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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 AUGUST 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 02 AUGUST 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian society

1) A normative shift has taken place in the idea of reservation from how it was envisaged by the constitution as a tool of social justice. Critically comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

In recent years, the number of protests by communities for getting reservation has seen a marked upswing. Various scholars have commented on the changed nature of reservation and the present article wonderfully explains how reservation has changed in nature, form, objectives etc from how it was envisaged by our constitution. This being an important and recurring topic in mains needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to present our view on whether the idea of reservation has taken a paradigm shift from the idea envisaged by our constitution – as a tool of social justice, temporary, and provided to socially and educationally backward. Also it expects us to compare the current idea vis a vis the ideas espoused by Indra Sawhney judgment which was critical in evolution of the constitutional debates surrounding reservation. Our view on this is to be provided in our answer

Directive word

Critically comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Critically comment is also forming opinion on main points but in the end you have to provide a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention in brief about the various incidents where protests have been carried out demanding reservations by communities like Jats, Marathas etc.

Body

  • Explain the constitutional provisions regarding reservation, the idea behind it, the fact that it was meant as a temporary measure to correct the social injustices faced by socially and economically backward communities
  • Explain how the concept has evolved over time courtesy the Mandal commission, Indra Sawhney judgment etc
  • Examine the reality in present day as discussed in the article and also highlighted by scholars like Christophe Jeffrelot who hold that the demand for reservation is mostly related to economic grievances. Discuss other changes as highlighted in the article
  • Give your view on the idea of reservation and its practice in current day based on your reading

Conclusion – Briefly discuss what should be the way forward.

Background :-

Reservation policy or the policies of affirmative action or preferential treatment and compensatory justice are one of the many tools adopted to promote positive equality.

What was the idea envisaged by the constitution regarding the idea of reservation as a tool of social justice :-

  • The policy of reservation was a measure for the emancipation of the socially and economically backward people of the nation known as Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and the hugely debated Other Backward Classes (OBC).
  • It was conceived and advocated not as merely a tool for allocation of few seats or a percentage based quota, which it was in fact, but a mission to evolve a strong and powerful nation based on social harmony wherein every citizen of the nation, irrespective of caste, creed, religion, sex etc. could have an open, impartial and abundant opportunity.
  • The policy is often explained as positive or protective or compensatory discrimination in favour of the backward classes for the purpose of mitigating inequalities and ensuring justice.
  • Compensatory justice aims at providing counter-balancing benefits to those individuals who have been wrongfully injured/ deprived in the past so as to bring them up to the level of wealth and welfare which they would have had if they had not been disadvantaged.
  • The three concepts, that of equality, individual and group, are central to the debate on reservations.

What has been the shift regarding the idea of reservation over the years :-

  • Unlike in the late Sixties and again in the late Eighties, when the reservation discourse originated in a deep sense of unfairness of the social system, today’s reservation discourse draws its strength from unfair development policies.
  • Reservation is increasingly seen as a remedy for the adverse effects of ill-thought out development policies.
    • In both Gujarat and Maharashtra, in spite of their economies being relatively better, three things have been worrying the people i.e.., acute agrarian distress, stagnation in employment growth and distortions in the development trajectory. Hence even forward and dominant castes have been demanding reservation
  • It is seen as against upper castes:-
    • Reservation is also called ‘Discrimination in Reverse’ or Reverse Discrimination. This terminology connotes that reservation, which works as a protection to the reserved categories i.e. scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes, acts as a reverse discrimination against the upper castes.
  • Reservation topic is being misused:-
    • For political parties reservation discourse is convenient because it allows them to keep subscribing to the consensus over economic policies, avoiding a critical approach to the root causes of the problem.
  • Now economic backwardness is considered as demand for reservation:-
    • For the agitators, reservation appears as a more immediate remedy compared to long-term structural repair and reform.
    • Social backwardness was the prime indicator earlier,educational backwardness the secondary indicator and economic disadvantage the third and probably only a concomitant indicator.
    • But arguments in favour of privileging economic backwardness continue to be aired forcefully. The formula propounded by former leaders to diffuse the controversy included 10 per cent quota for the “poor” from other communities and this idea has received much traction of late.
    • Increasingly, claims for OBC reservation have come to stand on the logic of contemporary economic backwardness more than backwardness shaped by traditional social injustice. Both in the Patel and Maratha agitations, the central anxiety has been about current economic tribulations. Thus, a claim for reservation on grounds of economic backwardness is seen as justifiable.
  • Political strength:-
    • The more effective justification for claiming reservation is the logic of political strength.
    • In Karnataka, the Lingayat demand for reservation was declined by commissions appointed to determine backwardness, the decision ultimately took place considering the clout the community enjoys in the state. 
  • The post-Mandal demands for reservations often reverberate with the politics of the dominant castes in various states. This development has altered the context and texture of the reservation debate.
  • The new logic of reservation revolves around the question of how much to whom:
    • Questions of the share of concerned communities in the population, extent of reservation and division of reserved seats among different communities occupy the central space in debates.
  • On the extent of reservation, a growing political consensus appears to be shaping that the 50 per cent limit set by the court need not be upheld in practice. The reason is that reservation is a right of groups to a proportional share, rather than an enabling provision to make way for equal opportunity.

