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SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 65(History)


SOLUTIONS

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 65(History)


1) Which of the following is/are correct about Hampi ?

  1. It is located in Krishna-cauvery basin
  2. It was the capital of Vijayanagara empire
  3. Cementing agent was excessively used by the kings for forts
  4. It is a part of HRIDAY programme

a) Only 2

b) Only 1,2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 2

d) 1,2,3 and 4

       Solution: a

Justification:

Hampi is located in the Krishna-Tungabhadra basin, which formed the nucleus of the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 1336.

Hence statement 1 is incorrect and statement 2 is correct.

 

 

The magnificent ruins at Hampi reveal a well-fortified city. No mortar or cementing agent was used in the construction of these walls and the technique followed was to wedge them together by interlocking.

Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

 

 

The architecture of Hampi was distinctive. The buildings in the royal complex had splendid arches,domes and pillared halls with niches for holding sculptures. They also had well-planned orchards and pleasure gardens with sculptural motifs such as the lotus and corbels. In its heyday in the fifteenth sixteenth centuries, Hampi bustled with commercial and cultural activities. Moors (a name used collectively for Muslim merchants), Chettis and agents of European traders such as the Portuguese, thronged the markets of Hampi. Hampi is not part of HRIDAY initiative.

 

(Hence option a is correct)

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II


2)Consider the following statement

  1. The songs compilations of Nayanars are tevaram and tiruvakam
  2. Andal is a famous woman Nayanar saint

Which of the above statements is/are correct ?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

              Solution: a 

                Justification:

There were 63 Nayanars, who belonged to different caste backgrounds such as potters, “untouchable” workers, peasants, hunters, soldiers, Brahmanas and

chiefs. The best known among them were Appar, Sambandar, Sundarar and Manikkavasagar. There are two sets of compilations of their songs – Tevaram and Tiruvacakam.

Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

There were 12 Alvars, who came from equally divergent backgrounds, the best known being Periyalvar, his daughter Andal, Tondaradippodi Alvar and Nammalvar. Their songs were compiled in the Divya Prabandham.

Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

 

              (Hence option a is correct)

 

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


 3)Which of the following statements is/are correct ?

  1. Sikhism has influences of bhakti tradition
  2. It is a syncretic religion
  3. Guru Arjan gave it a militaristic outlook

a) Only 1

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 2

d) 1,2 and 3

Solution: c

Justification:

Guru Angad compiled the compositions of Guru Nanak, to which he added his own in a new script known as Gurmukhi.

 

 The three successors of Guru Angad also wrote under the name of “Nanak” and all of their compositions were compiled by Guru Arjan in 1604.

 

To this compilation were added the writings of other figures like Shaikh Farid, Sant Kabir, Bhagat Namdev and Guru Tegh Bahadur.

 

In 1706 this compilation was authenticated by his son and successor, Guru Gobind Singh. It is now known as Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of the Sikhs.(syncreticsm )

 

By the beginning of the seventeenth century the town of Ramdaspur (Amritsar) had developed around the central Gurdwara called Harmandar Sahib (Golden Temple). It was virtually self-governing and modern historians refer to the early seventeenth century Sikh community as ‘a state within the state’.

 

The Mughal emperor Jahangir looked upon them as a potential threat and he ordered the execution of Guru Arjan in 1606.

 

The Sikh movement began to get politicized in the seventeenth century, a development which culminated in the institution of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. The community of the Sikhs, called the Khalsa Panth, became a political entity (militaristic outlook)

 

Nanak had a huge impact on this development from the very beginning. He emphasized the importance of the worship of one God. He insisted that caste, creed or gender was irrelevant for attaining liberation. His idea of liberation was not that of a state of inert bliss but rather the pursuit of active life with a strong sense of social commitment. He himself used the terms nam, dan and isnan for the essence of his teaching, which actually meant right worship, welfare of others and purity of conduct. His teachings are now remembered as nam-japna, kirt-karna and vand-chhakna, which also underline the importance of right belief and worship, honest living, and helping others. Thus, Guru Nanak’s idea of equality had social and political implications.

