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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 17 MAY 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

General Studies – 1

TOPIC:  The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors
/contributions from different parts of the country.

1)Congress despite its early hesitation, played a crucial role in shaping the labour movements of the country. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Bipan Chandra – India’s struggle for independence Pg 196


Key demand of the question

Following points are to be outlined in the question

  • What is the meaning of initial hesitation of Congress
  • How Congress helped in forward movement of the labour movement
  • The role that other political outfits played in labour movements in pre freedom era
  • Your view on the assertion made in the question backed with sound arguments

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. You need to conclude with  a fair judgement, after analyzing the nature of each component part and interrelationship between them.

Structure of the answer

Introduce – Briefly outline the labour movements in india – the beginning of it, the modus operandi, their relationship with national struggle and the overall outcome


  • Highlight the initial hesitation of INC – not get associated with any divisive issue of economic nature
  • Highlight the later role that Congress played – AITUC, CSP, view of Nehru and his efforts to bring this perspective in mainstream etc
  • Highlight the role that left and other political outfits played and the lack of support from Congress ( took action against strikes when in power in provinces)
  • Based on the arguments made come to the conclusion – should be on the lines of that labour movement in India despite the favourable conditions could never really grow. Whatever it grew, Congress had a role to play in the ideological development of the movement. Implementation of ideology done mostly by local leaders.

Conclusion – Mention the overall achievement of the labour movement during national movement and how it carried the freedom struggle forward.



  • The process of the disparate groups of workers in various parts of country emerging as an organized, self-conscious, all India class is inextricably linked with the growth of the Indian national movement and the process of the Indian ‘nation-in-the-making’ because the notion of the Indian working class could not exist before the notion of the Indian ‘people’ had begun to take root.

Early hesitation by Congress:-

  • The early  nationalists in the beginning paid relatively little attention to the  question of workers despite the truly wretched conditions under which they existed at that time.
    • Reason for the relatively lukewarm attitude was that the nationalists did not wish to weaken the common struggle against British rule which was the primary  task to be achieved in a colonial situation. So they did not want to create any divisions within the ranks of the Indian people..
  • Most of the nationalist newspapers denied the need for
    any Government legislation to regulate working conditions

    actively opposed the Factories Act of 1881 and 1891.
  • Similarly, strikes in Indian textiles mills were generally not supported.
  • Congress wanted to confine to questions in which the entire nation has a direct participation .
  • The early nationalists saw rapid industrialisation as the panacea for the problems of Indian poverty and degradation and were unwilling to countenance any measure which would impede this process.

Crucial role in shaping labour movements :-

  • British owned enterprises:-
    • The scenario completely altered when the question was of  Indian labour employed in British-owned enterprises. Here the  nationalists had no hesitation in giving full support to the workers.
    • The fact that the exploiter in   signalers strike in May 1899 in the Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) Railway was foreign was enough to take agitation against it a national issue and an integral part of national movement.
  • Print media:-
    • The Indian National Congress and the nationalist  newspapers began a campaign against the manner in which the  tea plantation workers in Assam were reduced to virtual slavery,  with European planters being given powers, through legislation  to arrest, punish and prevent the running away of labour.
    • An appeal was made to national honour and dignity to protest against this unbridled exploitation by foreign capitalists aided by the colonial state..
  • At the turn of the century, with the growth of the working class, there emerged a new tendency among the nationalist  intelligentsia. B.C. Pal and G. Subramania Iyer, for example,  began to talk of the need for legislation to protect the workers, the weaker section, against the powerful capitalists.
  • In 1903,  Subramania Iyer urged that workers should combine and organize themselves into unions to fight for their rights and the public must give every help to the workers in achieving this task.
  • AITUC:-
    • The most important development was the formation of the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) in 1920 and congress formed a committee consisting of prominent Congressmen to assist its work.
  • Congress governments:-
    • During the tenure of the Congress Provincial Governments the trade union movement showed a phenomenal rise.
    • Between 1937 and 1939 the number of trade unions increased from 271 to 562 .
      • The number of strikes also increased considerably.
    • One of the principal factors which gave a fillip to the trade union movement in this period was the increased civil liberties under the Congress Governments and the pro-labour attitude of many of the Congress ministries.
    • It is significant that a peculiar feature of the strikes in this period was that a majority of them ended successfully, with full or partial victory for the workers.
  • Influenced government to recognise Trade unions as legal entity by Trade Union act, 1926

