Topic– Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
3) A recent Brookings study claims that India no longer houses the largest number of poor. The credit goes to the efforts of successive governments in rolling out poverty alleviation schemes. Discuss the evolution of poverty alleviation schemes in India?(250 words)
Why this question
The findings of the Brookings report is a good opportunity to discuss how the poverty alleviation programmes have evolved in their design and implementation over time. The article discusses the evolution of schemes and highlights that over time incremental improvements have indeed been made. Poverty is an important topic from mains perspective and hence this topic is important.
Key demand of the question
The question expects us to chart a journey of how the poverty alleviation programmes have evolved over time in their design, focus , implementation etc.
Discuss – Here your answer should explain what steps were taken in distinct phases, their rationale and discuss the impact.
Structure of the answer
Introduction – Give details of the Brookings report and the status of poverty in India.
- Explain that since independence there has been sustained focus on eliminating poverty. In recent years, India is a party to SDG under which one of the target is ending poverty and hence several steps are being taken
- Explain the various phases
- Phase 1 : agriculture as the prime moving force in 1st and 2nd plan and agricultural revolution thereafter
- Phase 2: 3rd FYP onwards, explicit commitment to ending poverty. Food for work, Rural Landless employment guarantee programme
- Phase 3 – NREGA, National Food Security Act,
- Others including those affecting food and nutrition, infrastructure creation, pensions etc
- Examine the impact of these schemes too
- Mention that most poverty alleviation programmes implemented are based on the perspective of the Five Year Plans were based on expanding self employment programmes and wage employment programmes. Mention that attempts have also been made to target farm sector specifically by providing them with infrastructure, insurance etc to improve their financial conditions
Conclusion – Highlight the common threat that binds them and the way forward to put ourselves in “No Extreme poverty” grouping.