PRELIMS BOOSTER 2018
Siberian ibex and Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
- It live mostly above the tree line, in areas of steep slopes and rocky scree. Their habitat consists of a mixture of high altitude tundra, alpine meadows, and regions of semidesert.
- The species does not enter forest zones, but on a hot day does prefer shaded areas, it tends to remain near steep, escape terrain
- Range extends from Tajikistan to magnolia
- hunted for subsistence use because they have been an important supplementary food for local people
- competition with livestock for food and habitat
- predators pressure
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
- Intergovernmental organization
- Established in 1899 by Convention on the Pacific Settlement of disputes
- Headquarter — The Hague, Netherlands
- 121 states
- India is a party to the convention
- not a United Nations agency but PCA is an official United Nations Observer
- It is not a court “in the traditional sense” but provides services of arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes that arise out of international agreements between member states, international organizations or private parties
- The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade
- All decisions, called “awards” are binding on all the parties in the dispute and have to be carried out without delay.
- structure — three-part organizational structure
- Administrative Council — oversees its policies and budgets, a
- Members of the Court — panel of independent potential arbitrators
- International Bureau — Secretariat headed by the Secretary-General.