 

 This might partly explain the difference between the history of the followers of Guru Nanak and the history of the followers of the other religious figures of the medieval centuries, like Kabir, Ravidas and Dadu whose ideas were very similar to those of Guru Nanak (bhakti)

(Hence option c is correct)

 

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


 

4) Which of the following is/are NOT correct ?

  1. Lilatilakam a 14th century text dealt with grammar and politics
  2. It was composed in manipravalam language
  3. Manipravalam was a mixture of Sanskrit and tamil

              Select the correct answer using codes below

a) Only 1 and 2

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 3

d) Only 1 and 3

               Solution: c

Justification:

The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that Malayalam was spoken in this area. The rulers introduced the Malayalam language and script in their inscriptions. In fact, this is one of the earliest examples of the use of a regional language in official records in the subcontinent.   At the same time, the Cheras also drew upon Sanskritic traditions. The temple theatre of Kerala, which is traced to this period, borrowed stories from the Sanskrit epics.

 

The first literary works in Malayalam, dated to about the twelfth century, are directly indebted to Sanskrit. Interestingly enough, a fourteenth-century text, the Lilatilakam, dealing with grammar and poetics, was composed in Manipravalam literally, “diamonds and corals” referring to the two languages, Sanskrit and the regional language.   

(Hence option c is correct)

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

     


5) Jagannatha temple at Puri is a pilgrimage centre today. Which of the following is/are correct about it ?

  1. It is a based on Vaishnavite cult
  2. The deity has a tribal inspiration
  3. The temple was built by King Anangabhima III

              Select the correct answer using the code below.

a) Only 1

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 2

d) 1,2 and 3

              Solution: c

Justification:

In other regions, regional cultures grew around religious traditions. The best example of this process is the cult of Jagannatha (literally, lord of the world, a name for Vishnu) at Puri, Orissa. To date, the local tribal people make the wooden image of the deity, which suggests that the deity was originally a local god, who was later identified with Vishnu.

Hence statement 1 and 2 are correct.

 

 

In the twelfth century, one of the most important rulers of the Ganga dynasty, Anantavarman, decided to erect a temple for Purushottama Jagannatha at Puri. Subsequently, in 1230, king Anangabhima III dedicated his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed himself as the “deputy” of the god.

Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

 

 

( Hence option c is correct)

 

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT correct about Kathak?

a) It is hugely influenced by bhakti movement

b) It is a dance form which narrates stories

c) It was disallowed in Mughal courts

d) It is one of the Classical dances today

              Solution: c

Justification:

 If heroic traditions can be found in different regions in different forms, the same is true of dance. Let us look at the history of one dance form, Kathak, now associated with several parts of north India. The term kathak is derived from katha, a word used in Sanskrit and other languages for story. The kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north India, who embellished their performances with gestures and songs. Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with the spread of the bhakti movement. The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.

 

Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the court, where it acquired its present features and developed into a form of dance with a distinctive style. Subsequently, it developed in two traditions or gharanas: one in the courts of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow. Under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, it grew into a major art form. By the third quarter of the nineteenth century it was firmly entrenched as a dance form.

 

(Hence option c is correct)

 

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


7) Which of the following is/are responsible for the downfall of Hindu states during medieval India?

  1. Lack of unity among them.
  2. Outdated military methods used by them.
  3. Work division based on Varna system.

a) Only 2

b) Only 1 and 2

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) Only 1 and 3

              Solution : c

 Justification:

The causes for the downfall of Hindu states have to be analysed historically

  • The most important cause was that they lacked unity. They were divided by factions. The Rajput princes exhausted one another by their mutual conflicts.

Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

  • many Hindu states were declining in power. Their military methods were out of date and far inferior to those of Muslim Indians continued to rely on elephants while the Muslims possessed quick-moving cavalry.

Hence statement 2 is correct.

