended stopping land acquisition proceedings according to the Kasturirangan committee report.
  • The panel has made several pro-farmer recommendations, including the exclusion of inhabited regions and plantations from the purview of ecologically sensitive areas (ESAs).

Why the governments failed to implement these committee recommendations:-

  • Gadgil committee:-
    • Major criticism faced by Gadgil Committee report was that it was more environment-friendly and not in tune with the ground realities.
    • Recommendations were cited as impractical to implement.
    • Gadgil report has asked for a complete eco-sensitive cover for the Western Ghats which hamper different states on energy and development fronts.
    • Gadgil report is against dams in the Western Ghats, which is a crucial blow on the ailing power sector. Considering the growing energy needs of India, critics argue that this recommendation cannot be taken.
    • The Gadgil Committee report adversely affects the various mafia 
      • Many mafias created fear among farmers in Kerala that the Gadgil report is against them, and that they will lose livelihood if its recommendations are implemented
    • Kasturirangan committee Report
      • The Kasturirangan panel used remote sensing and aerial survey methods for zonal demarcation of land in the Western Ghats. The usage of such techniques, without examining the ground reality, has caused many errors in the report.
      • The power is vested with the bureaucrats and forest officials and not with gram sabhas.
      • Many fear that the farmers would get evicted if the Kasturirangan Committee report is implemented. Under this report, the mining and quarrying lobbies are expected to flourish. When these lobbies and tourism flourish, it will be disastrous for the environment. 
      • The use of “erroneous method” had caused inclusion of many villages under Ecologically Sensitive Areas (ESA) though there were only rubber plantations and no forest land.

Conclusion :-

  • Proper steps need to be taken to avert future calamities in Western ghats and government needs to review the recommendations of the committee again and ensure sustainable development as the goal.

TopicIndian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) It is high time for both the RBI and the government to make a choice between legislative mandates of inflation rate targeting and a holistic approach for development management. Critically Comment.(250 words)

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Livemint

Why this question

A strict Inflation targeting approach of the RBI, as mandated, has been criticized for various reasons with restricting development opportunities being the most important of them. The RBI has recently been increasing repo rate as well as reverse repo rates under inflationary expectations. It is necessary to revisit the issue and have a short discussion thereupon.

Directive word

Critically Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon. Here we have to look at both negative as well as positive aspects and then form our opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss the positive as well as negative aspects of inflation targeting and how it affects development of the country. Based on our discussion we have to form a substantive conclusion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the mandate of RBI to restrict inflation to 4 +/- 2%. Also mention RBI’s recent monetary policy changes like hike in repo and reverse repo rates.

Body-

  • Discuss the positive aspects of such a targeting approach on development.  E.g fosters stable macroeconomic conditions; stable inflation rates and expectations- linked to such domestic and business decisions; generates high investment confidence etc.
  • DIscuss the negative aspects. E.g restricts development opportunities, inadequate allocation of public funds for social sectors; propagates social inequality; is insufficient as a measure because of strong association of inflation in India with the supply side etc.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion form a conclusion as to what should be done in this regard. Your opinion should be supported by further arguments in case needed.

 

Background:-

India formally backed the inflation strategy of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) by notifying a retail inflation target of 4% as an anchor for monetary policy. The RBI has recently been increasing repo rate as well as reverse repo rates under inflationary expectations.

Benefits:-

  • Inflation persistence has decreased in recent years. Shocks to core inflation dissipate in some time rather than leading to a higher level of inflation.
  • Inflation expectations are more stable since the introduction of flexible inflation targeting two years ago.
  • It allows monetary policy to focus on domestic considerations and to respond to shocks to the domestic economy.
  • High investor confidence:-
    • It facilitates well-informed decision-making by households and investors, reduces economic and financial uncertainty, and increases the effectiveness of monetary policy.
  • An explicit numerical inflation target increases a central bank’s accountability and it can also insulate the bank from political pressure to undertake an overly expansionary monetary policy.
  • Most important being, a formalised monetary policy helps in anchoring long-term inflation expectations.
  • Monetary policy framework will help reduce inflation volatility, anchor inflation expectations and improve the credibility of the central banker.