Other parties also provided support:-

  • Workers under Communist and radical nationalist influence participated in a large number of strikes and demonstrations all over the country between 1927 and 1929.
  • Communists since 1934 re-enacted the mainstream of nationalist politics. They also rejoined the AITUC in 1935. Left influence in nationalist politics and the trade union movement once again began to grow rapidly.
  • The Communists, the Congress Socialists and the Left nationalists led by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Bose now formed a powerful Left consolidation within the Congress and other mass organizations.

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2)Discuss Koppens climate classification scheme and also discuss its limitations.(250 words)


Why this question

Koppens climate classification scheme is one of the most widely used climate classification schemes. However it has also been criticized on various fronts. The question is indirectly related to GS 1 syllabus under the following heading-

Salient features of world’s physical geography.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to describe Koppens climate classification scheme, major climate regions and then discuss its limitations.

Directive word

Discuss- we have to write in detail about Koppens climate classification scheme. It is better if we can a diagram of the world climates as per the scheme. We also have to discuss the limitations of the scheme.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Mention the proponent, year and further developments in Koppens climate classification scheme.


  1. Discuss the scheme in detail- make a table of the world climates and draw a rough diagram for illustration purposes.
  2. Discuss its limitations. ( e.g estimated rather than measurable variables involved, symbol system difficult to interpret, other factors not taken into account, too simplistic etc)

Conclusion– mention the few advantages/ pros of the Koppens climate classification scheme and mention that despite the above discussed limitations, it is one of the most widely used climate classification schemes, although with modifications.

Koppen’s Classification of Climate

  • Koppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used for classifying the world’s climates. Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900 by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Koppen.
  • Koppen divided the Earth’s surface into climatic regions that generally coincided with world patterns of vegetation and soils.
  • Average annual precipitation and monthly temperature & precipitation values are the criteria
  • It is empirical (based on observation) and not genetic (based on origin)
  • The Koppen system recognizes five major climate types based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. Each type is designated by a capital letter.
    • A – Moist Tropical Climates are known for their high temperatures year round and for their large amount of year round rain.
    • B – Dry Climates are characterized by little rain and a huge daily temperature range.
    • C – In Humid Middle Latitude Climates land/water differences play a large part. These climates have warm,dry summers and cool, wet winters.
    • D – Continental Climates can be found in the interior regions of large land masses. Total precipitation is not very high and seasonal temperatures vary widely.
    • E – Cold Climates describe this climate type perfectly. These climates are part of areas where permanent ice and tundra are always present. Only about four months of the year have above freezing temperatures.
  • Other letter code
  • f: rain throughout the year
  • w: winter dry
  • m: monsoon
  • s: summer dry
  • h: hot
  • k: cold
  • Subgroups:-
  • Type A:-
    • Af: Equitorial rainforest (A= tropical, f= always rain)
    • Aw: Savanna type (winter dry tropical region)
    • Am: Monsoon type (short dry season, adequate rainfall)
    • As: Summer Dry (rare)
  • Type B
    • BS: Steppe Type semi-arid (less extreme)
      • BSh:  annual temperature >18 degrees (tropical Steppe)
      • BSk:  annual temperature <18 degrees (mid-latitude Steppe)
    • BW: dry desert climate (more extreme)
      • BWh: annual temperature >18 degrees
      • BWk:  annual temperature <18 degrees
    • Type C
      • Cf: Western European Type
      • Cs: Dry summer, 3x precipitation in winter. Mediterranean Climate
      • Cw: Dry Winter. 10x ppt. in summers. China type climate
    • Type D
      • Df: no dry season
      • Dw: winter dry season
    • Type E
      • ET: Tundra type, 0-10 degrees
      • EF:Permafrost zone, below 0 degree

