[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 JULY 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 JULY 2018

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

REVISION TIMETABLE FOR PRELIMS – 2018 

Revision Tests


General Studies – 1


Topic –  Part of static series under the heading “Clemency powers”

1)Explain the clemency powers of the president under article 72? Discuss the clarifications given by Supreme Court regarding the clemency powers of the president?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the content of Article 72. Thereafter we have to detail the various judgments of SC which have given several clarifications, guidelines and check on the power of president under Article 72.

Directive word

Explain – Clemency power of the president under art 72 has to be explained.

Discuss – Here the discussion should revolve around the rulings of SC related to clemency powers.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention the constitution under article 73 provides clemency powers.

Body

  • Explain what clemency powers under article 72 entail
  • Reprieve
  • Respite
  • Commute
  • Remission
  • Pardon
  • Discuss the main points of the SC judgment in cases like Kehar Singh, Mani Ram cases where the SC has mentioned that this power is liable to be judicially reviewed if exercised in an unfair, whimsical, arbitrary manner. The court has also given several guidelines on what should the scope of president’s power be.
  • Discuss certain cases such as Shatrughan Chauhan, 2014 where the SC has commented upon the pardoning power of the president in case of death penalty

Conclusion – Mention why such a power has been given and the need to exercise it judiciously and neutrally.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive

2)If India is to achieve its status as a great power, it is absolutely essential that police is restructured and modernised. In this context, discuss the status of police reforms in the country?(250 words)

Indian express

 

Why this question

The article rues the lack of police reforms undertaken despite several directions and guidelines by SC, including the most recent guideline regarding appointment of DGP. The article brings the focus on police reforms, the need of it, the direction it should take and how to go about it.

Key demand of the question

The question demand us to explain the need for police reforms in India as the statement in the first line points to that. Thereafter, we need to bring out the steps that have been proposed by several committees and courts regarding police reforms. We need to finally give a way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – The discussion here has to focus on the reports of committees and supreme court guidelines and judgments regarding police reforms and assess why they have not been implemented either in spirit or form.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Begin with mentioning that police in India is still governed by archaic laws formulated pre independence and that police reforms have not been taken up so far.

Body – Explain why police reforms are necessary for India. Thereafter, bring out the contents of the report of Niti Ayog, Justice Verma committee, Justice Thomas committee, SC ruling in Prakash Singh case 2006 etc which have mentioned the need for police reforms and have also laid down the structure that such a reform must take. Examine the current guidelines of SC regarding appointment of DGP and how they seek to correct a systemic malaise in police structure and functioning. Examine the nature and feature of police reforms that the country requires.

Conclusion – Mention that India should consider reviewing the structure and functioning of police in line with the recommendations discussed above.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

3) The latest employment estimates of CSO are not credible enough given the paradoxes it creates. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Employment is a critical issue in Indian economy. The recent CSO estimates suggesting a huge growth in employment has been criticized for its inconsistent methods and paradoxical association with other indicators in the economy. The issue is related to GS- 3 syllabus under the following heading –

Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the current macroeconomic scenario of the country and bring out how the CSO estimates are not credible and what paradoxes they create.

Directive word

Examine- here we have to dig deep into the issue and find out the causes of the situation- lack of credibility on part of CSO estimates and paradoxes created by it.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – mention the recent CSO report titled “Payroll Reporting in India: An Employment Perspective and its employment generation findings.

Body-

  • Discuss the reasons as to why the credibility of the report stands questioned. E.g only formal sector is covered, it defines jobs as ones that provide at least one government financed (or mandated) social security benefit such as Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF), National Pension Scheme, or Employees’ State Insurance Scheme; the records used for estimation are such that their completeness, consistency and accuracy are unknown; doubling of participation not considered etc.
  • Discuss the other paradoxes it creates. Household surveys carried by Labour Bureau show a decline in worker-population ratio between 2013-14 and 2015-16, suggesting a deteriorating employment situation; growth rates reported  by ndex of Industrial Production (IIP), and the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) are consistently lower than those reported by GDP in manufacturing, suggesting an overestimation of manufacturing value added in the NAS. Demonetisation and the Goods and Services Tax (GST) seem to have dented informal sector production and employment, which official data sources seem in no position to capture etc.