 

  • The Muslims soldiers had better organization and able leaders. Their religious zeal and their greed for the greater wealth of India provided stimulus to them

 

  • Among the Hindus, the duty of fighting was confined to a particular class, the Kshatriyas. Moreover

Hence statement 3 is correct.

 

  • Hindus were always on the defensive, which was always a weak position.

             (Hence option c is correct)

 Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II


8) Consider the following statements

  1. Iltumish patronised the great scholar Hasan Nizami
  2. Qutubudin Aibak was called Lakh Baksh by the Muslim writer

             Which of the above statements is/are correct ?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

Justification:

 Qutbuddin Aibak was a slave of Muhammad Ghori, who made him the Governor of his Indian possessions. He set up his military headquarters at Indraprasta, near Delhi. He raised a standing army and established his hold over north India even during the life time of Ghori. After the death of Ghori in 1206, Aibak declared his independence. He severed all connections with the kingdom of Ghori and thus founded the Slave dynasty as well as the Delhi Sultanate. He assumed the title Sultan and made Lahore his capital. His rule lasted for a short period of four years.

Muslim writers call Aibak Lakh Baksh or giver of lakhs because he gave liberal donations to them.  Hence statement 2 is correct.

 

Aibak patronized the great scholar Hasan Nizami. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.

 

He also started the construction of after the name of a famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakthiyar. It was later completed by Iltutmish. Aibak died suddenly while playing chaugan (horse polo) in 1210. He was succeeded by his son Aram Baksh, who was replaced by Iltutmish after eight months.

(Hence option b is correct)

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


 

  1. Who was the first Sultan to impose irrigation tax ?

a) Muhammad bin Tughlaq

b) Firoz Shah Tughlaq

c) Allauddin Khilji

d) Iltumish

        Solution : b

Justification:

The reign of Firoz Tughlaq was more notable for his administration.

  1. He strictly followed the advice of the ulemas in running the administration.
  2. He pleased the nobles and assured hereditary succession to their properties. Thus the iqta system was not only revived but also it was made hereditary.
  3. As per the Islamic law he levied the taxes.
  • Jiziya was strictly imposed on non-Muslims.
  • He was the first Sultan to impose irrigation tax But at the same time he dug irrigation canals and wells. The longest canal was about 200 kilometres from Sutlej to Hansi. Another canal was between Yamuna and Hissar.
  • The special tax on 28 items was abolished by him since they were against the Islamic law.
  1. He also developed royal factories called karkhanas in which thousands of slaves were employed.
  2. About 300 new towns were built during his reign. The famous among them was Firozabad near Red Fort in Delhi, now called Firoz Shah Kotla.
  3. Old monuments like Jama Masjid and Qutb-Minar were also repaired.

 (Hence option b is correct)

              Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


                                                                                       

 

  1. Ariz-i-mumalik headed the military department under the Delhi Sultana technology.

Which of the following is /are correct about him?

  1. He was responsible for recruiting the soldiers and administering the military department.
  2. He was commander in chief of the Army

                Select the correct answers using code below

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 Solution : a

Justification:

The Sultan was assisted by a number of departments and officials in his administration.

  1. The post of Naib was the most powerful one. The Naib practically enjoyed all the powers of the Sultan and exercised general control over all the departments.
  2. Next to him was the Wazir who was heading the finance department called Diwani Wizarat.
  3. The military department was called Diwani Ariz. It was headed by Ariz-i-mumalik. He was responsible for recruiting the soldiers and administering the military department. Hence statement 1 is correct.

He was not the commander-in-chief of the army. The Sultan himself was the commander-in-chief of the army. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

The military department was first set up by Balban and it was further improved by Alauddin Khalji under whom the strength of the army crossed three lakh soldiers. Alauddin introduced the system of branding of the horses and payment of salary in cash. Cavalry was given importance under the Delhi Sultanate.

(Hence option a is correct)

              Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


11)Which of the following is /are correct about Jiziya?

