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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 JULY 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 JULY 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic – Indian Art and culture

1)Sant Kabir’s teachings are inspired by several religion reflecting the overall philosophy of Bhakti Movement. Examine. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article rues the lack of commemoration of 500th death anniversary of Sant Kabir and examines the impact he has had on Indian society through Bhakti movement. Hence it is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question asks us to discuss the influences on Sant Kabir, how it reflected in his teachings. We also need to explain how Kabir’s teachings and the influences on him is in sync with the overall philosophy of Bhakti Movement.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief biography of Sant Kabir that Kabir was the most celebrated of Ramananda’s disciples and the most liberal among medieval Indian reformers.

Body – Discuss the influences on his teachings as discussed in the article. Discuss how these influences reflected in his teachings such as the fact that he considered all religions as one and same and aimed at bringing about harmony among all communities etc. Discuss how it was in sync with the philosophy of Bhakti movement as Bhakti followers did not owe allegiance to any specific religion, did not adhere to rituals, customs, Sastric dictates and strongly opposed caste division and idol worship.

Conclusion – Mention that Kabir influenced indian society back then and his teachings are mug required in the current climate.

 

 

 

Background:-

  • Kabir is one of the India’s most revered 15th century mystic poets, His sayings not only influenced people’s way of life but also contributed largely towards “Bhakti movement”.
  • As a poet, Kabir transcended many of the divisions that existed in India. Although he was drawn deeply into spiritual life, he openly criticized all sects and gave a new direction to the Indian philosophy, with his straight forward approach on various aspects of human existence. It is for this reason that Kabir is held in high esteem all over the world. 

Sant Kabir’s teachings are inspired by several religions:-

  • His teachings were distinguished theologically by inward loving devotion to a divine principle, and socially by an egalitarianism opposed to the qualitative distinctions of the Hindu caste hierarchy and to the religious differences between Hindu and Muslim.
  • Kabir was influenced by prevailing religious mood such as old Brahmanic Hinduism, Hindu and Buddhist Tantrism, teachings of Nath yogis and the personal devotinalism from South India mixed with imageless God of Islam. The influence of these various doctrines is clearly evident in Kabir’s verses.
  • It is Kabir’s view that salvation is the process of bringing into union these two divine principles. The social and practical manifestation of Kabir’s philosophy has rung through the ages. It represented a synthesis of Hindu, and Muslim concepts.
    • From Hinduism he accepts the concept of reincarnation and the law of Karma. From Islam he takes the outer practices of Indian Sufi ascetics and Sufi mysticism.
  • Bhakti movement influence:-
    • Bhakti movement poets played an important role in laying the foundation for a reconfiguration of society on more equitable lines. Kabir upturned the religious notions and social conventions of his time.
    • His teachings were in sync with the principles of bhakti movement where more focus was on equality of castes, preached the path of devotion and discarded all rituals , chose the path of love and devotion etc.
    • Kabir preached a monotheism that appealed directly to the poor and assured them of their access to god without an intermediary. He rejected both Hinduism and Islam, as well as empty religious rituals, and denounced hypocrisy.
    • The Bhakti movement promoted the growth of vernacular language and literature in different parts of the country. Kabir Nanak and Chaitanya preached in their respective vernacular tongues like Kabir in Hindi, Nanak in Gurmukhi and chaitanya in Bengali. So subsequent Bhakti literatures were compiled in these languages.
  • Christianity:
    • Nineteenth century missionaries noted the similarity of his thoughts to Christianity, speculating that he must have composed his poems under Christian influence. 
  • Other religions:-
    • His indebtedness to Buddhist Siddhas has been a subject of scholarship in the last century.
    • Jain poets emulated his style, so much so that the 17th century Anandghan was dubbed as the “Jain Kabir”.
    • As far as Parsis are concerned, one of the earliest non-Hindi mentions of Kabir comes from the Dabistan-i Mazahibcomposed by a neo-Zoroastrian (around 1653).
    • His verses are found in Sikhism’s scripture Guru Granth Sahib

Conclusion:-

  • Not only has Kabir influenced Muslims and Hindus but he is one of the major inspirations behind Sikhism as well. 
  • He can be celebrated as Dalit hero or as a Brahmin. Kabir and the Kabir Panth are accepted as a part of Hinduism. He is one of the Bhagats of the Sikhs and a large corpus of his poems is included in the Guru Granth Sahib. His presence in Indian Islamic thought, Qawwali singing and architecture has also been well documented. His rauza in Maghar (Uttar Pradesh) is a part of the architectural heritage of the country.