Topic– Events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

2) Critically analyze the significance of the Vienna Congress in changing the course of the European history.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Vienna Congress has been seen as a reactionary movement for the benefit of traditional monarchs. However, others praise it for having created relatively long-term stability and peaceful conditions in most of the Europe. It is therefore vital to delve into the issue and have a discussion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the positive as well as the negative aspects of the Vienna Congress and based on our discussion, form an opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Critically Analyze- Here we have to dig deep into the issue and identify and discuss about all the related and important aspects and correlate them to satisfy the key demand of the question. We have then to form an opinion on the given issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Write a few lines about the background of the Vienna Congress, who were the participants, for how long was the congress held.

Body-

  • Briefly discuss the aims of the congress. E.g to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace etc.
  • Discuss the limitations/ negative aspects of the congress. E.g The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution; the “four” still intended to reserve the real decision making for themselves; no proper procedure followed etc.
  • Discuss the positive impact it had on European history. E.g prevented another widespread European war for nearly 100 years (1815–1914); deliberate conflict management, and was the first genuine attempt to create an international order based upon consensus rather than conflict;  an unprecedented degree of international cooperation; etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Vienna congress :-

  • The Congress of Vienna was an international congress aiming to restore peace and to restructure Europe, which was in a mess after almost two centennaries of war and the monomanic attempts of Napoleon to conquer Europe.
  • It was a quest for a balance of powers, so that future wars and revolutions could be prevented.
  • Decisions were made by the four superpowers Prussia, Russia, Austria and Great Britain.
  • Due to diplomatic skill France, too, was allowed to take part in decision making.
  • The main goals of the Congress of Vienna were to establish the terms of long-lasting peace between European powers after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars and to finalize European boundaries in order to create a balance between each of the major countries of Europe.

Significance of the Vienna congress in changing the course of European history :-

  • French returned territories gained by Napoleon from 1795 – 1810:-
    • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon.  The French monarchy was restored under the rule of Louis XVIII. 
  • Russia extended its powers and received sovereignty over Poland and Finland.
  • Prussia:-
    • Prussia lost its claims over Poland, but extended its territory towards the West (Westphalia and the Rhyne Province). Saxony was punished for its alliance with France and lost some territory to Prussia.
  • Austria, too, did extend its territory. Venetia, for example, was handed over to the Habsburg family. However, due to the increase of power of other European powers (Russia and Prussia) the Austrian monarchy rather lost in significance. Austria was given back most of the territory it had lost and was also given land in Germany and Italy (Lombardy and Venice). 
  • Austrian Netherlands were unified with the Kingdom of Netherlands under the House of Orange.
  • Bavaria and Hannover gained territories.
  • Norway and Sweden were joined.
  • Switzerland was declared neutral.
  • Britain gained control over several strategic colonies and become the first superpower of the world.
  • Spain was restored under Ferdinand VII
  • The balance of power was sort of successful. For 40 years Europe was peaceful. However, this stability was achieved at the price of personal freedom of the population of the major European powers.
  • However Congress has often been criticized for causing the subsequent suppression of the emerging national and liberal movements, and it has been seen as a reactionary movement for the benefit of traditional monarchs.

Topic – Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country

3) The draft National Register of Citizens has its roots in post independence history of Assam which partially explains the support for it. Its updation however, will open a Pandora’s box of issues. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Indianexpress

Reference

Why this question

A new version of draft NRC has come out which has dominated news headlines the past few days. The background of NRC, the procedural aspect of it, the impact are some of the issues that needs to be prepared for mains and this question covers part of it.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what NRC is and a peek into history that led to the demand of NRC. Thereafter, we need to examine the impact of it. The pros and cons of NRC needs to be brought out. We need to highlight the ethical, political, societal, security impact of NRC.  Finally, a way forward needs to be provided.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Briefly explain why NRC is in news and what it actually is.