Disadvantages:-

  • Increases in inflation (mainly CPI) are not necessarily coupled to any factor internal to a country’s economy and strictly adjusting interest rates will potentially be ineffectual and may restricts economic growth.
  • It neglects output shocks by focusing solely on the price level and it may leads to potential instability in the event of large supply-side shocks.
  • It may leads to restricted ability of the central bank to respond to financial crises or unforeseen events.
  • It restricts development opportunities and also there will be inadequate allocation of public funds for social sectors leading to propagation of social inequality.

Topic – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

5) The recent  report by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), reiterate the vulnerability of Indian agriculture households. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

Agriculture is the livelihood of around 48% of Indian population. It is extremely essential to discuss about the vulnerabilities of Indian agriculture households and how they have progressed with time. Besides, launched in 2016-17, NAFIS is a national level survey that offers a comprehensive overview of the rural population in terms of their status of livelihoods and level of financial inclusion. It was conducted in more than 40,000 households from 245 districts in 29 states. Its findings are important.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the findings of the recent report by NABARD which highlights the vulnerabilities of Indian agriculture households. We also have to discuss the findings of some other report which reiterates such findings.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about the importance of agriculture for the vast majority of Indian farming households, as a source of subsistence and livelihood. Mention agriculture’s contribution to national GDP.

Body

  • Discuss the findings of the report of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), released in 2014, which gives a detailed picture of the vulnerability of Indian agricultural households. E.g 52 per cent of the total agricultural households in the country are in debt; If you adjust for inflation, farmers’ incomes have remained frozen in the past 10 years; the debt is being incurred by the the richer, more prosperous farmers etc.
  • Discuss the findings of the recent NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) report. E.g Apart from a paltry income, farmers are facing rising indebtedness, lesser financial inclusion, and absence of insurance facility, in the past four years, the income of a farm household has increased by just Rs 2,505/month; 41 per cent of rural households are indebted, of which majority (43 per cent) are agriculture households; Around one-third of total households take loan from money lenders and other non-financial institutions.  Although around 60 per cent of households take loans from financial institutions, the average amount of loan from non-institution is more than double than any financial institution etc.

Conclusion sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 

Background:-

  • The state of agriculture in India still needs lot to be done even though government has been taking measures to improve the lives of farmers. The recent NAFIS report gives data regarding the status of farmers .
  • The report, titled ‘Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households in India’ by NSSO during 2012-2013 stated that 52 per cent of the total agricultural households in the country are in debt. The average debt is Rs 47,000 per agricultural household in this country, where the yearly income from cultivation per household is Rs 36,972.

NABARD report:-

  • NABARD All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (NAFIS) shows that average agriculture household income was a mere Rs 8,931 per month in 2016-17. Apart from a paltry income, farmers are facing rising indebtedness, lesser financial inclusion, and absence of insurance facility, according to the report.
  • Survey shows that 41 per cent of rural households are indebted, of which majority (43 per cent) are agriculture households. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are the most indebted households.
  • Finance:-
    • Around one-third of total households take loan from money lenders and other non-financial institutions. Although around 60 per cent of households take loans from financial institutions, the average amount of loan from non-institution is more than double than any financial institution.
  • Insurance
    • Only one-fourth of the total rural households have any kind of insurance such as life insurance, vehicle, accident or health insurance.
    • Out of the total rural households, only 26 per cent of agriculture households have any kind of insurance. Only 5 per cent and 2 per cent of rural household have vehicle and accidental insurance respectively, said the survey.
  • Financial Inclusion
    • Around 49 per cent of total rural households report savings in financial institution and around 53 per cent of agriculture households save in financial institution.  

Vulnerability of agriculture households:-

  • In the last 10 years, the voluminous debt of Indian agricultural households has increased almost four-fold whereas their undersized monthly income from cultivation has increased three-fold.
  • Even the number of indebted agricultural households has increased in the last 10 years. At the same time, there has been a micro-increment in the number of agricultural households in India. 
  • Debt is being incurred by the the richer, more prosperous farmers.
  • NSSO data shows that richer agricultural states like Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab have the highest average outstanding loans per agricultural household, whereas poorer states like Assam, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh have the lowest amount of average outstanding loans.
  • This is substantiated by the data which shows that among agricultural households which possess less than 0.01 ha the share was only 15 per cent of the total outstanding institutional loan, whereas for households which possess more than 10 ha the share was about 79 per cent. 
  • Even as agriculture has intensified, investment in it is very less. 

