Rajya Sabha TV In Depth Artificial Intelligence in India
NITI Aayog has joined hands with Google to promote the growth of artificial intelligence and a machine learning ecosystem in India. Artificial intelligence is a fascinating concept of science using which scientists have now been able to develop computer systems that can perform human-like tasks. These tasks include speech recognition, translation into different languages, visual perception and even decision.
- From the early days of human civilization efforts have been made to replace human hands with machines to make lives easier.
- Human beings then started looking beyond machines, developing robots and other advanced technologies that could just read the human mind and do the required work.
- Intelligence is the ability to take variables from our senses and to process certain decisions using the brain. Artificial intelligence helps a machine in doing the same. Such a system has a receptor, sensors (to pick data from environment), a memory (that tells what to do depending on what signal it gets), and then it takes a decision that will communicate to another device.
- Examples/Applications of Artificial Intelligence:
- Autonomous vehicles like drones and self-driving cars
- Robotics, widely used in modern factories.
- Search engines like Google search
- Online assistants like Siri in Apple mobile phones and Alexa
- Image recognition in photographs
- Posting of stories and advertisements on social media sites like Facebook.
- Artificial Intelligence includes Machine Learning and other technologies.
Natural Language Processing gives machines the ability to read and understand human language.
Machine perception is the ability to use inputs from sensors (cameras, microphones, etc) to deduce aspects of the world. This helps in speech, facial and object recognition.
- The term Artificial Intelligence was first coined by American scientist John McCarthy in 1955. Over the years improvement in technology, algorithms, computing power and storage power has made the concept realistic.
- This can be termed as the fourth Industrial Revolution. Each cycle of the Industrial Revolution changes the lives of the common man in unpredictable ways. This has already helped in improvements like in healthcare making surgeries of eye easier, predicting floods and droughts, etc.
- Stages of Industrial Revolution:
|First||18th to 19th centuries||It took place in Europe and America. It made the mostly agrarian and rural societies industrial and urban. Example- Iron and textile industries and steam engine.|
|Second||1870 to 1914 (just before World War I)||Growth and expansion was made in steel, oil and electricity sectors. Major technological advances included the telephone, light bulb and internal combustion engine.|
|Third||1980s onwards||Also called Digital Revolution, it includes the personal computer, internet and information and communication technology (ICT).|
|Fourth||Phrase first used in 2016, by World Economic Forum||It includes robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, quantum computing, biotechnology, The Internet of Things (IoT), 3D printing and autonomous vehicles.|
- Types of Artificial Intelligence:
- Reactive Machine AI: Cannot use past experiences to decide future actions.
- Limited Memory AI: They have a limited memory and work on both pre-programmed knowledge and past experiences.
- Theory of Mind AI: The machine itself is capable of interpreting the world around it. Information can be reproduced when needed based on observation made.
- Self-Awareness: It is the most advanced form of Artificial Intelligence, which is not developed yet. These machines can interpret the world around them and also possess consciousness, feelings and emotions.
- In Indian Context:
The partnership between think tank in India NITI Aayog (National Institute for Transforming India) with Google to develop India’s artificial intelligence ecosystem will help to improve healthcare, education, agriculture, transportation, develop innovative governance systems and improve overall economic productivity. This will also help in promoting entrepreneurs associated with it, research in the field in premier institutions like IITs and providing crash course to students across India.
- Disadvantages: Development in such advanced technologies affects employment opportunities also as machines can do the work of many labours. Whether they can compete with a human brain is also a question.
India is already making progress in computing technologies with its Digital India campaign in the recent past. Now taking a step towards Artificial Intelligence brings with it various new applications. But the drawbacks of using them are also predicted and how it will design our future is to be seen.