Body

  • Mention about the NRC of 1951, mass immigration from Bangladesh in 1971, protest by AASU in 1980s, Assam Accord and the final decision taken in 2005.
  • Examine the issues and challenges that have arisen as a result of this exercise. Discuss the ethical issue of uprooting family etc, political issues including the impact on IR, societal issues such as the wider demand in North East, security issue which forms one of the backbone of the demand, administrative issues arising in such a massive exercise etc
  • Examine how can we deal with these issues going forward

Conclusion – emphasize on the magnitude of challenges that will arise in the coming days and how to deal with them.

Background:-

  • After prolonged litigations, in 2014 the Supreme Court came out with the judgment that the NRC should be updated. Foreigners who came to the state before 25th March 1971 and their progeny can register with the NRC.
  • At upwards of four million, the number of those excluded from the second draft of the National Register of Citizens published has sparked great anxiety about the legal status of so many individuals.

Draft national register of citizens:-

  • The objective of the NRC was to arrive at a resolution of questions raised for more than six decades around ethnicity, culture, and religion.
  • The process of detection of foreigners has been going on for quite some time in Assam. The Illegal Migrants (Detection by Tribunal) Act and Foreigners Tribunals have been the instruments to identify and deport foreigners. The NRC updating is a more ambitious plan in this regard.
  • The NRC stands for the National Register of Citizens of India. In 1951 the newly-independent India had its first population census. The data collected in the census were kept with the National Register of Citizens (NRC). The NRC has not been updated since then.
  • Since Independence till 1971, when Bangladesh was created, Assam witnessed large-scale migration from East Pakistan that became Bangladesh after the war. Soon after the war on a treaty for friendship, co-operation and peace was signed between India and Bangladesh. The migration of Bangladeshis into Assam continued.
  • To bring this regular influx of immigrants to the notice of then government, the All Assam Students Union submitted a memorandum to Indira Gandhi in 1980 seeking her “urgent attention” to the matter. Subsequently, Parliament enacted the Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunal) Act, 1983. This Act, made applicable only to Assam, was expected to identify and deport illegal migrants in the state.
  • On the other hand, Assam has been recurrently rocked by agitations against infiltrators. The student movement in the 1970s and 1980s was built around ethnic anxieties as it posited an Assamese versus non-Assamese divide. The Assam Movement of the 1980s was the strongest expression of these sentiments. It demanded detection and deportation of foreigners. The Movement wound up with the signing of the Assam Accord in 1985. The Accord mandated that foreigners who entered the state after 24th March 1971 would be identified and deported. In reality, few people got deported.

Issues due to NRC:-

  • NRC is becoming a dangerous card in the sordid game of political confrontation across the whole of India’s east and Northeast.
  • Strain in India-Bangladesh relation:-
    • Biggest fallout of the NRC updating could be India’s relations with Bangladesh, which has been on an upswing since 2009.
  • Families segregated:-
    • Names of some family members have been included in the final draft but those of their wives and children are missing. There are so many cases such as those.
    • Leave aside the harassment and humiliation of having to file claims all over again and chase officials who are often less than sympathetic.
  • Rising insecurity among people leading to violence :-
    • Chant of national security and a muscular nationalism could stoke more mistrust and aggravate the climate of uncertainty in the border state.
    • Incidents of harassment on the charge of being illegal Bangladeshi on flimsy ground, or no ground at all, are making the migrants nervous.
  • Names Are excluded:-
    • From the frenetic pace to meet deadlines in the face of an unrelenting apex court to the omission of 1,50,000 names from the 19 million that had made it to the first draft.
    • The latest list again had its share of notable omissions, including serving and former legislators.
  • Preparation of NRC subjected to bias :-
    • Even a skilfully devised system of digitised mapping of family trees is subject to human interface, subjective bias, and the inherent flaws in the NRC of 1951 and the electoral rolls of 1961 and 1971 that make up the core of the ‘legacy data’.
  • The future of illegal migrants is under question :-
    • Bigger challenges lie ahead, especially after the final NRC list determines the precise number of deemed illegal immigrants.
    • India addresses the fate of those eventually left off the list will ascertain whether its democracy can lay claim to being humane or not.
  • It is doubtful if all indigenous people have their paper in order. For instance, there are doubts that many poor people belonging to nomadic tribal communities would be able to produce documentary evidence that they lived in the state forty seven years ago.
  • Rising violence :-
    • India and Bangladesh don’t have an agreement to facilitate deportation of illegal Bangladeshi immigrants to that country. This will render the identified illegal migrants as stateless people.
  • Dilemma to Supreme court as well :-
    • If the Supreme Court gives a stamp of approval to the NRC, thereby it is foreclosing any chance of judicial remedy to those who may have been wrongly removed from it.
    • If the draft NRC shows the actual number of illegal migrants to be far fewer than the fantastically large figures being quoted by some, will the Supreme Court become the focus of controversy as having overseen a flawed process.
    • If the draft NRC sparks off communal or ethnic tensions, will the Supreme Court accept responsibility.