  1. Jiziya was not a separate tax since beginning under Muslim rule
  2. At times Brahmins were exempted from paying Jiziya
  3. Firoz Tughlaq made it a part of Land Tax

             Select the correct answers using the codes below

a) Only 1 and 2

b) Only 2

c) Only 2 and 3

d) Only 1

Solution : a

Justification :

During the Sultanate period, the Muslim society remained divided into several ethnic and racial groups. The Turks, Iranians, Afghans and Indian Muslims developed exclusively and there were no intermarriages between these groups. Hindu converts from lower castes were also not given equal respect. The Muslim nobles occupied high offices and very rarely the Hindu nobles were given high position in the government.

The Hindus were considered zimmis or protected people for which they were forced to pay a tax called jiziya.

 

  • In the beginning jiziya was collected as part of land tax. Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

  • Firoz Tughlaq separated it from the land revenue and collected jiziya as a separate tax. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

 

  • Sometimes Brahmins were exempted from paying Jiziya. Hence statement 2 is correct.

 

(Hence option a is correct)                                                        

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


 12)Consider the following statements

  1. Tughlaq   architecture combined both arch and dome features
  2. They mostly used red sand stone for their building.
  3. Muhammad bin Tugulaq built the city Tughlaqabad.

Which of the above statements is /are NOT correct ?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Only 2 and 3

d) Only 3

Solution : c

Justification:

The art and architecture of the Delhi Sultanate period was distinct from the Indian style.

The Turks introduced arches, domes, lofty towers or minarets and decorations using the Arabic script. They used the skill of the Indian stone cutters. They also added colour to their buildings by using marbles, red and yellow sand stones.

 The buildings of the Tughlaq period were constructed by combining arch and dome. Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

They also used the cheaper and easily available grey colour stones. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

 

The palace complex called Tughlaqabad with its beautiful lake was built during the period of Ghyasuddin Tughlaq. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

 

Muhammad bin Tughlaq built the tomb of Ghyasuddin on a high platform. The Kotla fort at Delhi was the creation of Firoz Tughlaq. The Lodi garden in Delhi was the example for the architecture of the Lodis.

(Hence option c is correct)

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


 

  1. Which of the following is NOT correct about Vishistadvaita philosophy propounded by Ramanujacharya  ?

a) God is a Saguna brahman

b) Self-surrender to God  is the way to achieve him

c) Soul and matter are not Real

d) His philosophy was rooted in Vaishnavism

Solution:c

Justification:

 In the twelfth century, Ramanuja, who was born at Sriperumbudur near modern Chennai, preached Visishtadvaita. According to him God is Sagunabrahman. The creative process and all the objects in creation are real but not illusory as was held by Sankaracharya. Therefore, God, soul, matter are real. But God is inner substance and the rest are his attributes. He also advocated prabattimarga or path of self-surrender to God. He invited the downtrodden to Vaishnavism.

(Hence option c is correct)

Source: NCERT class VII our pasts II

 


14) Which of the following is/are feature/features of Swadeshi movement?

  1. Emphasis on self-reliance
  2. Extensive participation of the peasantry
  3. Cultural revivalism

a) Only 3

b) Only 2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 3

d) 1,2 and 3

Solution: c

Justification:

The militant nationalists put forward several fresh ideas at the theoretical, propaganda and programme levels. Among the several forms of struggle thrown up by the movement were

  1. Boycott of foreign goods: This included boycott and public burning of foreign cloth, boycott of foreign made salt or sugar, refusal by priests to rihmlise marriages involving exchange of foreign goods, refusal by washermen to wash foreign clothes. This form of protest met with great success at the practical and popular level.
  2. Public meetings and processions: These emerged as major methods of mass mobilisation and simultaneously as forms of popular expression.
  3. Corps of volunteers or ‘samitis: Samitis such as the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti of Ashwini Kumar Dutta (in Barisal) emerged as a very popular and powerful method of mass mobilisation. These samitis, generated political consciousness among the masses through magic lantern lectures, swadeshi songs, physical and moral training to their members, social work during famines and epidemics, organisation of schools, training in swadeshi crafts and arbitration courts.
  4. Imaginative use of traditional popular festivals and, melas: The idea was to use such occasions as a means of reaching out to the masses and spreading political messages. For instance,. Tilak’s Ganapati and Shivaji festivals became a medium of swadeshi propaganda not only in western India, but also in Bengal. In, Bengal also, the traditional folk theatre forms were used for this purpose. Hence statement 3 is correct.