 

Topic – Part of static series under the heading “Ordinance making power”

2) Ordinance making power is to be used as a last resort, however in reality it is not so. Discuss the safeguards that are designed to prevent misuse of ordinance making power?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the reason why our constitution makers granted ordinance making power and how are they being misused. Thereafter, we need to discuss the constitutional and judicial safeguards related to exercise of ordinance making power.

Directive word

Discuss – Here the discussion relating to safeguards also need to mention how effective they have been.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain ordinance making power and highlight some recent ordinances issued which caused controversy – Criminal Laws (Rajasthan Amendment) Bill etc.

Body – Discuss the reason why constitution makers granted this power, and how it has been misused. Discuss the constitutional safeguards like – ordinance to be tabled before parliament etc. Discuss the legal safeguards as given in DC Wadhwa case etc. Examine how successful these safeguards have been.

Conclusion – Mention the need for careful utilisation of ordinance making power.

Background:-

  • The power to make laws in most modern societies lies in democratic institutions.
  • Under the Constitution of India as well, this power is entrusted with the legislature. However, Article 123 of the Constitution allows the head of executive to promulgate ordinances to deal with situations which require immediate attention. 

Ordinance making power:-

  • The President has the power to issue ordinances under Article 123of the Constitution.
  • Ordinances are temporary laws which can be issued by the President when Parliament is not in session. Ordinances are issued by the President based on the advice of the Union Cabinet. The purpose of Ordinances is to allow governments to take immediate legislative action if circumstances make it necessary to do so at a time when Parliament is not in session.
  • The idea intended by the Constituent Assembly when the provision for ordinances was included in the Constitution was that this power is necessary when immediate action was needed. Also it meant that the powers are extraordinary so they are not to be employed in normal times.
  • The Governor of a state can issue Ordinances under Article 213, when the state legislative assembly or either of the two Houses in states with bicameral legislatures is not in session.
  • Governments also take the Ordinance route to address matters of public concern as was the case with the Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance, 2013, which was issued in response to the protests surrounding the Delhi gang rape incident.

Misuse of ordinance making in India:-

  • Ordinances appear to be a loophole that the ruling Governments have found to push laws without bringing much attention or spending time in Parliament.
  • In reality, many times ordinances are issued by the government for lack of consensus in Parliament. If there is a possibility of a bill not being passed in the current session of Parliament, government can take the ordinance route pending its approval by the Parliament during a later session.
    • For instance, the recently enacted ordinance on altering the Land Reforms Act to make it easier to acquire land by the government for public purposes was promulgated fearing uncertainty over passage of the bill in Rajya Sabha where the present government is not in a majority,
    • The governments are using its ordinance-making power as virtually an alternative tool of legislation. 
  • Ordinances are used by governments to pass legislation which is currently pending in Parliament, as was the case with the Food Security Ordinance.
  • Repromulgation:-
    • The Securities Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2014 was recently repromulgated for the third time during the term of the 15thLok Sabha.
    • Repromulgation of Ordinances raises questions about the legislative authority of the Parliament as the highest law making body.
    • Exercise of repeated re-promulgation of ordinances by Article 123 is a subversion and perversion of Article 123 itself. 

