Print Friendly, PDF & Email

PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018: Hoolock gibbons and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)


Hoolock gibbons and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Hoolock gibbons

  1. primate species of genus Hoolock
  2. Endangered — IUCN
  3. CITES Appendix I
  4. schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972
  5. State Animal of Arunachal Pradesh


  1. Habitat
  • Primarily forest dweller
  • inhabits tropical evergreen rainforests, tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, tropical mixed deciduous forests, and subtropical broadleaf hill forests
  • It has also been noted in bamboo “brakes” and hollock (Terminalia myriocarpa) and ajhar


  1. Range
  • native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India and Southwest China.
  • India — found south of Brahmaputra and east of the Dibang Rivers. Its range extends into seven north eastern states


  1. Threats
  • habitat loss and fragmentation fragmentation — , jhoom cultivation
  • human interference — harvesting of bamboo for paper mills, oil mining and exploration, and coal mining, which deplete habitat and cause pollution and disturbance
  • hunting for food — some ethnic groups believe the gibbons have medicinal properties


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

  1. established in 1964
  2. permanent intergovernmental body
  3. principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues
  4. report to the UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council
  5. The conference ordinarily meets once in four years
  6. permanent secretariat — Geneva.


  1. goals — “Prosperity for all”
  2. maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis


  1. Functions
  • formulate policies relating to all aspects of development including trade, aid, transport, finance and technology
  • It undertakes research, policy analysis and data collection for the debates of government representatives and experts
  • provide technical assistance tailored to the specific requirements of developing countries, with special attention to the needs of the least developed countries and of economies in transition


  1. Reports
  2. World Investment Report
  3. Least Developed Countries Report
  4. Trade and Development Report
  5. Trade and Environment Review
  6. Information Economy Report
  7. Review of Maritime Transport


  1. Generalised System of Preferences (GSP)
  • manufacturers’ exports and some agricultural goods from the developing countries enter duty-free or at reduced rates in the developed countries.