 

  1. Emphasis given to self-reliance or ‘atma shaktz: This implied reassertion of national dignity, honour and confidence and social and economic regeneration of the villages. Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

 There was limited participation of peasentry. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

 

(Hence option c is correct)

 

Source: Spectrum History

 


15) Consider the following statements

  1. The first session of Indian National Congress was presided by W.C Banerjee.
  2. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay addressed the session in 1885

Which of the above statement is/are NOT correct?

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

Justifiaction:

The first session of the Indian National Congress was, attended by 72 delegates and presided over by Vomesh Chandra Bannerjee.  Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

Hereafter, the Congress met every year in December, in a different part of the country each time. Some of the great presidents of the Congress during this early phase were Dadabhai Naoroji (thrice president), 13adruddin Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta, P. Anandacharlu, Surendranath Banerjee, Romesh Chandra Dutt, Ananda Mohan Bose and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Other prominent leaders included Mahadeo Govind Ranade, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sisir Kumar Ghosh, Motilal Ghosh, Madan Mohan Malaviya, G. Subramaniya Aiyar, C. Vijayaraghavachariar, Dinshaw E. Wacha.

 

 In 1890, Kadambiny the first woman graduate of Caktiffa University addressed the Congress session, which symbolised the commitment of the freedom struggle to give the women of India their due status in national life. Apart from the Indian National Congress, nationalist activity was carried out through provincial conferences and associations, newspapers and literature.

Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

 

(Hence option b is correct)

 

Source: Spectrum History

 


 

  1. Who started the newspaper Al Hilal ?

a) Maulana Azad

b) Mohammmad Ali

c) Hasrat Mohani

d) Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Solution: a

Justification:

Khilafat movement

Younger Muslims were infuriated by the government repression during the War. Maulana Azad’s Al Hilal and Mohammad Ali’s Comrade faced suppression while the Ali brothers, Maulana Azad and Hasrat Mohani faced internment. This generated anti-imperialist sentiments among the “Young Party”.

(Hence option b is correct)

 

Source: Spectrum History

 


 17) Which of the following was/were a part of Vivekananda’s ideas ?

  1. Fundamental oneness of God.
  2. Social action along with knowledge.
  3. Usage of Modern science and technology for the development of the nation

a) Only 1 and 2

b) Only 2

c) Only 1 and 3

d) 1,2 and 3

 Solution: d

Justification:

Narendranath Datta (1862-1902), who later came to be known as Swami Vivekananda spread Ramakrishna’s message and tried to reconcile it to the needs of contemporary Indian society.

 

He emerged as the preacher of neo-Hinduism. Certain spiritual experiences of Ramakrishna, the teachings of the Upanishads and the Gita and the examples, of the Buddha

and Jesus are the basis of Vivekananda’s message to the world about human values.

 

He subscribed to the Vedanta which he considered a fully rational system with a superior approach.

 

 His mission was to bridge the gulf between ararnartha (service) and vyavahara (behaviour), and between spirituality.

 

He believed in the fundamental oneness of God and said, “For our own motherland a junction of the two great systems, Hinduism and Islam, is the only hope.”  Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

 

Emphasising social action, he declared that knowledge without action is useless.  Hence statement 2 is correct.

He lamented the isolationist tendencies and the touchme-not attitude of Hindus in religious matters. He frowned at religion’s tacit approval of the opptession of the poor by the rich. He believed that it was an insult to God and humanity to teach religion to a starving man. He called upon his countrymen to imbibe a spirit of liberty, equality and free thinking.