Topic – Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

6) Addressing undernutrition challenge should be taken up on mission mode by the government. Discuss. Also suggest ways to address this challenge. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article contains very important statistics on status of malnutrition in India and strategies to deal with it. This topic is quite important while discussing inclusive growth in India.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the status quo of undernutrition among children, women and other vulnerable sections of the society. Through such data and other constitutional and social imperatives, we need to establish the need of tackling this problem on mission mode. In the final part of the answer, we need to discuss the steps that need to be taken to address this significant challenge facing the Indian state.

Directive word

Discussion – In your discussion, you need to establish the need of tackling the problem of undernutrition on an urgent basis and give suggestions for tackling this issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that India has been taking several measures to improve the status of nutrition and how the definition of nutrition has changed over the years with focus on micronutrients.

Body

  • Use the statistics mentioned in the article to explain that India’s status quo wrt undernutrition is quite alarming. Discuss that it the moral obligation of government to implement directive policies which explicitly states that undernutrition needs to be challenged. Also highlight the international obligations on India which should compel it to tackle this challenge on an urgent basis.
  • Highlight that the problem plagues women, children and other vulnConclrable section
  • Discuss why tackling undernutrition should be a key focus area of the government. Highlight points such as building human capital, reaping demographic dividend etc
  • Discuss the steps that need to be taken to address this challenge – the steps suggested by NITI Ayog etc

Conclusion – Summarize your answer while emphasizing the need of tackling this challenge and how we can do it.

Background:-

  • Despite a 7% compound annual growth rate over the last decade and the various programmes to improve nutrition, levels of under-nutrition are unacceptably high.
  • The urgency to address poor nutrition in India, especially among children, adolescent girls and women is compelling, and re-confirmed in virtually every survey from NFHS-4 in 2015-16 (the latest available information), to the Global Nutrition Report 2016 and the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2017, which ranks India at 100 out of 119 countries, with a low overall score of 31.4.
  • Among children less than 5 years, wasting (low weight for height), continues to be 21% in the 2017 index .There has been a stunting (height for age) of 38.4% in 2017, reported in the GHI 2017.
  • Mortality among children less than 5 years old is around 5% according to both the GHI and the NFHS. However, 25% of India’s children less than 5 years old are still malnourished.

Goverment approach:-

  • The National Nutrition Mission (NNM), or Poshan Abhiyaan, has its own specific budget of Rs. 9,046 crore and a proposed World Bank loan of $200 million, to ensure convergence among the various programmes of the government.
  • Additionally, NITI Aayog has worked on a National Nutrition Strategy (NNS), isolated the 100 most backward districts for stunting and prioritised those for interventions.

Failure of government approach:-

  • Both the National nutrition strategy and the national Nutrition mission have recognised the criticality of working collaboratively across Ministries yet both are silent on the constructive role that the private sector, development agencies and civil society can and must play in realising these ambitious goals.
  • Challenge for India is to simultaneously address insufficient and poor diets, inadequate hygiene and sanitation and better management of disease and infections.

Why India needs to focus on mission mode :-

  • To build human capital and to reap the benefits of demographic dividend
  • To adequately re-engineer the ICDS, MDM and PDS for greater effectiveness. This is an ideal initiative for public-private partnerships as the strength of good private sector companies is in creating and designing frameworks, structures, processes and metrics for action,
  • Better implementation and tracking:-
    • For example, involving the best nutritionists to work with local communities on calorie and nutrition dense supplementary foods, using easily available local ingredients could easily be anchored by the relevant private sector and development agencies
    • The key advantages of this disaggregated supply model are that it engages local communities, generates employment and ensures minimal leakage as it works with and inside the community.
    • This will also ensure that space and other constraints of lack of hygiene at Anganwadi Centres do not become impediments in the supply of nutritious food.

Ways to address this challenge:-

 

  • There is persuasive evidence from several countries of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of large-scale staple food fortification to address “hidden hunger” or micro-nutrient deficiencies.
  • Considerable work will also have to be done to make fortified rice and wheat available through the PDS. This requires addressing the supply chain capability to deliver another excellent PPP initiative, that has been piloted in several States for edible oil and wheat flour and can easily be replicated.
  • Multiple campaigns designed to inform, communicate and educate on nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive behaviours like breast feeding, diet diversity, hand-washing, de-worming, safe drinking water, hygiene and sanitation. Nutrition has to be marketed and made interesting, engaging, simple and personally relevant
  • Nutrition is complex, and therefore its delivery must be simplified through greater awareness and actions. The delivery models must be collaborative across domains enabled by technology and a significant investment in strengthening people competencies.

