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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 JULY 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 JULY 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1) The Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill 2018 renders India a timid follower of a failed carceral approach to trafficking, based on a prosecution-driven raid–rescue–rehabilitation model. Critically examine. (250 words)

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Why this question

The article provides a very organised critical analysis in great depth on one of the important Bills introduced in Parliament – Trafficking of persons Bill. Hence this question is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to analyze the provisions of the aforementioned Bill and discuss whether it would help in eliminating the growing problem of human trafficking, or whether it marks a business as usual approach that would have limited effectiveness in dealing with this menace.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give status quo of the problem of human trafficking by giving data on human trafficking.

Body

  • Give features of the Bill such as National Anti Trafficking bureau, its function of surveillance, coordination etc; focus on protection and rehabilitation, search and rescue etc
  • Discuss the positives of the Bill – how it aims to check the increasing incidence of human trafficking. It basically strengthens the surveillance mechanism, enhances penalty, focusses on earlier stick approach utilized in combating trafficking
  • Discuss the shortcomings of the Bill – ignores socio economic realities of trafficked persons, not in tune with the international shift in strategy, scant attention to bonded labourers etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward. Mention that trafficking is a structural problem, with extensive implications on the social, economic, and organisational fabric of our societies. A variety of reasons such as deepening poverty, deteriorating living conditions, persistent unemployment, human deprivation, and hopelessness promote human trafficking, and till the time we aim to combat these basic social problems, the structural cycle promoting human trafficking will continue to exist.


 

Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Electoral reforms since independence”

2)State Funding of Election was recommended by Indrajit Gupta Committee. Discuss whether SFoE will help resolve corruption in elections?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the recommendation of Indrajit Gupta Committee regarding SFoE  , analyze its pros and cons and give our view on the prudence of this suggestion.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that SFoE has often been suggested to check corruption in elections, but there are several layers to the problem.

Body

  • Discuss the recommendation of the committee along with the checks suggested by the committee.
  • Examine the advantages as envisaged by the committee as well as the support provided by LCI – Total state funding of elections is “desirable” so long as political parties are prohibited from taking funds from other sources. The Commission concurred with the Indrajit Gupta Committee stand on partial funding with the rider that Appropriate regulatory framework be put in place with regard to political parties
  • Examine the problem with SFoE such as those highlighted by EC, 2nd ARC, lack of focus accorded by 2015 LCI Report (supported the current system of indirect in kind subsidies). Highlight the problems highlighted by these committees in implementation of SFoE

Conclusion – give your view on desirability of SFoE to check corruption in Indian elections.


Topic – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3)What do you understand by Local Health Traditions (LHTs). An analysis of India’s public policy demonstrates ambiguity and inconsistency around the ultimate rationale for LHTs . Comment.(250 words) 

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Why this question

LHTs form a huge, but largely informal sources of healthcare in the country. Rise of modern healthcare practices has essentially undermined their role as well as importance. However, given the imperative to improve India’s healthcare delivery, LHTs need to be refined and further developed.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to simply bring out the meaning and scope of LHTs. It then wants us to express our opinion on whether Indian policies have been suffering from ambiguity and inconsistency around the ultimate rationale for LHTs.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon. Our opinion has to be supported by valid and a proper discussion around the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a simple and a comprehensive definition of LHTs.

Body.

  • Discuss the strengths and limitations of LHTs. E.g rich in knowledge vs lack of systemic knowledge; local knowledge complementary to local resources vs lack of data on effectiveness and safety; use of traditional and organic materials for treatment vs lack of quality guidelines, standards etc; less skills required so easier to train people vs low policy priority attached etc.
  • Discuss the evolution of policy responses of India towards LHTs. E.g discuss the importance of LHTs before independence; how they were treated during subsequent periods and the discuss the recent initiatives by the government in this regard. Take the help of the article attached to the question to frame your answer.
  • Discuss the need to systematize, organize and refine and further develop LHTs as an alternative and low cost treatment and health management solutions. Discuss how they can complement the present healthcare system mired in human resource deficit, high cost treatment and elaborate medications further motivated by private profits amid growing corporatization etc.

Conclusion– bring out a fair and a balanced conclusion on the issue and suggest a way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic-Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4)External commercial borrowings have emerged in the past few years as one of the instruments preferred by Indian companies to raise debt, which comes with its own caveats. Critically analyze.(250 words)

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Reference

Reference

Reference

Why this question

In India, foreign currency borrowing has grown sevenfold, from $20 billion in 2004 to $140 billion in 2014. This has generated concerns about several systemic risks, which need to be discussed in detail.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to Dig deep into the issue of ECB and discuss the need for ECBs, their advantages as well as disadvantages. We have to form an opinion on the overall issue after considering all its important and related aspects.