 

Vivekananda was a great humanist and used the Ramakrishna Mission for humanitarian relief and social work. The Mission stands for religious and social reform. Vivekananda advocated the doctrine of service—the service of all beings. is itself is religion. service, the Divine exists within man.

 

Vivekananda was for using technology and modern science in the service of mankind. Hence statement 3 is correct.

 

 

 Ever since its inception, the Mission has been running a number of schocies. It offers help to the affected ofcalamities like famines, floods and epidemics. a worldwide organisation. It is a deeply religious body, but it is not a proselytising body. It does not consider itself to be a sect of Hinduism. In fact, this is one of the strong reasons for the success of the Mission. Unlike the Arya Samaj, the Mission recognises the utility and value of image worship in developing spiritual fervour and worship of the eternal omnipotent God, although it emphasises the essential spirit and not the symbols or rituals. It

believes that the philosophy of Vedanta will make a Christian a better Christian, and a Hindu a better Hindu.(Hence option d is correct)

 

Source: Spectrum History


18) Consider the following statements

  1. Servants of Indian Society was founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
  2. Sudharak was the periodical which projected the views of the Society
  3. Gopal Ganesh Agarkar started the periodical Sudharak

Which of the above statements is /are correct?                     

a) Only 1 and 3

b) 1,2 and 3

c) Only 1 and 2

d) Only 1

Solution: a

Justification:

Servants of indian society was founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. it was meant to prepare indian for the service of the society and the Nation.

Hence statement 1 is correct.

Hitabada was the newspaper which projected the ideas of the society.

Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

 

Sudharak, meaning Reformer, was a newspaper in India.it was founded in 1888 by Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, who had previously edited Kesari. The newspaper was an Anglo Marathi-language work and was published in Poona, Maharastra.

Hence statement 3 is correct.

(Hence option a is correct)

Source: Spectrum History

 


 19) Which of the following statements is/are correct ?

  1. Social service league was founded by Narayan Malhar Joshi
  2. He was one of the founding members of All India Trade Union Congress.

 

Select the correct answer using the code below

a) Only 1

b) Only 2

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 Solution: c

Justification:

Narayan Malhar Joshi, a leading member of the Servants of India Society, founded the Social Service League in 1911. The objective of the movement was “to collect and study social facts and discuss social problems with a view to forming public opinion on questions of social service” and to secure for the masses a better quality of life and work. The League opened number of day and night schools, libraries, dispensaries and started boys’ clubs and scouts corps.

Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

Narayan Malhar Joshi (June 1879 – 30 May 1955) was an Indian trade union leader.Joshi got involved in labour issues and started the All India trade union congress in 1921 along with Lala Lajpat Rai.

Hence statement 2 is correct.

He was the general secretary of AITUC from 1925 to 1929 and from 1940 to 1948. In 1931, he left AITUC and started the All India Trade Union Federation.In 1909, Joshi established an organization called the Social Service League. The League conducted training programmes for volunteers, whose services were later utilized for relief work among people suffering form famines, epidemics, floods and other disasters, and also for welfare programmes among the poor and the destitute. Among other titles, he is considered as one of the pioneers in Modern Indian Social Work

(Hence option c is correct)

Source: Spectrum History

 

 


 

  1. Match the following

 

Women’s Organisations                                                     Founder

  1. Bharat Stree Mahamandal                                  Mehribai Tata
  2. Bharat Mahila Parishad                                      Sarala Devi Chaudhurani
  3. Arya Mahila Samaj                                             Pandita Ramabai
  4. National Council of women in India                      Ramabai Ranade

       1             2            3            4

a) D               B           C             A

b) B               D          C             A

c) B               D          A             C

d) D              B          A             C

  Solution: b

Justification :

 

Bharat Stree Mahamandal                                               Sarala Devi Chaudhurani

Bharat Mahila Parishad                                                     Ramabai Ranade

Arya Mahila Samaj                                                              Pandita Ramabai

National Council of women in India                                 Mehribai Tata

(Hence option b is correct)

Source: Spectrum History

 

http://epgp.inflibnet.ac.in/epgpdata/uploads/epgp_content/women_studies/gender_studies/03._women_and_history/17._history_of_womens_organisations_in_india/et/7886_et_et_17.pdf

 


 21) Which of the following ideas was/were supported by Dayananda Saraswati ?