Topic Part of static series under the heading – “Weathering and erosion , landforms of agents of weathering”

7) Explain the various landforms created by highland glaciation? (250 words)

NCERT Class XI Physical Geography ch 6, pg 48

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the landforms created by erosion and deposition as a result of highland glaciation. In our explanation, we need to mention how such landforms are formed and the features of such landforms

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that glaciation gives rise to erosional features in the highlands and depositional features in the lowlands. Mention that glacier plays a combined role of erosion, deposition and transportation throughout its course.

Body – Explain erosional features in the highland like Corrie, pyramidal peaks, glacial trough, hanging valleys, rock basins, moraines etc.

 

 

 

Background:-

  • Glaciation generally gives rise to erosional features in the highlands & depositional features on lowlands. It erodes its valley by two processes viz. plucking & abrasion.
  • Plucking → Glacier freezes the joints & beds of underlying rocks, tears out individual blocks & drags them away.
  • Abrasion → Glacier scratches, scrapes, polishes & scours the valley floor with the debris frozen into it.

Characteristic features of Highland glaciation:-

  • Corrie, Cirque:-
    • Hollow basin cut into a mountain ridge.
    • It has steep sided slope on three sides, an open end on one side and a flat bottom.
    • When the ice melts, the cirque may develop into a tarn lake.
  • Aretes and Pyramidal Peaks
    • Steep-sided, sharp-tipped summit with the glacial activity cutting into it from two is called arete.
  • When three or more cirques cut back together, recession will form an angular horn or pyramidal peak
  • Bergschrund
    • At the head of a glacier, where it begins to leave the snowfield of a corrie, a deep vertical crack opens up called a Bergschrund
    • This happens in summer when although the ice continues to move out of the corrie, there is no new snow to replace it
    • In some cases not one but several such cracks occur which present a major obstacle to climbers
    • Further down, where the glacier negotiates a bend or a precipitous slope, more crevasses or cracks are formed
  • U shaped glacial Troughs & Ribbon lakes:-
    • Original stream-cut valley, further modified by glacial action.
    • It is a ‘U’ Shaped Valley. It at mature stage of valley formation.
    • Since glacial mass is heavy and slow moving, erosional activity is uniform – horizontally as well as vertically.
    • A steep sided and flat bottomed valley results, which has a ‘U’ shaped profile.
  • After the disappearance of the ice, the deep sections, of these long, narrow glacial troughs may be filled with waterforming Ribbon lakes also known as Trough lakes or Finger Lakes.
  • Hanging Valleys
    • Formed when smaller tributaries are unable to cut as deeply as bigger ones and remain ‘hanging’ at higher levels than the main valley as discordant tributaries.
    • A valley carved out by a small tributary glacier that joins with a valley carved out by a much larger glacier.
  • Rock Basins and Rock Steps
    • A glacier erodes & excavates the bed rock in an irregular manner.
    • The unequal excavation gives rise to many rock basins later filled by lakes in valley trough.
    • Where a tributary valley joins a main valley, the additional weight of ice in the main valley cuts deeper into the valley floor & deepest at the point of convergence forming rock steps.
    • A series of such rock steps may also be formed due to different degrees of resistance to glacial erosion of the bedrocks.
  • Moraines
    • Moraines are made up of the pieces of rock that are shattered by frost action, imbedded in the glaciers & brought down the valley.
    • Those that fall on the sides of the glacier form lateral moraines.
    • When two glaciers converge, their inside lateral moraines unite to form a medial moraine.
    • The rock fragments which are dragged along, beneath the frozen ice, are dropped when the glacier melts & spread across the floor of the valley as ground moraine.
    • The glacier eventually melts on reaching the foot of the valley & the pile of transported materials left behind at the snout is terminal moraine or end moraine.
    • The deposition of end moraines may be in several succeeding waves, as the ice may melt back by stages so that a series of recessional moraines are formed.
  • Fjord
    • If the glacier flows right down to the sea, it drops its load of moraine in the sea.
    • If section break off as icebergs, moraine material will only be dropped when they melt
    • Where the lower end of the trough is drowned by the sea, it forms a deep, steep side inlet called a Fjord, a typical of Norway & Chilean coast.