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4) BRICS has two baskets of issues: one is intra-BRICS Cooperation and the other is Global Governance. There has been considerable work done on the former, not so much on the latter. Critically analyze in context of the recent Johannesburg Summit of BRICS?(250 words)

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Topic– Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

4) BRICS has two baskets of issues: one is intra-BRICS Cooperation and the other is Global Governance. There has been considerable work done on the former, not so much on the latter. Critically analyze in context of the recent Johannesburg Summit of BRICS?(250 words)

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Why this question

Too many developments are taking place in international relations, such as trade wars, weakening of NATO, JCPOA issue etc impacting all major powers of the world. It is upto BRICS to fulfill its potential as an alternative to West dominated discourse and institutions. At the same time, there are also issues amongst the members of BRICS over contentious topics like terrorism etc. Examining these dynamics within BRICS is critical while preparing this topic for GS2 mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain in detail the two basket of issues described above – intra BRICS and inter BRICS. Next we need to explain how BRICS is responding to these issues. Thereafter we need to examine the statement mentioned in the question that BRICS is focussing more on intra BRICS cooperation rather than on issues of global governance. Our fair and balanced opinion on this is solicited at the end.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. You need to conclude with  a fair judgement, after analyzing the nature of each component part and interrelationship between them.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the recently concluded 10th BRICS summit has taken place at an important conjuncture in history with events such as Russian outreach by USA, trade antagonism between China and USA, USA’s sidelining of NATO etc. Mention that these events have significance both for inter BRICS cooperation and global governance.

Body

  • Discuss the issues confronting BRICS – the dynamics of India China Russia relationship, economic cooperation among BRICS, confronting the common challenge of terrorism, job creation, renewable energy etc. Discuss that BRICS is seen as institution that would take forward the issues of developing world.
  • Examine actions taken by BRICS for enhancing intra BRICS cooperation as well as the steps taken by BRICS in response to wider needs of the developing world. For instance, we can talk about cooperation on AI, skill building, confronting terrorism etc and how the progress of BRICS has been on these issues. Furthermore, we will highlight the steps taken by BRICS on issues of global governance such as NDB and CRA operationalization which challenges the hegemony of western financial institution, talks of a BRICS rating agency, stand against JCPOA etc
  • Finally, we need to analyse the statement made in the question . We need to explain that BRICS has gotten primarily a geo economic agenda where it seeks to ensure that the economic concerns of the global south finds prominence. Its efforts in global governance have been directed in this direction.

Conclusion – Give your view on the performance of BRICS and the way forward.