Way forward :-

  • Central and State governments must step up their assurances that there is no need for panic.
  • SC should create an orderly mechanism for those aggrieved by exclusion to exhaust judicial remedies in accordance with law, without prejudicing their rights by prejudging any matter. There still remains the question as to what happens to those who are declared illegal migrants in accordance with the law after all judicial remedies are exhausted.

General Studies – 2


Topic– Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate

4) Discuss the principles of functioning and, various institutional and financial  arrangements of the SAARC.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

SAARC is an important regional organisation with India the largest and an important member. It is essential to know how the organisation functions and what are the governing principles.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to simply write in detail about the principles governing the functioning of SAARC. It then wants us to write in detail about the instruments through which the organisation functions.

Directive word

Discuss- Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about SAARC, its members , year of founding and key objectives.

Body

  • Discuss the principles governing its functioning. E.g cooperation  based on respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non-interference in the internal affairs of other States and mutual benefit; not be a substitute for bilateral and multilateral cooperation but shall complement them; not be inconsistent with bilateral and multilateral obligations.
  • Discuss the instruments of functioning. E.g Council of ministers; Technical Committee; Advisory Committee etc. Discuss the functions of each of them.

Conclusion- write a few lines about the scope of SAARC for regional as well as national development.

 

Background :-

South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC), organization of South Asian nations, was founded in 1985 and dedicated to economic, technological, social, and cultural development emphasizing collective self-reliance.

The objectives of the association shall be:

  1. a) To promote the welfare of the peoples of SOUTH ASIA and to improve their quality of life.
  2. b) To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realise their full potentials.
  3. c) To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia.
  4. d) To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems.
  5. e) To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields.
  6. f) To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries.
  7. g) To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interests.
  8. h) To cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes.

 

Principles of functioning :-

  • Cooperation within the framework of the association shall be based on respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non-interference in the internal affairs of other States and mutual benefit.
  • Such cooperation shall not be a substitute for bilateral and multilateral cooperation but shall complement them.
  • Such cooperation shall not be inconsistent with bilateral and multilateral obligations.

Various institutional and financial arrangements of SAARC :-

  • Council of Ministers:-
    • A Council of Ministers consisting of the Foreign Ministers of the Member States shall be established with the following functions:
      • a) formulation of the policies of the association
      • b) review of the progress of cooperation under the association
      • c) decision on new areas of cooperation
      • d) establishment of additional mechanism under the association as deemed necessary
      • e) decision on other matters of general interest to the association
    • The Council of Ministers shall meet twice a year. Extraordinary session of the Council may be held by agreement among the Member States.
  • Standing committee:-
    • The Standing Committee comprising the Foreign Secretaries shall have the following functions:
      • a) overall monitoring and coordination of programme of cooperation
      • b) approval of projects and programmes, and the modalities of their financing
      • c) determination of inter-sectoral priorities
      • d) mobilisation of regional and external resources
      • e) identification of new areas of cooperation based on appropriate studies.
    • The Standing Committee shall meet as often as deemed necessary.
    • The Standing Committee shall submit periodic reports to the Council of Ministers and make reference to it as and when necessary for decisions on policy matters.
  • Technical committees:-
    • Technical Committees comprising representatives of Member States shall be responsible for the implementation, coordination and monitoring of the programmes in their respective areas of cooperation.
    • They shall have the following terms of reference:
      • a) determination of the potential and the scope of regional cooperation in agreed areas
      • b) formulation of programmes and preparation of projects
      • c) determination of financial implications of sectoral programmes
      • d) formulation of recommendations regarding apportionment of costs
      • e) implementation and coordination of sectoral programmes
      • f) monitoring of progress in implementation.
    • The Technical Committees shall submit periodic reports to the Standing Committee.
    • The Chairmanship of the Technical Committees shall normally rotate among Member States in alphabetical order every two years.
    • The Technical Committees may, inter-alia, use the following mechanisms and modalities, if and when considered necessary:
      • a) meetings of heads of national technical agencies
      • b) meetings of experts in specific fields
      • c) contact amongst recognised centres of excellence in the region.
    • Action committees:-
      • The Standing Committee may set up Action Committees comprising Member States concerned with implementation of projects involving more than two but not all Member States.
    • Financial arrangements:-
      • The contribution of each Member State towards financing of the activities of the association shall be voluntary.
      • Each Technical Committee shall make recommendations for the apportionment of costs of implementing the programmes proposed by it.
      • In case sufficient financial resources cannot be mobilised within the region for funding activities of the association, external financing from appropriate sources may be mobilised with the approval of or by the Standing Committee.

