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SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 56(Geography)


SOLUTIONS 

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 56(Geography)


            

  1. Cyclones or hurricanes do not develop within about 5° N and S of the equator because the

(a) Pressure gradient is weak

(b) Trade winds converge

 (c) Ocean surface temperature is high

 (d) Coriolis force is very weak

Answer: (d)

Justification:

The conditions required for tropical cyclones are sea surface temperature more than 26’c, sufficient coriolis force, pressure gradient force and pre-existing vortex. Tropical cyclones do not form near the Equator (within 5 degrees latitude) b/c the Coriolis force is 0 and air tends to flow straight into low pressure centers, so it feels up before the pressure can drop enough.


  1. Condensation is a process which occurs when

           

a) Temperature falls below 0°C

b) Absolute humidity becomes equal to relative humidity

c) Relative humidity becomes 100% and more

d) Temperature in the air parcel remains static

 

Answer: (c)

 

Justification:

Relative Humidity expressed as a percentage (%) is the amount of water vapor in a column of air compared to the total amount of moisture that the same column of air can hold. When water vapor becomes saturated, it reaches its capacity for holding water so further cooling results in condensation and possibly rainfall.


  1. Northern part of Australia is typified by which one of the following

                (a) Equatorial climate

                (b) Monsoon climate

                (c) Temperate climate

                (d) Mediterranean climate

                Answer: (b)

                Justification:

Monsoon climate is generally related to those areas which register complete seasonal reversal of wind direction and are associated with tropical deciduous forests. The Australian monsoon alternates between two seasonal phases linked to wind direction. In the winter phase, easterly trade winds bring dry conditions. In the summer, westerly winds bring sustained rainy conditions.


  1. Temperate cyclones are characterised by which of the following

                (a) Fronts

                (b) Diverging winds

                (c) Dry winds

                (d) Hot winds

                Answer: (a)

                Justification:

In mid-latitudes, much of our weather is associated with a particular kind of storm, the extratropical cyclone Cyclone: circulation around low pressure center. Extratropical cyclones derive their energy from horizontal temperature contrasts. They typically form on a boundary between a warm and a cold air mass associated with an upper tropospheric jet stream .Their circulations affect the entire troposphere over a region 1000 km or more across. Extratropical cyclones tend to develop with a particular lifecycle . The low pressure center moves roughly with the speed of the 500 mb wind above it. An extratropical cyclone tends to focus the temperature contrasts into ‘frontal zones’ of particularly rapid horizontal temperature change.


  1. Temperature generally decreases towards the poles because

                (a) Air movement is generally towards the equator

                (b) Cold polar air masses prevent surface heating of the land

                (c) Cold surfaces do not absorb solar energy as readily as warm surfaces

                (d) Progressively lesser solar energy per unit area falls on the earth’s surface as we move to polar regions

Answer: (d)

Justification:

Beyond Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn the sun rays are oblique. As the angle of sun rays decreases poleward, the amount of insolation received also decreases.

 


6.Consider the following statements

  1. The Benguela current had its influence in the formation of Namib and Kalahari desert
  2. In the North Indian Ocean, there is a complete reversal of the direction of ocean currents between Winter and summer

Which of the following is/are correct

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of the above

Answer: (c)

Justification:

The cold Benguela current flowing northward along western coast of Africa, has desiccating affect which leads to formation of arid conditions

The ocean currents of Indian Ocean are completely influenced by the changing nature of the monsoon wind system.

 


  1. Which oceanic feature is at the greatest depth in the ocean

                (a) Abyssal plain

                (b) Continental shelf

                (c) Submarine canyons

                (d) Continental rise

                Answer: (a)

                Justification:

               


  1. A fjord is an example of a coastline that was mainly shaped by

                (a) Erosion by glaciers

                (b) Erosion by rivers

                (c) Movements of the earth’s crust due to plate tectonics

                (d) Erosion and deposition of sediment by waves

                Answer: (a)

                Justification:

A fjord is a long, deep, narrow body of water that reaches far inland. Fjords are often set in a U-shaped valley with steep walls of rock on either side. Fjords are found mainly in Norway, Chile, New Zealand, Canada, Greenland, and the U.S. state of Alaska.
Fjords were created by glaciers. Glaciation carves deep valleys. This is why fjords can be thousands of meters deep. Fjords are usually deepest farther inland, where the glacial force was strongest.