  1. A classless and casteless society
  2. Vedic nation of Chaturvana system
  3. Infallibility of Vedas and Puranas

a) Only 2 and 3

b) Only 2

c) 1,2 and 3

d) Only 1 and 2

 

 Solution: d

 

Justification :

Maharishi Dayanand was a believer in Hinduism just as the Vedas have outlined, devoid of any corruption and embellishments. Preserving the purity of the faith was of utmost important to him. He strongly advocated the concepts of Dharma which he believed to be free from any partiality and as an embodiment of truthfulness. To him Adharma was anything that did not hold true, was not just or fair and was opposed to the teachings of the Vedas. He believed in reverence of human life irrespective of anything and condoned the practice of Ahimsa or non-violence. He advised his countrymen to direct their energy towards betterment of mankind as a whole and not waste away in unnecessary rituals. He revoked the practice of idol worship and considered them a contamination introduced by the priesthood for their own benefit. He was against other social evils like superstitions and caste segregation. He advocated the concept of Swarajya, meaning a country free of foreign influence, resplendent in the glory of fair and just participants.

Dayanand Saraswati & Arya Samaj

On 7 April, 1875 Dayanand Saraswati formed the Arya Samaj at Bombay. It was a Hindu reforms movement, meaning “society of the nobles”. The purpose of the Samaj was to move the Hindu religion away from the fictitious beliefs. ‘Krinvan to Vishvam Aryam” was the motto of the Samaj, which means, “Make this world noble”. The ten tenets of the Arya Samaj are as follows:

  1. God is the efficient cause of all true knowledge and all that is known through knowledge.
  2. God is existent, intelligent and blissful. He is formless, omniscient, just, merciful, unborn, endless, unchangeable, beginning-less, unequalled, the support of all, the master of all, omnipresent, immanent, un-aging, immortal, fearless, eternal and holy, and the maker of all. He alone is worthy of being worshiped.
  3. The Vedas are the scriptures of all true knowledge. It is the paramount duty of all Aryas to read, teach, and recite them and to hear them being read.
  4. One should always be ready to accept truth and to renounce untruth.
  5. All acts should be performed in accordance with Dharma that is, after deliberating what is right and wrong.
  6. The prime object of the Arya Samaj is to do good to the world, that is, to promote physical, spiritual and social good of everyone.
  7. Our conduct towards all should be guided by love, righteousness and justice.
  8. We should dispel Avidya (ignorance) and promote Vidya (knowledge).
  9. No one should be content with promoting his/her good only; on the contrary, one should look for his/her good in promoting the good of all.
  10. One should regard oneself under restriction to follow the rules of society calculated to promote the wellbeing of all, while in following the rules of individual welfare all should be free.

These 10 founding principles of the Arya Samaj was the pillar on which Maharishi Dayanad sought to reform India and asked people to go back to the Vedas and its undiluted spiritual teaching. The Samaj directs its members to condemn ritualistic practices like idol worship, pilgrimage and bathing in holy rivers, animal sacrifice, offering in temples, sponsoring priesthood etc. The Samaj also encouraged followers to question existing beliefs and rituals instead of blindly follow them.

The Arya Samaj not only sought spiritual reorganisation of the Indian psyche, it also worked towards abolishing various social issues. Primary among these were widow remarriage and women education. The Samaj launched programs to support widow remarriage in the 1880s. Maharishi Dayanand also underlined the importance of educating the girl child and opposed child marriage. He proclaimed that an educated man needs and educated wife for the overall benefit of the society.

(Hence option d is correct)

Source: Spectrum History