Conclusion:-

  • The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (Saarc) is a name of hope and expectation for the people of South Asia. In spite of economic trouble, South Asia has significant potentialities for overall development.

 

Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “ Need for a review of the Constitution”

5) It is often said that constitution is a living document. What do you understand by it. Examine whether there is a need to review the constitution in light of a lack of consensus and changed requirements with respect to certain key provisions?(250 words)

The hindu

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the reason behind calling Indian constitution a living document. Thereafter, we need to discuss certain key areas such as debates over secularism, changes reqd in DPSP in light of changed socio economic realities. We need to examine whether in light of necessities such as those highlighted above, we need a review of constitution.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is meant by calling constitution a living document – can be changed according to the requirement and the needs of the present society and its future, it is not a constant and static document rather it is fluid and it can be changed by the process of amendment.

Body – Examine what are the niggling factors in our polity and society, in light of which there might be a need to review the constitution. Discuss the changed socio economic realities of india and whether there is a need to review DPSP. Discuss whether foreign policy can be brought under the ambit of Parliament. Examine the impact of technology and the need for review in that regard.

Conclusion – Mention that over time, as need arose, we have amended the constitution. A periodic review, however, makes sense.

Constitution is a living document :-

  • Notwithstanding the sterling role played by the drafting committee and Babasaheb Ambedkar, the constitution as it exists today is a product of interactions between three elements: the text, the courts and above all, ‘the people’.
  • Even at the time it was framed, the text was not a closed document. There were at least four elements that informed the making of the constitution :-
    • Existing administrative provisions such as those embodied in the Government of India Act of 1935
    • Internationally accepted constitutional principles
    • The ideals of the freedom struggle, including universal adult suffrage
    • The events that were taking place in a country slowly emerging out of World War II, famine and above all, Partition.
  • This document keeps responding to the situations and circumstances arising from time to time. Even after so many changes in the society, the Constitution continues to work effectively because of this ability to be dynamic, to be open to interpretations and the ability to respond to the changing situation. This is a hallmark of a democratic constitution.
  • Indian Constitution can be changed according to the requirement and the needs of the present society and its future, it is not a constant and static document rather it is fluid and it can be changed by the process of amendment
  • The Constitution is open to interpretation by the Supreme Court after understanding the society and the basic foundational values of the constitution.

There is a need to review the constitution :-

  • It is the constitution that directly determines what kind of government a nation has, and thereby indirectly the economic policies.
    • India’s Constitution has the dubious distinction of being the largest in the world and consequently unreadable, and largely unread. It gives the government enormous powers to intervene in the economy, to enact laws that discriminate among citizens based on attributes such as religion and caste, restricts freedom of speech, and limits the right to property.
    • In short, it allows deliberate political and economic exploitation.
    • Undue government interference in the economy politicizes the economy, which in turn leads to the corruption of politics. By contrast, the US Constitution is short, guarantees the freedom of speech, protects property rights, prohibits discrimination among citizens, and limits the power of the government.
  • The Indian Constitution places the government as the master and people as its servants as can be expected of an essentially colonial government.
    • Like the British government before it, post-1947 Indian governments took on the role of the master and imposed limits on the economic and civic freedoms of Indians.
    • The Constitution’s colonial origins give the government near omnipotent powers that are not consistent with a free society. It allows the government to interfere and restrict economic and civic freedoms.
  • India needs a new constitution that is consistent with a nation of free individuals living in a complex, modern, large economy.
    • This modern constitution has to be one that guarantees economic freedom to the individual, prohibits the government from making any laws that discriminate among citizens, guarantees freedom of speech and the press, prohibits the government from entering into businesses that are properly the domain of the private sector, and so on.
    • In other words, India needs a constitution that protects the comprehensive freedom of the individual: economic, social and political
    • India needs a new Constitution that constrains governmental power and restricts it to the proper role of the government in a free society, namely to protect life, liberty and property of the citizens.
    • The new Constitution must prohibit discrimination and must guarantee that all laws follow a generality norm that apply equally to all regardless of sex, religion, group affiliation or origin.
  • Nothing in the universe is constant except change, so it is applicable to constitution as well.
  • There is no problem in making amendments, in case the majority cast vote in favour of the change.
  • Constitution is created for the benefit of its citizens, which should evolve with the changing atmosphere.
  • In the era of globalization, unless the constitution is amended, many of the concerns will emerge which happen against the law. We should not create provision for the loopholes in law and order in the country.
  • Constitution has already undergone many amendments for good, so it can follow the same theme to catch up with the pace of the world.