  1. The productivity of fishery is high along the coast of Peru because

(a) Phytoplankton production is high because there is almost no wind and little mixing of the water

(b) Phytoplankton production is high there because wind driven upwelling brings nutrients from deeper water to the surface

(c) Phytoplankton production is high because of El Niño

(d) None of the above

Answer: (b)

Justification:

Winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away. Water then rises up from beneath the surface to replace the water that was pushed away. This process is known as “upwelling.”

Upwelling occurs in the open ocean and along coastlines. The reverse process, called “downwelling,” also occurs when wind causes surface water to build up along a coastline and the surface water eventually sinks toward the bottom.

Water that rises to the surface as a result of upwelling is typically colder and is rich in nutrients. These nutrients “fertilize” surface waters, meaning that these surface waters often have high biological productivity.  Therefore, good fishing grounds typically are found where upwelling is common. The anchovy population that is the basis of the Peru fishery, the world’s largest, is a phytoplankton feeding species, supported by an upwelling based ecosystem.


  1. Which of the following state has the highest percentage of Christian population in India

                (a) Kerala

                (b) Goa

                (c) Arunachal Pradesh

                (d) Nagaland

                Answer: (d)

                Justification:

                Nagaland – 87.93%

                Arunachal Pradesh –  30.26%

                Goa – 25.10%

                Kerala – 18.38%


11.Consider the following statements

  1. In general, the rail density in Northern plains is higher than peninsular plateau.
  2. Gorakhpur is headquarters of North-eastern railways.

                Which of the following is/are correct

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of the above

Answer: (c)

Justification:

Because of the level topography and higher density of populations, the rail density is higher in states of Northern plains. Topography of peninsular plateau and north eastern states leads to higher cost of laying rail lines. Rail density is lower. Gorakhpur is the HQ of North-eastern railways. Maligaon( Guwahati ) is HQ of North east Frontier railways.


12.Consider the following statements

  1. China is the leading producer of palm oil in the world
  2. Andhra Pradesh is the leading producer of palm oil in India

                Which of the following statements is/are correct

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of the above

Answer:  (b)

Justification:

Indonesia and Malaysia are the leading producers of palm oil in the world. In India Andhra Pradesh is the leading producer of palm oil. Apart from Andhra Pradesh (including Telangana), Kerala, Karnataka, north-eastern states are important producers.


  1. In India among four streams of internal migration, the highest percentage of migration is between

                (a) Rural to rural

                (b) Rural to urban

                (c) Urban to urban

                (d) Urban to rural

                Answer: (a)

                Justification:

Highest percentage of internal migration is between rural to rural. Most of migration are related to marriage and agricultural labours. Female migrants dominate in intrastate migration.


  1. Ganga is navigable between

                (a) Hardwar and Kanpur

                (b) Allahabad and Varanasi

                (c) Patna and Calcutta

                (d) Allahabad and Haldia

                Answer: (d)

                Justification:

National Waterway 1 or NW1 will starts from Allahabad to Haldia with an distance of 1620 km. The NW 1 run through the Ganges, Bhagirathi and Hooghly river system with having fixed terminals at Haldia,Farrakka and Patna and floating terminals  at most of the riverside cities like Kolkata,Bhagalpur,Varanasi and Allahabad.


15.Consider the following cities on eastern coast of Australia

  1. Sydney
  2. Brisbane
  3. Melbourne

                The correct sequence of these cities, from North to South is

a) 1,2,3

b) 2,1,3

c) 2,3,1

d) 3,1,2

Answer: (b)


  1. Most part of Central Africa is forested because

                (a) of the rugged terrain

                (b) the sub-Saharan soil is most suitable for forest growth

                (c) of equatorial type of climate

                (d) None of the above

                Answer: (c)

                Justification:

Equator passes through Central part of Africa. Having equatorial type of climate the region is densely forested.  


 

  1. Arakan Yoma and Pegu Yomas are located in

                (a) Myanmar

                (b) Nepal

                (c) Bhutan          

                (d) China

                Answer: (a)


  1. Which of the following South-East Asian country is landlocked

                (a) Myanmar

                (b) Thailand

                (c) Laos

                (d) Vietnam

                Answer: (c)


19.Consider the following statements

  1. Prime meridian does not pass through Africa
  2. Tropic of Cancer passes through northern part of South America

                Which of the following is/are correct

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of the above

Answer: (d)


  1. Catalonia region in Spain is located along coast of

                (a) Atlantic coast

                (b) Mediterranean sea

                (c) North sea

                (d) Black sea

                Answer: (b)