 

Safeguards designed to prevent misuse of ordinance making power:-

  • Parliament:-
    • Ordinances must be approved by Parliament within six weeks of reassembling or they shall cease to operate. They also cease to operate in case resolutions disapproving the Ordinance are passed by both Houses.
  • Governor:-
  • However, the Governor cannot issue an Ordinance without instructions from the President in three cases where the assent of the President would have been required to pass a similar Bill.
  • An ordinance would be made open to challenge on the following grounds:-
    • It constitutes colorable legislation or
    • It contravenes any of the Fundamental Rights as mentioned in our Constitution or
    • It is violative of substantive provisions of Constitution such as an Article 301 or
    • Its retrospectively is unconstitutional.
  • Repromulgation and SC:-
    • There is no limit on how many times an ordinance can be re-issued but as per ruling of the Supreme Court, it cannot be re-promulgated endlessly without getting it to vote in the Parliament or Legislature.
    • The Supreme Court addressed it in  C. Wadhwa v. State of Bihar (1986), when it held that it is unconstitutional to repromulgate ordinances, unless in exceptional circumstances.
  • Judicial review:-
    • The power of judicial review of ordinances was discussed in year 1998 in the case of Krishna Kumar Singh v State of Bihar
    • In this case the Supreme Court struck down many number of ordinances stating that no particular basis for the exercise of the Ordinance making power of the President had been shown.
    • It also stated: “There was also no explanation offered for promulgating one ordinance upon another”.

Constraints with safeguards:-

  • Judiciary:-
    • While the ordinance is amenable to judicial scrutiny, the court would not look into the preconditions of necessity. Moreover, even the concept of mala fide would not apply as legislative intentions are out of judicial reach. Further, it is for the petitioner to prove that necessary circumstances could not have existed.
  • Ordinances can go without adequate legislative review for more than half a year at a time:-
    • And even if the ordinance lapses or is repealed by the Legislative Assembly, the ordinance would not be void ab initio. Any legal effect caused by the ordinance in that period would continue to exist. Thus, even if the democratic institutions are to approve or disapprove of the acts later, the fact is that the undemocratic laws can affect the nature of the Indian State quite drastically.

Reforms needed:-

  • The time period for which the ordinance is to be in force needs to be reduced drastically, to a few weeks at most. This is because if there is a situation which requires immediate attention, then the legislature needs to be summoned as soon as possible to deal with it.
  • Ordinances should only be used as a temporary measure till the legislature assembles for the emergency meeting.
    • Further, provisions must be included to the effect that necessity of action or urgency to promulgate action needs to be proved by the executive. Ordinances should only be used for situations of utmost emergency, and having a provision which requires material to be shown to ensure that necessary conditions exist is necessary to balance the provision with at least some responsibility added to the executive.
    • Another provision that could be included to ensure that ordinances are promulgated only in situations of urgency is to include a restriction which says that ordinances can only be issued when emergency has been proclaimed by the President. This would again make sure that ordinances are not issued unnecessarily when a democratic procedure could be followed.

Conclusion:-

  • Ultimately, the aim should be to reduce the undemocratic elements to a minimum (or, if possible, completely eliminate it), and where in the Constitution it still remains, high requirements be imposed for its usage.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

3) Discuss the impact of the recent SC ruling, on the Delhi-Centre relationship. (250 words)

Timesofindia

 

Why this question

After a protracted and ugly tussle between the centre and the NCT of India, the SC has finally given its decision regarding the distribution of powers between the centre and Delhi.

The issue is related to GS-2 syllabus under the following heading

Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the legal provisions governing the Delhi-Centre relationship, how they have been interpreted by the SC in its recent judgement and its effect on the hitherto relation between the two.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which directs us to write in detail about the key demand of the question- how the SC judgement affects the Delhi-Centre relationship.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Write in 2-3 lines about the legal and constitutional provisions governing the Delhi-centre relationship- article 239 ,239AA; 69th amendment etc.

Body-

  • Discuss the SC judgement in detail. E.g LG has no independent decision-making power, LG and the CM are constitutional functionaries and must work harmoniously; law and order, land and not under the domain of NCT; LG must be informed but cannot stall all the decisions of council of ministers etc.
  • Discuss the implications of the decision on the relationship. E.g no more conflict; clear demarcation of powers of the LG etc.

Conclusion- Form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue based on your discussion.

Background:-

  • The 69th constitutional amendment designated Delhi as National Capital Territory of Delhi and provided Legislative Assembly. However it was not conferred with full statehood and is administered by union government through Lieutenant Governor.
  • 69th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1991 provided special status for Delhi by incorporating article 239 AA and 239 AB by providing for legislative assembly and Council of Ministers. 