 

There is no need for review:-

 

  • Constitution has been designed after taking into account the upcoming variations and circumstantial evolution, so that holds pretty well for all times.
  • Constitution has everything included in it and has nothing wrong to be amended.
  • Circumstances will keep changing; constitution cannot follow its trail. Rules and regulations need to be fixed for a proper Law and Order status in the country.
  • Once amended, the constitution will lose its form and origin. The respect and fight for our rights will eventually lose their value.
  • Constitution for a country is like foundation for a building. Making amendments every now and then will weaken the foundation of the country.

Conclusion:-

  • The new Constitution must be readable and be read by all. Therefore it must be in plain language and not in legalese. To be precise, the Constitution should be presented in a way to guard its citizens in every possible way.
  • The amendments are welcome if they are carrying some good value attached to it. But the amendments so made should not abolish its originality in its design and implementation.

General Studies – 3


Topic-  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

6) Rural tourism provides many opportunities for rural development in India, but at the same times poses several challenges which need to be taken care of. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Rural development is a necessity for India and any strategy/ policy in this direction s a welcome step. There is a lot of scope of rural tourism, given the vast rural hinterland of India and growing connectivity between urban and rural centres. Although it provides various opportunities for rural development it also faces several challenges, which need to be discussed.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on whether there are significant opportunities in exploring rural tourism as a means to rural development in India. It also wants us to discuss the challenges associated therein and then form an overall opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the vast rural hinterland with diverse geography, culture, history and mention that this provides great opportunity for rural tourism in India.

Body-

  • Discuss the opportunities in rural tourism and also discuss what benefits it could provide. E.g Desire for escape from the monoculture of city living.  Increasing Interest in Outdoor Recreation, Eco-Tourism and Special Interest Tourism. Rural locations are ideal for relaxation and rejuvenation. Over-familiarity and Congestion with traditional tourist resorts  Increased Interest in alternative and off-beat attractions Curiosity for rural India and its culture, customs and heritages Accessibility of Rural Areas. Growing number of special interest tourists etc.
  • Discuss the challenges involved therein. E.g Deprivation, Improper Communication Facilities and Embryonic Stage of Rural Market; Communication Skill; Insufficient Financial Support; lack of trained human resources; lack of proper physical connectivity etc.

Conclusion– mention the govt initiatives in this direction e.g Swadesh Darshan, PRASAD, and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the issue.

Background:-

  • Rural Tourism is playing a significant role not only in the global scenario but also it has the potentiality to become equally important in rural India.
  • Such form of tourism not only provides rewarding and individualized holiday products to tourists by ensuring absolute peace from monotonous urban city life and its traffic, noise and pollution but also it generates employment for the local community and diversifies the economy and regional employment.

