Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
5) Given the tremendous use and the precarious state of springs in India, there is an urgent need to launch a National Programme on Springshed Management. Discuss.(250 words)
Why this question
Mountain springs are the primary source of water for the rural households in the Himalayan region. For many people, springs are the sole source of water. Spring discharge is reported to be declining due to a host of natural and anthropogenic factors. It is therefore essential to discuss the need for a National Programme on Springshed Management.
Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to write in detail about the present grim situation of the springs in India, their importance and then write in detail about the need for a National Programme on Springshed Management- what should be its components etc.
Structure of the answer
Introduction- Write a few lines about the importance of springs as a source of water in India especially in the Himalayan region.
- Discuss why there is an urgent need for a comprehensive and a dedicated programme for springshed management. E.g Springs form the sources of many small and large rivers in India. Almost all non-Himalayan Rivers and many Himalayan Rivers originate in the form of thousands of springs in the catchment areas; Springs directly support either the whole or part of the water need of more than 15% of India’s population; The drying down of many springs has led to great distress for mountain populations, both rural and urban; The need to identify, conserve and protect the recharge areas of springs becomes important not just for local sustainability but also for the sustenance of our river systems; Integrating the understanding of the resource (mostly groundwater) alongside improved recharge, efficient supply and equitable demand hold the key to protecting and conserving springs.
- Discuss what is springshed -e.g A springshed is an area within a ground or surface water basin that contributes to the spring flow. The boundaries of springshed are dynamic – they change based on the level of the aquifer (otherwise known as its potentiometric surface). Discuss what should be the key components of a National Programme on Springshed Management- e.g must have both, a development component and a research component. The development component would enable the implementation while the research component could support the design, planning and impact assessment of springshed management. Briefly discuss the key components under each heading. Take the help of the article attached to the question to frame your answer.
Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.