SC ruling:-

  • According to recent supreme court judgment Delhi government has power in all areas except land, police and public order and the LG is bound by the aid and advice of the government in areas other than those exempted.
  • Supreme court laid down the principles:-
    • The Legislative Assembly of NCT Delhi is competent to enact laws on all subjects in the State and Concurrent Lists, except public order, police, and land, as per Article 239AA(3)(a)
    • The Government of NCT Delhi (GNCTD) enjoys executive powers over all matters over which the Delhi Legislative Assembly can legislate
    • The Lieutenant Governor (L-G) is bound by the aid and advice of GNCTD as per Article 239AA(4)
    • The LG may only in exceptional cases refer a matter over which he/she and the GNCTD have a “difference of opinion”, to the President, for a binding decision.
    • Both LG and CM are constitutional functionaries and must work harmoniously with mutual respect .
    • All decisions by Delhi’s council of ministers, who are elected representatives, must be communicated to the L-G but that does not mean his concurrence is required.

Impact of Delhi centre relationship:-

  • This path-breaking judgment will have major implications for the government-L-G ties in all Union Territories. The impasse in Puducherry can also be tackled with this judgment.
  • The undergoing crisis gets clarity:-
    • Current crisis is rooted in the understanding (or misunderstanding) of the constitutional limits of the powers of the elected government in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. 
    • The tussle between the Delhi Chief Minister and Lieutenant Governor raises several constitutional and legal issues on the scope and extent of their powers in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi.
  • Future conflicts can be avoided due to this decision.
  • This brings the end to the tussle between centre and Delhi when different parties are ruling parties as clear rules are demarcated.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Government Budgeting

4) Discuss how MEIS aims to incentivize exports from India, and increase the employment opportunities.(250 words)

Reference

pib

The hindu

Why this question

MEIS and SEIS are one of the key schemes under Foreign Trade Policy (2015-20) of India. Under MEIS various benefits are provided to merchandise exports from India. The issue is related to GS-3  syllabus under the following heading-

Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Government Budgeting.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the MEIS, its salient features and how it will help in creating employment opportunities in India.

Directive word

Discuss- This is an all-encompassing directive which directs us to write in detail about the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the FTP of India and mention MEIS along with SEIS and other export promotion schemes.

Body

  • Discuss the salient features/provisions of MEIS. e.g notified products to notified countries; brand specific rate vs industry based rate; 2-5 % of value of exports; freely transferable duty free scrips etc.
  • Discuss how it will help in generating employment. E.g special provision for sending items less than 25000 Rs value through courier, which will  help small businesses, role of e-commerce in the MEIS, more foreign exchange, benefit to manpower intensive industries etc.

Conclusion– Form   a fair and a balanced conclusion on the overall issue.

 

Background :-

  • Garment exports received 4% MEIS benefit from November 1 last year and it was then said that the scheme would be valid till June 2018.
  • The Director General of Foreign Trade has said that the rates enhanced under the Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS), a scheme to promote exports.