Directive word

Critically analyze- Here we have to dig deep into the issue and identify and discuss about all the related and important aspects and correlate them to satisfy the key demand of the question. Based on our discussion, we have to form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the meaning of ECB; its forms and present some statistics highlighting that ECBs have grown at a very fast rate in India.

Body-

  • Discuss the advantages of ECB. E.g tax shield; The cost of funds is usually cheaper from external sources if borrowed from economies with a lower rate of interest; financial leverage; sparing of domestic credit facilities; does not dilute the value of shareholders’ equity by adding to the number of shares outstanding; it is a way of raising capital without giving away any control etc.
  • Discuss the disadvantages of ECB. E.g moral hazard- define and explain it; currency mismatch which can lead to financial crisis; bigger firms have higher chances of getting ECBs while smaller firms have less chances; spill-over effect on the economy especially the exports sector, due to sharp depreciation of INR etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a personal opinion on the issue and suggest a way-forward. E.g mention and reiterate the recommendations of Sahoo Committee, 2013 ; need for adequate hedging; Masala bonds etc.

 


 

Topic: Conservation

5)The centrality of tiger agenda is an ecological necessity for the sustainability of our environment. In this context, examine the steps taken by India to conserve tigers?(250 words) 

indianexpress

Why this question

The article on the occasion of international tiger day discusses the tiger conservation programme of India and highlights India’s achievements and challenges going forward. Hence it is important while preparing conservation section of GS 3

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain why focussing on conserving tiger is a prime concern for ecology. Thereafter we need to discuss the steps taken by India in its tiger conservation and the impact it has had. The challenges are to be discussed along with way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the figure of the latest tiger census and highlight that since 1973, India has been taking several steps for tiger conservation.

Body

  • Mention that tigers are flagship species and top of the food chain, tiger being an umbrella species etc, hence their conservation is critical
  • Discuss the steps taken by India for tiger conservation such as Project Tiger and increase in its coverage, formation of NTCA, M-STrIPES etc
  • Discuss the impact of these steps including increase in numbers. Highlight the new challenge that it poses in terms of paucity of resources, man animal conflict etc

Conclusion – Discuss the way forward to address those challenges.

 


Topic– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

6)What to you understand by CRISPR Cas9 editing technology? There is growing fear that the promising gene-editing system is being prematurely rushed for clinical use. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the issue with one of the most important scientific progress and currently under intense focus of the science community – gene editing using CRISPR Cas9 technology. Understanding the technology along with its potentials and pitfalls is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what this technology is and what it can do. Thereafter, it wants us to explain the potential applications of this technology which is causing the scientists to rush. Next we need to explain the potential issues that can crop up as a result of the application of this technology which suggests that we should proceed with caution. The way forward needs to be mentioned in the end.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what CRISPR Cas9 technology is.

Body

  • Explain the applications of gene editing in treating genetic diseases etc which makes the technology so lucrative to scientists. Give the advantages such as it has made gene editing simpler, faster and easily accessible to most laboratories.
  • Highlight the issues as discussed in the article which should serve as a cautionary sign for us – CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells might trigger cancer, introduces unexpected off-target (outside of the intended editing sites) effects in mice, impact on P53 protein.
  • Highlight how India is going ahead with research in this area

Conclusion – Discuss the way forward for this technology.

 


Topic– Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

7)Technological solutions in the domain of government-to-citizen cash transfers are far from perfect. Discuss, in the context of India.(250 words)

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Why this question

DBT has been proposed as a panacea for many of the problems of corruption and extensive delays in release of funds. Although the system has many benefits over the older system, it is still far from perfect and a host of issues are associated with it. This needs to be deliberated so that timely interventions can be made in order to improve the system.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to how technological solutions in the domain of government-to-citizen cash transfers are far from perfect. What are the issues involved.

Directive word

Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Write a few lines about the important government programmes currently using direct cash transfers to the citizens. E.g MGNREGA, scholarships; maternity benefits; pensions etc.

Body

  • Briefly highlight the benefits of such direct transfers. E.g eliminating corruption, fake beneficiaries; decreasing cost and time of fund transfer; bringing in transparency etc.
  • Discuss in detail about the problems in the present direct cash transfer systems currently operational in India. E.g creation of new intermediaries like payment agencies in the digital payments framework, which are responsible for not only delayed payments but also in corruption, and employ a number of tricks in doing the same; lack of access to data owned by the private intermediaries; transparency only at aggregate levels etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced opinion on the issue. E.g targeted transparency and developing and enforcing standards of accounting and immediate transfer of these accounts to the public domain; create additional measures of protection for digitally and socioeconomically vulnerable sections; need to create paper trails of payments and transactions that are available to the workers etc.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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