                                                                                All Koppen types

                                                                                Major Koppen types


Pros of Koppen Classification

  • Quantitative: easier to understand and measure
  • Co-incides with vegetation pattern
  • gave importance to effective precipitation (evapotranspiration)

Cons of Koppen Classification

  • Difficult to memorize.
  • Too much emphasis on average values
  • Ignored precipitation intensity, cloud cover, daily temperature variations, number of rainy days etc.
  • Ignored role of air masses
  • Was not a genetic classification
  • Estimated rather than measurable variables involved


General Studies – 2

Topic -Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3)To enable greater efficacy of public policies, it is necessary to ensure meaningful public participation. Discuss.(250 words)


Why this question

A lot of policies have been made public for comments and feedback, however a very limited set of people particularly organised civil society are able to register their feedback and response. Ways to ensure greater public participation needs to be devised so as to enable formulation of better policies.

Key demand of the question

The following points have to be brought out

  • The present situation – how public participation is sought to be ensured etc
  • the advantages and ways of ensuring greater public participation
  • The impracticality and disadvantages of greater public participation in case of public policies
  • Instances of public policies which have had a buy in of all stakeholders and the impact that it has created such as RTI
  • Way forward

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the recent policies which have been brought out for public response and relate that to the issue being discussed in the question.


  • Bring out the present situation – highlight that formal mechanisms exist but are unutilized or underutilized
  • Highlight the advantages of ensuring greater public participation
  • Highlight the disadvantages of the same
  • Highlight ways in which the situation can be improved
  • Highlight case study of RTI where there was a lot of genuine public participation and how the policy has strengthened democracy and the experience should be replicated across

Conclusion – stress on the importance of the issue in ensuring formulation of better policies and the way forward.



  • Recently government has put draft forest policy, amendments to the 2011 Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification and the draft National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) in public domain for public opinion however the approach followed is criticised.


Public policies available for public participation but approach is criticized:

  • Strict time frame:-
    • The government has put out these three documents, seeking written comments within the proposed tight timeframe. However, these documents are fully formed drafts that are based on a number of assumptions and make very specific suggestions on how to move forward.
  • Not open ended:-
    • Such documents are not open-ended and seem already invested with ministerial backing. This makes it difficult to critique the fundamental premise in them.
  • No accountability :-
    • The call for public comments in the present form creates an illusion that anyone with access to these documents can become a part of reforming environment law and policy. But there is no obligation on the part of the government to tell citizens how their comments were dealt with.
  • This has a negative effect on public participation itself in the long run as fewer and fewer citizens find such processes a worthwhile exercise.
  • When government wanted public opinion to discuss  new education policy , the website limited comments to 500 characters and to an already provided list of issues. This partly censored opinion generation could at best generate only fragmented and disparate views, and contradictory recommendations from the public. 
  • The problem is that leading questions and pre-decided themes limit the possibilities of an in-depth and fair discussion.


Public participation is necessary because:-

  • Deliberative discussions on the main issues, gaps or problems would allow greater public engagement and generate a wider set of perspectives that would be otherwise unavailable to the government.
    • For example, the 2011 CRZ notification was drafted, following a series of public meetings to discuss various aspects of coastal governance.
  • Advantage of these processes is that there is greater acceptability of the final outcomes. 
  • Participatory processes also involve accountability of those who have engaged in it.
  • Public participation is a sign of a healthy democracy. It means going beyond the events of elections to genuinely collaborate on policymaking and governance.
  • Pre-legislative scrutiny enhances democratic governance. It has been done in a number of other countries well accustomed to transparent legislative processes.
  • People who are potentially affected by a proposed legislation whether adversely or favourably should be able to have a say in the law-making process at an early stage. 



