Topic–Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
7) A holistic approach for combating corruption would require an optimum mix of punitive and preventive measures, with more focus on the later. Discuss.(250 words)
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to write in depth about the need to combat corruption by deploying an optimum mix of punitive and preventive measures. It also wants us to do discuss, why should we focus more on preventive measures and how to do so.
Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Structure of the answer
Introduction – Write a few lines about the need to combat corruption in terms of the harms it inflicts on society, especially the poor and marginalized- give an ethical dimension to corruption.
- Discuss the need to employ both punitive as well as preventive measures in order to combat corruption. E.g Punitive measures act as a deterrent whereas preventive measures reduce opportunities for corruption by making systems transparent, increasing accountability, reducing discretion, rationalising procedures etc. Mention the punitive measures like PCA; Code of Conduct rules; Citizens Charters (quasi punitive?) etc.
- Briefly discuss the inadequacies of punitive measures. E.g empirical evidence in India, besides so many acts corruption still is a major constraining epidemic; lack/ difficulty of/in monitoring; corruption in judiciary itself; a large vulnerable population with lack of access to justice, power, resources etc.
- Discuss why and how preventive measures should be stressed upon. E.g prevention is always better than cure; emerging role of technology which decreases human interface, brings transparency etc; Discuss the systemic reforms needed. E.g promoting competition; Simplifying transactions; using IT tools; promoting transparency; reducing discretion; integrity pacts etc.
Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.