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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 JULY 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 JULY 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian Society

1) Discuss the various forms of violence faced by Dalits in Indian society? Examine whether SC’s verdict in Kashinath Mahajan case marks a death knell for Prevention of Atrocities Act?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The Article brings our attention back to this landmark SC judgment. Dalit protests has been in the news quite frequently. Also, there have been several incidents of lynching, in which Dalits have been at the receiving end, in recent times which is indicative of fault lines in our society. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The first part of the question is quite straightforward in its demand. The second part expects us to mention the judgment in Kashinath Mahajan case. The question is asking us to examine whether the judgment indicates a death knell for PoA Act. You can either agree or disagree with this statement giving reasons and mention the impact of the judgment.

Directive word

Discuss – Mention the various forms of violence faced by Dalits in Indian society

Examine – Give reasons for why or why not the judgment marks a death knell for the SC/ST (PoA) Act. Also mention what the likely impact of the judgment is going to be.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the judgment first and mention that it has led to widespread debate.

Body

  • Explain the various forms of violence against Dalits including the more recent additions like cow vigilantism, honour killing, Khap panchayats etc. Also mention discrimination in universities, jobs etc which fall under mental violence.
  • Give the constitutional provisions related to protection of Dalits which necessitated presence of an Act like PoA. Give your view on the debate of misuse of the Act vs need for a legislation to accord protection to Dalits. Examine the merits of SC making such a major change, which ideally should have been the role of Parliament etc.
  • Discuss what the likely impact of the judgment will be

Conclusion – Mention your view along with reasons and discuss how can we resolve this.


Topic– Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

2) “Swadeshi is that spirit in us which restricts us to the use and service of our immediate surroundings to the exclusion of the more remote.”Comment.(250 words) 

Third class in Indian railways
By Mahatma Gandhi

Reference

Why this question

Swadeshi movement and thought forms an integral and a pivotal component of India’s struggle for independence against the British. The term swadeshi has two components- self discovery, self sufficiency and resistance to foreign domination. It is important to discuss both these aspects.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out the meaning of the term swadeshi as understood and explained by Gandhi Ji. The question basically wants us to bring out the essence of swadeshi not only as a tool of non-cooperation but also as a tool to self discovery and development based on indigenous values.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon. We have to support our opinion with substantial, valid and proper arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Write a few lines about the significance of swadeshi movement in India’s struggle for independence.

Body-

  • Discuss the meaning of Swadeshi as understood and explained by Gandhi Ji. E.g for religion, in order to satisfy the requirements of the definition, one must restrict myself to his ancestral religion. That is the use of his immediate religious surrounding. If he finds it defective, he should serve it by purging it of its defects. In the domain of politics he should make use of the indigenous institutions and serve them by curing them of their proved defects. In that of economics he should use only things that are produced by his immediate neighbours and serve those industries by making them efficient and complete where they might be found wanting.
  • DIscuss the other aspect of swadeshi movement as a tool to challenge British supremacy in India. Discuss about the salient aspects of swadeshi and boycott movement which testify the same. E.g picketing of shops; establishment of national institutions to counter British policies and designs etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

3) In light of the recent report of Standing Committee on Rural Development, critically analyze the performance of Swachh Bharat Mission?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article highlights the findings of the report of Standing committee which discusses some key issues with SBM. This is in contrast to the picture painted by Economic Survey this year. The Report is important for updating your notes on SBM.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss various aspects of SBM and highlight the pros and cons in terms of achievement. Our view on whether SBM has achieved its objectives needs to be provided at the end.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. You need to conclude with  a fair judgement, after analyzing the nature of each component part and interrelationship between them.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention details about SBM.

Body

  • Discuss the mission, vision and strategy to achieve vision of SBM
  • Discuss how SBM has indeed managed to make a dent. Highlight the findings of the Economic Survey 2017-18 – Open Defecation In Rural Areas Down 45%, established link between sanitation and economic performance, 296 districts and 3,07,349 villages across India have been declared as Open Defecation Free etc
  • Thereafter, discuss the findings of the Report. Analyse the issues related to investment in behavioural change, quality of new toilets constructed, availability of water etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view on the status of achievement of SBM and discuss the way forward.

 


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “ Separation of power and Indian political system”

4) Discuss whether separation of power in India, as provided by Indian constitution, is rigorous and whether it is more separation of functions rather than separation of power?(250 words) 

 

Key demand of the question

By rigorous separation of power, we mean that whether each wing of government ie executive, legislature, and judiciary function in silos or whether there are linkages between their functioning. By separation of function rather than of power, we mean the linkage between the executive and legislative where the minister derive their legitimacy from legislature. The question expects us to discuss these issues.

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion, you need to explain what it meant by rigorous separation of power and separation of function rather than power. keeping  the constitution and political system of India in mind we need to provide answers to the nature of SoP in India in theory and in practice.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is the meaning of separation of power, rigorous SoP and separation of function.