  • Too much public participation will delay the decision making process leading to confusion.
  • Also the quality of discussion is significant when India is still struggling with literacy there are high chances that most of the citizens are not aware about the topic .

Way forward:-

  • India has seen some good examples including the Right to Information Act, often the only forum for inputs for legislation is behind the closed doors of a parliamentary committee.
  • Follow Kerala model:-
    • The mode of consultation must be made well-known, and the instruments for consultation will have to go beyond the Internet and electronic media.
    • A robust model of pre-legislative consultation might resemble that carried out by Kerala in relation to police legislation. In 2011, the State government went all out to ensure true public participation in drafting its police law where inclusive approach was followed with district and town wide hall meetings.
    • Notices were placed in leading newspapers publicising the committee, its visit and its mandate.
    • Many of public suggestions were accepted and passed

General Studies – 3

TOPICEffects of liberalization on the economy

4)The provisions of Agreement on Agriculture relating to subsidies are impractical for developing countries particularly India. Examine(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

United States (US) submitted a document in the World Trading Organization (WTO) questioning the compatibility of India’s agricultural subsidies with the relevant provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA). Hence the provisions need to be examined

Key demand of the question

The question demands answers to the following points:

  • The provisions have to be explained
  • The pragmatism of these policies, particularly for developing countries needs to be examined
  • The stand of developed and developing countries need to be mentioned
  • How should India respond is to be brought out

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . in the above case, the discussion has to be centred around the points outlined above.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Stress on explaining that this is an oft repeated controversy, highlight the recent case and outline the debates that it raises


  • Explain the provisions and why is there a controversy on this issue
  • Explain the perspective (in brief) of developed countries
  • While outlining the perspective of developing countries like India – explain how it is impractical for India to limit itself to the 10% limit based on 1986-88 prices due to reasons of food security, livelihood protection etc
  • Examine India’s stand on the issue and way forward

Conclusion – Mention the need for modification in the subsidy regime to ensure that there is greater buy in from the developing countries when it comes to WTO policies.


  • Recently the United States (US) submitted a document in the World Trading Organization (WTO) questioning the compatibility of India’s agricultural subsidies with the relevant provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA).
  • The document targets the minimum support price (MSP) granted to wheat and rice, the two key food crops. The US contention is that the MSP of these two crops (market price support, according to AoA), are well above the limits set by the AoA.

Agreement on agriculture:-

  • WTO’s agreement on agriculture was concluded in 1994, and was aimed to remove trade barriers and to promote transparent market accessand integration of global markets.
  • Subsidies regime included in the AoA has three forms of subsidies, ranging from those that were considered “non-distorting” or “minimally distorting” (the “Green Box” and “Blue Box” subsidies), to those that seriously “distorted” markets (the “Amber Box” subsidies).

Impractical to India because :-

  • Developed countries interest:-
    • The AoA was crafted primarily by the US and the members of the European Union (EU), to serve their interests, while developing countries like India were reduced to mere bystanders.
    • Subsidies that wealthy countries give their farmers and agribusinesses are mostly classified as “non-distorting” measures, and remain high.
    • A few multinational agribusinesses have increased their domination of global trade and food distribution.
    • Most developed countries have shifted towards green box subsidies for agriculture, so they continue to provide enormous support to their farmers without breaching WTO
    • To calculate the level of current subsidies, the WTO uses prices of 25 years ago (the average 1986-88 global prices). This is criticised since food prices have shot up since then, so recent prices should be used as the reference. But developed countries currently refuse to agree to this because “it will open up the agreement.”
  • Since the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture took effect in 1995, world trade patterns have changed, and there are forces distorting food trade that are not being adequately addressed.
    • Speculation in commodity futures markets is creating volatile price movements that do not reflect true changes in demand and supply.
  • Small producers and consumers:-
    • The interests of small farmers have almost been completely ignored.
    • Bad for small producers, who do not benefit from price increases and lose out when prices decline with import surges.
    • It is also bad for poor consumers, who face much higher prices for their food.
    • In many developing countries this has created two linked problems: food insecurity because of high and volatile food prices, and livelihood insecurity of food producers because of rising costs and uncertain supply.
  • India’s concerns:-
    • India flagged the important issue of food security and argued that the sovereign states must have the right to decide the manner in which the poor should be provided subsidised food.
    • This issue arose after questions were raised as to whether public stockholding of food, which is at the heart of India’s Public Distribution System (PDS), meets the WTO disciplines on agricultural subsidies. 
    • Many countries try to protect farmers by introducing measures to make food affordable for low-income consumers or by encouraging domestic food production, particularly through supporting small farmers.
    • India’s recent law that seeks to provide food security to one of the largest undernourished populations in the world has been challenged by the US in the WTO, even though India’s scheme would cost a fraction of what the US provides in food subsidies.
  • AOA is criticised on being insensitive to human development or improving standards of living, and being too insistent on liberalization.
    • The model of agricultural trade liberalization promoted by the AOA also encourages industrialized and export-oriented agricultural production, favouring transnational commodity traders and processors over small-scale farmers