Rural tourism contributing to rural development:-

  • Reasons why rural tourism need to be promoted:-
    • Seeing the stressful urban lifestyles leading towards “counter-urbanization” syndrome
    • Growing curiosity of urban people regarding rural culture and heritages
    • Downfall of income level from agriculture and related works
    • Lack of alternative way outs for earning sufficient money
    • Scope for new business opportunities
    • Changing attitude in Indian and global tourists behaviour in terms of nature awareness and increasing demand for niche tourism and green products. So it is evident that the future of Rural Tourism in India is going to be very promising one.
  • It has a great impact in case of maintaining the sustainable livelihood of the rural population, promoting local culture and heritages, empowering local women, alleviating poverty, conserving and preserving natural resources, improving basic rural infrastructure, adopting new work culture and overall developing a better impression of locality and its people in tourists mind.
  • Reduces migration:-
    • Rural Tourism facilitates the declining areas to be developed with basic infrastructure facilities and provides the host community alternative ways of employment and side by side it reduces out-migration.
    • It fosters a closer relationship between city dwellers and rural communities.
  • Alternative Way of Earning 
    • Most of the rural dwellers in India are dependent on traditional agricultural activities to maintain their livelihood. In this connection, rural tourism can be a potential tool to reduce their over-dependency on cultivation and it contributes to the overall economic development of an area that would otherwise be deprived. 
  • Employment 
    • Rural tourism creates a large number of semi-skilled jobs for the local population in not only local hotels and catering trades but also in other fields like transport, retailing, heritage interpretation etc.
    • Moreover, it ensures revival of traditional arts, crafts, building art etc. and brings marketing opportunity for rural producers to sell their products directly to the tourists. 
    • Rural performers are hired for cultural programs where they can exhibit talent and also can earn money.
    • It allows alternative sources of earning opportunities from non-agricultural sectors that improve living standards of the rural dwellers to some extent. 
  • Job Retention 
    • Cash flows generating from rural tourism can assist job retention in services such as retailing, transport, hospitality, medical care etc. It provides additional income for farmers, local fishermen and local suppliers
  • Alternative Business Opportunities 
    • Rural Tourism generates new business opportunities even those rural businesses, not directly related to tourism can also gain benefit from tourist activity through developing close relationships with tourist facilities.
    • For example, a number of tourists love to taste local cuisines of different tourist spots. Therefore any restaurant serving ethnic foods can also attract tourists  though many of these restaurants are not directly related to tourism business. 
  • Poverty Alleviation
    • Rural Tourism is being admired all over the world because such form of tourism can shape up rural society both by economic and social terms.
    • It brings both monetary and social benefits to the rural people.
    • It alleviates poverty by creating alternative sources of earning. 
  • Empowerment of Localities
    • Rural Tourism cannot be flourished without the involvement of local people in it.
    • Accommodation facilities are being provided by local hotel owners whereas local suppliers supply food and beverages to the local hotels.
    • Local producers produce locally made products as per tourists demand and earn money by selling them in the local market.
    • To entertain tourists, local organizers conduct different cultural programmes where local performers exhibit their art and culture through live performance.
    • Not only that, rural people also become engaged in different decision-making processes. All such engagement actually empowers the localites. 
  • Entrepreneurial scope
    • Rural Tourism has increased career options for these young entrepreneurs. 
  • Arts and Crafts Sale 
    • Arts and crafts are the evidence of local culture and heritages of a community belonging from any region or any nation. The urban tourists, wherever they go, generally prefer to have a collection of local arts and crafts to make their trip-experience a remembering one.
    • Such tendency motivates them to purchase local arts and crafts from the local producers and artists. 
    • Side by side it encourages the local community to sell their products in local market. Such practice opens an alternative way of earning to the rural people. 
  • Environmental Improvement :-
    • Environmental improvements such as village paving and traffic regulation schemes, sewage and litter disposal can be assisted by tourism revenues and political pressures from tourism authorities.
    • These help develop pride of place, important in retaining existing population and businesses, and in attracting new enterprises and families.
  • Heritage Preservation:-
    • Rural Tourism brings a strong sense of emotion in everyone’s (both community and tourists) mind to preserve and reserve the local culture and heritages to make any place attractive for the tourists to visit it and also for the host community to live in.
    • Such sense is maintained through rural museums that play a significant role in local heritage preservation.

Challenges:-

  • Deprivation, Improper Communication Facilities and Embryonic Stage of Rural Market 
    • Rural markets are often characterized by rural population and majority of them still come under below Poverty Line. These villagers are less involved in showcasing their culture and heritages in front of the tourists visiting their places as they are not very much aware of the potentiality of rural tourism that can act as an alternative source of earning
    • Moreover, most of the rural markets are underdeveloped with lots of hindrances like absence of proper mode of surface transportation, lack of basic infrastructure etc.
  • Communication Skill
    • The difference in languages and lack of basic education are the two basic obstacles for the rural marketers.
  • Legislation Problem
    • Generally, owners of licensed accommodation units pay taxes to the government. But it is kind of burden for the poor rural marketers to pay tax at a regular basis as they lack sufficient financial backing and many a time they face losses in business because of seasonal demand. 
  • Insufficient Financial Support
    • Most of the rural tourism marketers come from the poor family background and not every time they are financially supported by the local banks or local government bodies through loan facilities.
  • Lack of Trained Human Resource 
    • In rural areas, lack of trained human resource is a common issue that affects directly the tourism and hospitality industry badly. Moreover, the trained people from urban areas normally are not interested in going to rural areas to work due to lack of basic infrastructure facilities. 
  • Lack of Proper Physical Communications 
    • Proper drinking water, sufficient electricity, good telecommunication, safety and security, etc. are the few basic needs of a tourist while he or she is visiting any place individually or in a group. It is unfortunate but true that nearly half of the villages in this country do not have all- weather roads and above said basic facilities.