MEIS and benefits:-

  • MEIS was launched under Foreign Trade Policy of India (FTP) 2015-20. It is one of the two schemes introduced in FP 2015-20, as part of Exports from India Scheme.
  • Objective of MEIS is to offset infrastructural inefficiencies and associated costs involved in export of goods and products, which are produced and manufactured in India.
  • It also seeks to enhance India’s export competitiveness of these goods and products having high export intensity, employment potential.
  • Under this scheme, Ministry of Commerce gives duty benefits to several products.
  • All the 5 different schemes of earlier FTP for rewarding merchandise exports which had varying conditions attached to their use:-
    • They have been merged into a single scheme, namely Merchandise Export from India Scheme (MEIS) and there would be no conditionality attached to the scrips issued under the scheme. Notified goods exported to notified markets would be rewarded on realised FOB value of exports.
  • MEIS incentive Rates :
    • Rewards under MEIS are payable as a percentage ( 2, 3 or 5% ) of realized FOB value of covered exports, by way of the MEIS duty credit scrip.
    • It provides duty benefits at 2%, 3% and 5% depending upon the product and the country.
    • The scrip can be transferred or used for payment of a number of duties/taxes including the customs / excise duty / service tax.
    • Scrips and inputs imported under the scrips are fully transferable. This has provided much flexibility to exporters. Earlier schemes had many conditions attached with the scrips about their usage and importability of item
  • Special treatment to reduce transaction costs:-
    • Status holders, those who have contributed to trade, will get special treatment to reduce their transaction costs.
  • Boost to Make in India
    • Higher level of rewards under MEIS export with high domestic content and value addition.
      • It is proposed to give higher level of rewards to products with high domestic content and value addition, as compared to products with high import content and less value addition.
    • Export of defence goods:-
      • Measures to facilitate & encourage export of defence good
    • E-Commerce Exports:-
      • Benefits of foreign trade policy to export of items up to Rs 25,000 per consignment
      • Benefit available to handloom products, books / periodicals, leather footwear, toys and customized fashion garments
    • New initiatives for EOUs, EHTPs and STPs
      • They can share infrastructure & inter-unit transfer of goods allowed
    • SEZ units will be entitled to the benefits of MEIS
    • Helps in more foreign exchange and brings benefit to manpower intensive industries.
    • Export incentives:-
      • Under Merchandise Exports from India (MEIS) have been increased by 2 percent across the board for labour intensive MSME sectors leading to additional annual incentive of Rs. 4,567 crore.
      • This is in addition to the already announced  increase in MEIS incentives from 2 percent to 4 percent for Ready-made Garments and Made Ups in the labour intensive Textiles Sector with an additional annual incentive of Rs. 2,743 crore 
      • Continuing the scheme would give confidence to garment exporters to book orders.
      • The incentives available under this scheme  will incentivise the exports of labour intensive sectors of readymade garments and made ups and contribute to employment generation.
    • International markets:-
      • The reward/incentives provided by the Government makes the exporters competitive in the international market including Europe, The United States of America and Africa.  These three markets are covered under the scheme for all notified 5012 tariff lines.
    • Sectors benefitted:-
      • The increase in the MEIS rates for labour-intensive sectors, such as leather, handicraft, carpets, tools, marine, medical and scientific products and services, such as accountancy, architecture, legal, education, hotel and restaurant, will provide much-needed respite to these sectors, which are facing huge competitiveness from other countries.
    • Improve the ease of doing business in India
    • Women centric products are also supported under this scheme:-
      • Sectors that have a significant proportion of female employment (more than 25%) like Agricultural and animal husbandry etc.

Issues:-

  • Biggest challenge, however, is to address constraints within the country, such as infrastructure bottlenecks, high transaction costs, complex procedures, constraints in manufacturing and inadequate diversification in our services.
  • Reduction in duty drawback is making it difficult to make apparel exports competitive, and there is always a fear of losing business to countries like Vietnam or Pakistan,

Way forward:-

  • A strong case for the government to invest in trade-related infrastructure and trade facilitation measures, which can deliver tangible results on the export front.
  • Larger issues like infrastructure inadequacy, logistics, and skilling need to be addressed.

Topic – Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

5)Examine the relevance  of Suchitwa Sagaram, or ‘Clean Sea’ Campaign in tackling plastic wastes in India?(250 words)

Financial express

 

Why this question

The article talks about a novel approach to tackling plastic waste which will serve as a lucrative (from marks perspective) filler for questions related to plastic waste. Also the application discussed above can be implemented across India.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to describe what the mentioned campaign is about and how the usage of plastic waste as road construction material has several advantages.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention the dream of making India plastic free by 2022.

Body – Give details of the campaign as mentioned in the article. Discuss the advantages of using plastic waste as a construction material. Bring out the impact which implementation of such a measure will have on tackling the problem of plastic waste in the country. here you can give figures on the quantity of waste generated and the absolutely lackadaisical approach towards waste management.

Conclusion – Mention how the implementation of this step will help deal with this issue in India

Background:-

  • Indian government announced that it will eliminate all single-use plastic items like carry bags, straws and water bottles among others from the country by 2022.
  • Recently Kerala came with the campaign of clean sea where the state is now using its fishermen to harvest plastic waste from the ocean that is used subsequently in laying roads.