Way forward:-

  • Developing countries trying to ensure food security may need more flexibility than global trade rules allow. To that end, the G33, a coalition of developing countries at the WTO, has suggested broadening the green box to include policies such as land reform programmes, the provision of infrastructure, and rural employment initiatives.
  • Government purchases of crops at fixed or administered prices can be an essential policy instrument.
    • Under WTO rules, however, if governments pay farmers at rates that are even slightly above market prices when they are stockpiling food, those payments count toward the country’s 10% amber box ceiling.
    • But grain reserves can be essential to domestic food security, allowing countries to guard against sudden movements in global food prices. So such payments should also be classified in the green box.
  • Peace clause that would temporarily suspend WTO actions against countries that exceed their amber box limit is being suggested as a fallback negotiating strategy. But such an outcome should be accepted only as a transitional measure towards full recognition of the legitimacy of such policies to ensure food security.


  • WTO rules make a travesty of the first millennium development goal, to reduce hunger. If the world community is truly concerned about hunger, then it should not let unfair trade rules reduce developing countries ability to do something about it.

Topic: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5) Use of antibiotics in poultry poses health risks to all and should be strictly banned. Critically analyse.(250 words)

Indian express


Why this question

Poultry production and consumption in India has been growing steadily and most of the domestic production is under intensive system. Poultry industry is heavily dependent on the use of antibiotics, which poses several health concerns. The question is related to GS 3 syllabus under the following heading-

Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to highlight the reasons behind antibiotics use in poultry and discuss its adverse effects on the health. We have to form a personal opinion based on that discussion.

Directive word

Critically analyse- we have to see all the aspects of the question- why antibiotics are used in raising poultry and what are its health effects. We have to present our personal opinion on the issue also.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Present some statistics about use of antibiotics in poultry or mention the growth in production and consumption of poultry meat in India.


  1. discuss the need of using antibiotics in raising poultry. (e.g as growth promoter it improves feed conversion ratio, thereby decreasing costs of production.
  2. discuss the health effects. ( e.g increased antibiotic resistance, allergy, environmental pollution and hence risk to non meat eaters also etc.)
  3. Discuss the efforts directed to reduce or stop antibiotics use in poultry. Mention national action program on antibiotics etc.

Conclusion- mention the imperative to stop antibiotics use and present a way forward- stricter standards, use of probiotics and prebiotics in place of antibiotics etc.


Antibiotics in poultry are used for the following reasons :-

  • The issue of antibiotic use in livestock is particularly for non-therapeutic use such as mass disease prevention or growth promotion of poultry, pigs etc.
  • Studies conducted by the Centre for Science and Environment has shown the use of important antimicrobials, including critically important ones in poultry and aquaculture.
  • Indian chicken producers claim that antibiotics are used only for treating sick birds.

