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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 JULY 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 JULY 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1) Disorganised urbanization in one of the biggest reasons for problems associated with urbanization. Examine the issue and discuss the steps taken by government to address the challenges arising out of urbanization?(250 words)

the hindu

Why this question

There are several challenges arising out of urbanization with basic necessities like water etc coming at a premium. The problems associated with urbanization and associated solutions are very important discussions to be mulled over from mains point of view.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to examine whether one of the main reasons why challenges due to urbanization are arising, is due to the disorganised nature of urbanization. We need to discuss the challenges as well and examine the steps taken by government in this regard.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the status of urbanization in India

Body

  • Discuss some of the key challenges arising out of urbanization – water shortage, environmental pollution, lack of infrastructure etc
  • Examine the causes behind it, with special emphasis on whether they arise out of disorganised nature of urbanization in India. Explain how towns and cities are classified, the governance structure etc
  • Discuss some of the steps taken by government in this regard and the pros and cons of such steps

Conclusion – explain that urbanization is a big challenge for Indian state with linkages to economy, society etc and needs to be addressed. give a way forward.

 


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Nature of Indian Federalism”

2) Cooperative Federalism is more suited to Indian Conditions than Competitive Federalism. Analyse(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us compare and contrast cooperative and competitive federalism, discuss their comparative advantages and disadvantages and conclude on the nature of federalism best suited to serve India’s needs.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the emphasis placed on cooperative and competitive federalism in recent times for securing developmental objectives.

Body

  • Explain the two terms and how they differ
  • Discuss how the spirit of competitive federalism is seen in the various inter state ranking metric derived such as for ease of business, environmental pollution etc
  • Discuss how the spirit of cooperation is being  enhanced by sharing experiential learnings etc
  • Discuss the pros and cons of one over the other – competitive federalism requires States to reform their programmes and provide goods and services that they can self-fund, disciplines the states, accelerates growth. Discuss the advantages that cooperative federalism offers.

Conclusion – Mention in the end that a balance of the two is required.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

3) Discuss the functioning and the role of NCLT in resolving corporate disputes.(250 words)

Livemint

Reference

Reference

Why this question

The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) is an important quasi-judicial body, that adjudicates issues relating to the Companies in India. It is important to know its role and functioning.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about how the NCLAT functions; and what functions it performs vis a vis resolution of corporate disputes in India.

Directive word

Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Write a few introductory lines about the nature, history and the purpose of NCLT. e.g it is a quasi-judicial body; constituted under companies act, 2013; on the recommendation of committee; replaced Company law board, BIFR etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the functioning of NCLT. E.g NCLT works on the lines of a normal Civil Court and is obliged to act fairly and without any bias; determine the facts of each case and decide with matters in accordance with principles of natural justice and in the continuance of such decisions, offer conclusions from decisions in the form of orders; It helps in resolving a situation, rectifying a wrong done by any corporate or levying penalties and costs and might alter the rights, obligations, duties or privileges of the concerned parties. The Tribunal isn’t required to adhere to the severe rules with respect to appreciation of any evidence or procedural law.
  • Discuss the role of NCLT. e.g NCLT has been empowered in taking several steps, from cancelling the registration of a company to dissolving any company in cases of non-adherence to procedures or fraudulent registration; empowered to hear grievances of rejection of companies in transferring shares and securities; provide necessary solutions for companies facing issues related to winding up, mismanagement, and insolvency of businesses. Being the only tribunals for arbitrating company disputes,  it eliminates the overlap of or occurrence of conflicting rulings and minimize the delays in the resolution of disputes etc

Conclusion- mention the NCLAT and the role of courts in resolving corporate disputes and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the issue.

 


Topic – India and its neighborhood- relations.

Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4) In  the past few years, a combination of factors has led to an infusion of energy in the otherwise jaded relationship between India and African countries. Critically analyze.(250 words) 

Reference

Hindubuisnessline

Reference

Why this question

Africa houses six of the world’s fastest growing economies and is increasingly becoming an important global player. India has  historic economic, political and cultural linkages with Africa but the continent remained largely ignored for a long time. There has however been a much required shift in India’s policy towards Africa, as witnessed in recent years. Recently India signed several agreements with Rwanda and PM Modi became the first PM to visit the country.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue discuss why Africa is important for India. We have to bring out the factors behind the infusion of energy in India-Africa relationship. Then we have to form a personal opinion on the issue.