Clean sea campaign:-

  • Recycling as well:-
    • This campaign educates fishermen about a sustainable disposal mechanism for plastic waste. Once harvested from the sea, the plastic material is shredded by a plastic-shredding machine. The material is then used as an asphalt substitute/supplement in road surfacing.
  • The initiative currently engages five trawlers and 28 people from the local fishing community all but two of whom are women.
  • So far, 10 tonnes of plastic bags and plastic bottles and 15 tonnes of discarded nets, plastic ropes and other items from the sea have been removed.

Relevance of this campaign:-

  • Water pollution is as common as any other form of pollution and plastic is one of the most repugnant threats that have put our planet at risk.
    • It creates not just soil pollution, but are equally harmful for marine and aquatic lives.
  • Usage in India:-
    • India is one of the biggest consumers of plastic and subsequently the generator of a large chunk of plastic waste globally. The annual average per capita consumption of plastic in India is at 11 kg as against global average of 28 kg. 
    • According to Plastic Infrastructure Report, 2017, India consumes close to 12.8 million tonnes of plastic per annum, of which, close to 5 million tonnes is rendered as waste every year.
  • Plastic in oceans and forests are choking flora and fauna. In fact, plastic trash is expected to exceed the fish population in 2050.
  • Fish are known to ingest microscopic plastic waste, that in turn affect humans who consume those fish. 
  • Microplastics has ability to enter food chain with the highest concentration of the pollutants
  • Failure of legal aspects:-
    • The Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016, mandate ULBs to set up facilities for processing sorted dry waste. However, the implementation has been rather bleak, owing to available land/space concerns.
    • The idea of extended producer responsibility (EPR), which was introduced in the rules of 2016, still remains nowhere close to being implemented even after two years.
  • Lack of adequate infrastructure for segregation and collectionis the key reason for inefficient plastic waste disposal.
  • Large patches of plastic on the sea bed are also blocking some species’ access to their breeding grounds.

Conclusion:-

  • Indian program may have even wider potential, based on “the fact that it’s the fishermen taking the initiative. The fishermen are also in the best position to convince the rest of the community their families, their neighbors of the dangers of plastic.

 


 General Studies – 4


Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics;

6) The concept of ecological consciousness is a market departure from the approach adopted by environmental ethics. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question

The issue is related to GS-4 syllabus under the following heading –

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics;

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to us to bring out the difference between the two concepts- environmental ethics as it is understood today and the concept of ecological consciousness.

Directive word

Comment- We have to express our knowledge and understanding of both the concepts and bring out the difference between the two. Based on our discussion we have to form an opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Define environmental ethics.

Body-

  • Discuss the environmental ethics in detail- its approaches and limitations.
  • Discuss the concept of ecological consciousness and how it is different from environmental ethics. E.g departure from the anthropocentric approach, associating man with nature rather than detaching him from it etc.

Read the reference article given with the question properly to form your opinion on the issue and also to frame your answer.

Conclusion– Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced opinion on the desirability of the two approaches.

Answer:

Environmental ethics is a branch of environmental philosophy that studies the ethical relationship between human beings and the environment.  Human beings are a part of the environment and so are the other living beings. They are an integral part of the environment and hence cannot be denied their right to live. By destroying nature, we are denying the life forms this right. This act is unjust and unethical.

Ecological consciousness is a step further from environmental ethics as a part of radical ecology which says that it may not be enough to extend ethics to non-human elements of the environment and that it is necessary to bring changes in the way we live and function. The field of environmental ethics is not limited to realizing our moral obligations towards the environment. It is about realizing ecological consciousness. Once a state of ‘environmental consciousness’ is attained, humans will feel obligated to protect the environment.

According to this non-human elements have an intrinsic worth which is not dependent on their utility for humans. They believe in the need to implement ways to reduce human intervention in the non-human world that leads to the destruction of biodiversity. 

 

In the name of development environment has been degraded and destroyed leading to depletion of natural resources, water and air pollution but environmental ethics failed to protect the environment. But having ecological consciousness people would not hurt nature for their benefits for instance Chipko movement .

Both the approaches have their benefits but with ecological consciousness humans feel that other species of life are part of their own self.