Why rampant usage of antibiotics continues in Poultry and why it should be strictly banned :-

  • Unregulated sale of the drugs for human or animal use accessed without prescriptionor diagnosis has led to unchecked consumption and misuse.
    • Of tested birds destined for meat consumption, 87% had the super germs based on a study published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.
  • Farms supplying India’s biggest poultry-meat companies routinely use medicines classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “critically important” as a way of staving off disease or to make them gain weight faster, so that more can be grown each year for greater profit.
    • One drug typically given this way is Colistin which is used to treat patients critically ill with infections that have become resistant to nearly all other drugs.
  • In India, the poultry industry is booming. The amount of chicken produced doubled between 2003 and 2013. Chicken is popular because it can be eaten by people of all religionsand affordable. Experts predict the rising demand for protein will cause a surge in antibiotic use in livestock. India’s consumption of antibiotics in chickens is predicted to rise fivefold by 2030 compared to 2010.
  • Lax regulation:-
    • India does not have an effective integrated policy to control the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry with a viewpoint of containing antibiotic resistance
    • In 2014 the Agriculture Ministry sent an advisory letter to all State governments asking them to review the use of antibiotic growth promoters. However, the directive was non-binding, and none have introduced legislation to date.
    • Even the guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)on poultry waste management do not adequately address ABR.
  • In India, at least five animal pharmaceutical companies are openly advertising products containing Colistin as growth promoters.
    • Chickens are fed antibiotics so that they gain weight and grow fast.
    • Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) has found residues of antibiotics in 40 per cent of the chicken samples it tested. 
    • In Europe, Colistin is available to farmers only if prescribed by a vet for the treatment of sick animals. In India there is no such thing.
  • India, level of awareness regarding antibiotic resistance is very low.
  • Antibiotics are also coming from China as the imports are not regulated
  • Poultry farmers also ignore the mandatory withdrawal period, time gap between the use of antibiotics and when it is slaughtered that helps ensure that high levels of antibiotic residues do not pass on to humans.
  • While many poultry farmers are aware of other options or antibiotic-free growth promoter feed supplements, their high cost is prohibitive for smaller players. Bigger farmers are less keen because there is no incentive to make antibiotic-free chickens.

Health and other risks :-

  • Because resistance blunts the effectiveness of drugs designed to cure or prevent infection.
    • The bacteria survive and continue to multiply rendering ineffectual treatment for serious illnesses like pneumonia and tuberculosis, even prophylaxis in, say, caesarian deliveries. It hampers recovery in post-operative surgery.
  • Public health experts have suspected that such rampant use of antibiotics could be a reason for increasing antibiotic resistance in India.
    • These mutated robust strains bypass toxic effects of antibiotics, making them ineffective. They can easily spread among the flock and contaminate the food chain.
    • They can also alter the genetic material of other bacteria, often pathogenic ones, making them resistant to several drugs and resulting in a global pandemic.
  • Antibiotic residues present in the meat can directly unleash an assault on microbes in humans.
  • The mutated robust microbe strain can invade the body and cause diseases that are difficult to treat.Even mild infections require stronger dosage.
  • These drug-resistant bacteria could nullify the gains of modern medicine by compromising the success of organ transplants, high-end surgeries and cancer chemotherapy.
  • With drugs losing their effectiveness, the world would need newer antibiotics. Unfortunately, no new class of antibiotic has hit the market since late 1980s.
  • Annual healthcare cost due to antibiotic resistanceis estimated to be as high as $20 billion, with an additional productivity loss of up to $35 billion in the US.
  • Treating fatal diseases like sepsis, pneumonia and tuberculosis (TB) are becoming tough because microbes that cause these diseases are increasingly becoming resistantto fluoroquinolones.
  • Farmhandswho handle the birds often wear open-toe shoes, providing a conduit of entry for resistant bacteria and resistance genes into the community and hospitals, where further person-to-person transmission is possible.