Directive word

Critically analyze- Here we have to dig deep into the issue, identify and discuss upon all the relevant aspects and form a personal opinion on the issue, based on our discussion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the historic political, economic and cultural linkage between India and Africa. E.g  trade relations between the Kingdom of Aksum and Ancient India around the first millennium; non-aligned movement;  India-Africa Forum Summit etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the nature of relationship between India and Africa until recently- e.g passive and a reactive attitude on part of India; no summits; lack of attention and visits to African countries; investments made by private sector etc.
  • Discuss how the nature of relationship has changed. E.g mention the recent visits of PM and President to several African countries; plan to construct convention centers across 21 African countries; constructing the Parliament building in Swaziland; Sub-Saharan African countries have also reached out to India to undertake rural electrification – from financing and technology transfer, to detailed project reports and execution; India-Rwanda agreements, India-Seychelles cooperation etc.
  • Discuss why the nature of relationship has changed and the importance of cooperation with Africa. E.g Africa houses six of the world’s fastest growing economies; several African countries have been providing incentives to attract foreign investors and partners in growth while the government in New Delhi has been actively lobbying for support for its bid for a seat at the UNSC;  China’s hyperactive engagement with Africa; prospects of an African trade agreement etc.

Conclusion- Based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue and suggest a way-forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth,
development and employment.

5) Society 5.0 aims to tackle several challenges by going far beyond just the digitalization of the economy. Critically comment in the context of India.(250 words) 

Reference

Why this question

Japan has recently unveiled its plans to leverage industry 4.0 to achieve society 5.0. This is an important and an interesting concept in itself. It is pertinent to have knowledge and understanding of the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out  the meaning and significance of society 5.0 and write in detail about its relevance for India.

Directive word

Critically comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an opinion thereupon. However our opinion should be backed with substantial and relevant facts/ examples/ arguments etc.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the japanese plan to exploit the fourth industrial revolution in order to resolve its various technological, social problems and develop a society 5.0, which follows the hunting society (Society 1.0), agricultural society (Society 2.0), industrial society (Society 3.0), and information society (Society 4.0).

Body-

  • Briefly discuss the meaning of society 5.0. E.g It is envisaged as a human-centered society that balances economic advancement with the resolution of social problems by a system that highly integrates cyberspace and physical space; new technologies such as IoT, robotics, AI, and big data, all of which can affect the course of a society, are continuing to progress and Society 5.0 can be a reality as a new society that incorporates these new technologies in all industries and social activities and achieves both economic development and solutions to social problems in parallel etc.
  • Discuss the relevance of society 5.0 for India. E.g India needs to put serious efforts towards reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, increased production and reduced loss of foodstuffs, mitigation of costs associated with the aging society, support of sustainable industrialization, redistribution of wealth, and correction of regional inequality. But achieving both economic development and solutions to social problems at the same time has proven to be difficult in the present social system and industry 4.0 and associated technologies can be deployed to solve many of those problems etc.

Conclusion– Mention the need for gradual adoption and learn from best practices across the countries along with the need to provide social security cover to the threatened jobbers etc.


Topic– Indian Economy – Issues

6) Discuss the features and advantages of Sashakt Scheme vis a vis Insolvency and Bankruptcy code?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

NPA has been a huge challenge for banks and RBI has come up with several measures to deal with this challenge. IBC has been quite successful in handling cases of bad debts, thus, understanding why Sashakt scheme had been introduced and its comparison with IBC is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the features of Sashakt Scheme, explain why it has been introduced, its comparison with IBC, the comparative advantages offered, the shortcomings etc

Directive word

Discuss – The overall explanation of the scheme,  comparison, discussion about advantages and disadvantages of the scheme, way forward all has to form part of the discussion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the status quo of bad loans, and mention that RBI has been taking several measures in this regard such as IBC. Sashakt is in the same line of measures, but not by RBI.

Body

  • Explain Sashakt Scheme
  • Compare and contrast it with IBC Scheme
  • Explain why Sashakt when IBC is already there
  • Discuss the advantages, disadvantages, challenges, way forward

Conclusion – Mention that the impact of the problem of NPA has started reflecting in our economy and manadates quick action and thus the need for multiple steps.


General Studies – 4


TopicPart of the series of Ethics case studies.

7) Richa wants to become an intern in ABC institute of learning. She posted negative remarks on Facebook about an internship for which she had applied. The negative comments were focused on the policy for professional dress as an intern. After the director saw the comment, the student was not selected for the internship.

 

 

 

 

Why this question

This is one of the most important problems faced by government as well as private sector employees. It is important to analyze and discuss upon the situation in order to broaden our ethical understanding.

Structure of the answer

Hint for answer

  • It appears to be both an ethical and legal issue. From a legal perspective, one would need to consider if the information was legally obtained and was it a lawful use of the information on part of the director; the ethical issue is that whether the negative comment was the reason why the individual was not selected to that internship; A lack of respect for the value of integrity and professional behaviors seems evident in this situation etc.
  • If the information was publically available, the intern applicant would have very little legal protection here. The rights to free speech are not as broad and generally would not apply in this case; Postings on Facebook may have long term negative implications since once the post is made, the originator no longer has control over who views it or how it is used etc.

Take the help of these hints to from a complete answer for both the questions.


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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