Way forward:-

  • In this connection, the role of Government and local monitoring bodies is going to be very crucial.
    • Government should educate rural villagers to enhance their communication skill, create sense of ownership, make them aware of the value of their culture and heritages and motivate them to take active participation
    • Encouraging local entrepreneurs, private enterprises, investors and other tourism stakeholders to come under a common umbrella for basic rural infrastructure development activities is also essential.
    • Implementation of Swadesh darshan and PRASAD scheme:-
      • The Union Ministry of Tourism had launched the Swadesh Darshan Scheme in 2014-15 with an aim to develop theme based tourist circuits in the country. These tourist circuits will be developed on principles of high tourist value, competitiveness and sustainability in an integrated manner.
      • They will be developed by synergizing efforts to focus on concerns and needs of all stakeholders to enrich tourist experience and enhance employment opportunities.
    • Product development as per tourists changing demands. 
    • Proper planning and conservation of natural resources and local heritages for the sustainable development of Rural Tourism. 
    • Educate the rural villagers and develop their communication skill and language 
    • Creating awareness regarding rural tourism benefits. 
    • Democratic movement that helps rural people at all levels to participate in tourism development activities. 
    • Conduct regular Government and/or private sponsored skill development programmes in identified rural area to train the rural people appointed in rural tourism business. 
    • Encourage young and potential business entrepreneurs for their businesses. 
    • Government initiatives to support the young entrepreneurs by providing loans. 
    • Rural Tourism should be tax free. 
    • FDI or Private investment to introduces latest technology. 
    • Taking Rural Tourism Circuit development approach for overall regional development. 
    • Take necessary safety and security measures for the tourists 
    • Share information to make better business decisions 
    • Any museum or interpretation centre can be set-up to provide information to tourists.

 


General Studies – 4


TopicContributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Discuss the M.N roy’s philosophy of new humanism.(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to simply write in detail about the philosophy of new humanism propounded by the twentieth century Indian freedom fighter and philosopher, MN Roy.

Directive word

Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few lines about MN Roy, his life and important contributions.

Body

Discuss his philosophy of new humanism in detail and bring out its salient aspects and discuss them in detail. E.g the central idea of the Twenty-Two Theses is that political philosophy must start from the basic idea that the individual is prior to society, and freedom can be enjoyed only by individuals; Quest for freedom and search for truth, according to Roy, constitute the basic urge of human progress. The purpose of all-rational human endeavor, individual as well as collective, is attainment of freedom in ever-increasing measure. The amount of freedom available to the individuals is the measure of social progress etc. Take the help of the article attached to the question and any other relevant material to frame your answer.

Conclusion-sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 

Background:-

  1. N. Roy was a twentieth century Indian philosopher. In 1940, Roy and his followers left Congress owing to differences with the Congress leadership on the role of India in the Second World War. Thereafter, Roy formed the Radical Democratic Party of his own. This signaled the beginning of the last phase of Roy’s life in which he developed his philosophy of new humanism.

M.N.Roy’s philosophy of new humanism :-

  • N. Roy’s New Humanism is a great contribution to the history of political philosophy.
  • N. Roy realized that the modern crisis requires a new orientation of human thinking, particularly in politics. New Humanism tried to solve the problems of ethics and historiology and wanted to synthesise the humanist, the materialist, the naturalist and the rationalist so as to coordinate the philosophy of value with a social philosophy and ethics
  • It was a bold and new attempt to answer the problems of political and ethical consideration.
  • New Humanism re-asserts the sovereignty of man.
  • It accepts the worth of moral and spiritual freedom, reason and ethics. It looks beyond nationalism.
  • It is cosmopolitan in its outlook.
  • It pleads for a cooperative fellowship of man.
  • It enunciates the supremacy of the eternal urge of freedom.
  • His integral radical new humanism was a moral restatement of Marxism.