Way ahead:-

  • Ban the use of antibiotics for growth promotion and mass disease prevention. It should only be used to cure the sick animals based on prescription of veterinarians
  • Antibiotics should not be allowed in feed and feedThe government should set standards for animal feed and regulate the business
  • Encourage development, production and use of alternative antibiotic-free growth promoters, such as herbal supplements
  • All animal antibiotics should be traceable from manufacturing site to user. Implement stringent control on import of antibiotics and feed supplements
  • Good farm management practices should be followed to control infection and stress among the flock.
  • Veterinarians should be trained and educated on judicious use of antibiotics and infection prevention.The government should ensure that veterinarians do not get incentives for prescribing more antibiotics
  • There is a need to introduce a labelling system wherein poultry raised without use of antibiotics should be labelled through reliable certified schemes to facilitate consumer choice.
  • It is necessary to create an integrated surveillance system to monitor antibiotics use and antibiotics resistance trends in humans, animals and food chain. A national-level database should be developed and kept in the public domain.
  • Citizens should be educated about what they are eating, what does their food contain, and what are the consequences. 
  • Herbal feeds:-
    • Other countries are importing herbal animal feeds from India. The effectiveness of these herbal feeds should be studied for Indian conditions. And if these feeds pass the test, Indian farmers should be advised to use them.
  • The government must issue advisories asking poultry farmers to stop the use of Colistin and maintain records of the overall use of all drugs given to poultry. This should become a strict requirement for the poultry industry.


General Studies – 4

Topic: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance

6)What do you understand by emotional intelligence. Discuss the five components of emotional intelligence as given by Holeman.(250 words)



Why this question

This question is related to GS 4 syllabus under the following heading-

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

Key demand of the question

The question simply wants us to define the concept and importance of emotional intelligence. It also wants us to discuss the five components of emotional intelligence as given by Holeman.

Directive word

Discuss- we have to write in detail about the given topic- emotional intelligence and its five components.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Define emotional intelligence.


  1. Discuss the importance and relevance of emotional intelligence.
  2. Discuss the five components of emotional intelligence as given by Holeman.

Take the help of the above attached article and other such articles/ sources to frame your answer.

Conclusion– mention in 1-2 linea how we can improving our emotional intelligence vis a vis public services.



Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Especially in administration emotional intelligence is necessary because:-

  • Social responsibility
    • When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance
    • To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress.
  • Impulse control
    • Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options. People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation.
  • Optimism
    • Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.

Five components of emotional intelligence

  • According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize emotional intelligence, there are five key elements to it:
    • Self-awareness:-
      • The ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others.
      • Hallmarks of self-awareness include self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humour.
      • Emotional awareness:This deals with knowledge of one’s emotions and their effects. People having this competency are more aware of their feelings and performance.
      • Accurate self-assessment:This involves being aware of one’s strengths and weaknesses. One is open to feedbacks, new viewpoints, etc.
      • Self-confidence:This relates to complete affirmation of one’s worth and abilities. They are usually more confident and are able to make sound decisions despite any uncertainties or pressures
    • Self-regulation:-
      • Ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods, and the propensity to suspend judgment and to think before acting. Hallmarks include trustworthiness and integrity; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change.
      • Adaptability:This involves flexible attitude towards change. People with this competency find it easy to handle changing routines, multiple roles and even shifting priorities.
      • Innovativeness:This involves getting easy with and open to new information and ideas. People who possess this are able to gather new ideas from multiple sources, set challenging roles and are able to take calculated risks. They evolve original solutions to various problems.
    • Motivation:-
      • A passion to work for internal reasons that go beyond money and status -which are external rewards, – such as an inner vision of what is important in life, a joy in doing something, curiosity in learning, a flow that comes with being immersed in an activity
    • Empathy:-
      • The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions.
      • Empathy does not necessarily imply compassion. Empathy can be ‘used’ for compassionate or cruel behaviour. Serial killers who marry and kill many partners in a row tend to have great emphatic skills.
    • Social skills:-
      • Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and an ability to find common ground and build rapport. Hallmarks of social skills include effectiveness in leading change, persuasiveness, and expertise building and leading teams.