Body – Discuss the nature of SoP in India. In the first part, discuss the checks and balances in practice and in theory which ensure that the three wings do not work in silos. Thus the nature of SoP in India is not rigorous. in the second part, discuss the judgment of SC in Ram Jawaya Case and mention that the executive derives its legitimacy from Parliament and are a part of Parliament. this it is more like separation of function.

Conclusion – Summarize your answer based on arguments provided above.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic –   Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

5) The internet and social media platforms pose an impossible challenge for government and civil society. Critically analyze.(250 words) 

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Why this question

Internet and social media are playing an increasingly broader and important role in our lives. It is pertinent to understand whether they can be regulated in order to control their negative implications for the society.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the challenges posed by internet and social media and discuss why it is impossible to overcome them in the near future.

We have to form an opinion on the issue in consonance with our line of discussion after analyzing all the related aspects.

Directive word

Critically analyze- Here we have to dig deep into the issue and discuss all the relevant aspects- whether there is a need to regulate internet and social media under the present circumstances; why/ why not; if yes, then what are the difficulties involved therein

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention a few incidences which bring out the need to regulate/manage internet. E.g Facebook controversy, Google controversy, NEET data leaks etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the challenges posed by internet and social media to the government and the society. E.g terrorism, fake news, rumours triggering lynchings and riots, data snooping etc.
  • Discuss why it is difficult to overcome those challenges. E.g platform vs medium vs content; discuss why it is difficult to control any of them E.g huge and expanding no. of users; huge volume of traffic; needs of legitimate businesses and activities which disprove control of medium through frequent internet shutdowns, increased use of IT tools in all spheres of activity including governance; AI is still in nascent stages and it will take at least a decade to develop such AI which can automatically weed out harmful and unwanted content etc.

Conclusion– discuss what should the government do in such situation.

 


Topic-  Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

6) For gaining real acquisition of technology, a purposive policy intervention is required through regulatory supervision of costs and conditions negotiated in technology collaboration agreements. Discuss. (250 words)

epw

Why this question

Technology transfer has been one of the top priorities for foreign collaboration and for attracting foreign investment in the country. However, it has not been realized to the desired levels on account of various reasons, which need to be studied and discussed upon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the problems in technology transfer as faced by India under its industrial policies. It also wants us to bring out how regulatory supervision of costs and conditions negotiated in technology collaboration agreements can help India in enhancing technology transfer.

Directive word

Discuss- This s an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. We also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– mention the key aims of India’s industrial policy- attracting foreign investment; job creation; promotion of foreign technology transfer etc. Write in 1-2 lines that with regard to the technology transfer process via the FDI route, t the benefits of retaining investments and accessing technology have not been harnessed to the extent possible.

Body-

  • Discuss why true technology acquisition/ transfer has not been realized up to the required extent. E.g slow technology adoption capacities of the Indian economy and the absence of an appropriate model of technology transfer; the terms settled for technology imports are sometimes excessive or unfair and the pricing onerous due to unequal bargaining power existing between the two contracting parties- foreign vs domestic player; the supplier  ensures a continued control over technology by including restrictive conditions designed particularly to this effect in the contract; clauses related to “non-transferability,” “non-exclusivity,” “strict confidentiality,” and “stringent termination” requirements; excessively high cost of technology, old technology being transferred etc.
  • Discuss why a a purposive policy intervention is required through regulatory supervision of costs and conditions negotiated in technology collaboration agreements. E.g need for for a skilled negotiation policy before the entry of foreign investment. A structured policy for obtaining utmost gains from its ensuing operations in later years is required from the technology transfer perspective; Suggest some points on your own.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions

7) Discuss the ethics of weaponized AI and suggest what should be done in this regard?(250 words)

Reference

hindustantimes

Why this question

Drone strikes, while they are increasing in number, pose a huge question over the ethics of such strikes. Weaponized AI is behind such drone strikes and signature strikes and the ethics of making decisions which impact human life to the extent of taking it away needs to be discussed.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to analyze the utility of having weaponized AI. Thereafter, we need to discuss the ethical ramifications of using AI for signature strikes etc. We need to discuss on how can we reconcile realism with ethics. Finally, a fair and balanced view on the issue needs to be provided.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is means by weaponized AI

Body

  • Discuss why is it finding favour with countries – discuss the utility, and necessity of such technology
  • Thereafter, point out that despite its utility it raises several ethical challenges as mentioned in the articles.
  • Discuss how can we reconcile the ethics of weaponized AI with its utility. Discuss the need for a legal architecture, and greater transparency in action along with reforms in global governance architecture such as UN

Conclusion – Give your view and emphasize on the need for bringing a change in status quo in light of the huge collateral damage.

 


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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