Conclusion– discuss in 2-3 lines the need for consistent, transparent, inclusive and objective analysis of the macroeconomic parameters affecting employment in order to arrive at a correct estimate of employment generation in India.

 

 


Topic – Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

4)The National Policy on Biofuels 2018 repeats the pattern of promising the moon and delivering little. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

Use of fossil fuels not only imposes higher tax liabilities on the masses but is also responsible for the environmental pollution and GHG emissions. Given the imperative to decrease use of fossil fuels and protect the environment and public health, the government has formulated the Biofuel policy and has also taken various other initiatives to increase the use of biofuels. However the progress has not been satisfactory. The issue is related to GS- 3 syllabus under the following heading-

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and present an opinion thereon. We have to back our opinion with relevant and forceful arguments/ facts etc.

Directive word

Comment- we have to express our knowledge on the issue – initiatives of the government and objectives of the Biofuel policy, 2018 and how far has been the progress in this direction.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – mention the WHO report indicating the gravity of air pollution in Indian cities. Discuss in 1-2 lines the need for increased use of biofuels.

Body-

  • Discuss the initiatives/ policies/ programmes of the government aimed at increasing the use of biofuels. E.g Ethanol Blending Programme and its revision of targets from 5-10%; National Biodiesel mission and its targets etc. Discuss in a few lines that these were never met and missed by huge margins.
  • Discuss the strategy of National Biofuel Policy and how they are unrealistic. E.g stress on 2G biofuels with lack of requisite infrastructure, delay in setting up bio refineries: no plans for mandatory blending norma for all states etc

Conclusion– mention in 1-2 lines the advantages of biofuels – prevention of air pollution, less BTX release, saving of foreign exchange etc and suggest the way forward.

 


Topic – Conservation

5)What is biopiracy? Discuss the merits of proposed changes to Nagoya Protocol in tackling biopiracy?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Nagoya Protocol is the landmark agreement which seeks to protect the biological diversity of the nation. The reforms being discussed here are significant, particularly for India which merits a detailed analysis.

Key demand of the question

The question first requires us to explain what biopiracy is. Thereafter, we need to discuss the proposed changes and debate it’s intent and design as to whether it can curb biopiracy.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention details about Nagoya Protocol and how important it is for India.

Body – Explain biopiracy. discuss the proposed changes and highlight how they seek to curb biopiracy. Examine the merits and demerits of the move and the impact it would have on India. Bring out both aspects of the debate – how the system of taking permission would help natives to protect their traditional knowledge etc from being exploited by unscrupulous corporate houses vs the increased red tapism which would curb research and innovation.

Conclusion – Give your view on the merits of the proposed changes and the impact it would have on India.


General Studies – 4


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

6) What do you understand by ethical hacking. Discuss the issues underlying ethical hacking.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question

The question aims to test the ability of the student to analyze the given concept or problem and identify and deliberate upon the issues involved therein. The issue is related to GS- 4 syllabus under the following heading –

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to define the term ethical hacking. It also wants us to write in detail about various issues involved in ethical hacking from the social/ ethics point of view.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive which directs us to write at length about the meaning of the term, ethical hacking and issues involved in such an act.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write  a few lines about the meaning of ethical hacking and where it is largely used.

Body

Discuss in points various issues underlying ethical hacking. Be as exhaustive as possible but give priority to the ethical- social and then legal issues if any.

E.g teaching a person to penetrate a system without ensuring that the person may misuse that knowledge. Is it wrong or right?; probability of an insider attack and wrong sense of safety in case of a wrong report from an ethical hacker- compromising the security of the associated persons; invasion of user privacy etc.

Conclusion– mention the benefits of ethical hacking for companies and for general public and based on your convictions and according to the discussion held above, form a fair and a balanced opinion on the issue.

 


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 

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