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SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 45(Schemes and Programmes)

 


SOLUTIONS 

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 45(Schemes and Programmes)


 

1.Which of the following statements is/are correct about National Green Tribunal?

  1. The Tribunal is bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure.
  2. The tribunal is guided by principles of natural justice.
  3. The Tribunal is mandated to dispose of applications or appeals finally within 1 year of filing.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: b

Justification:

National Green Tribunal

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) was set up in 2010 under the NGT Act, 2010, for the purpose of effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.

(Hence, statement 1 is incorrect and statement 2 is correct.)

The Tribunal is mandated to make an endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing.

(Hence, statement 3 is incorrect.)

NGT has five places of sitting, i.e, the Principal Bench in Delhi and Zonal Benches in Pune, Kolkata, Bhopal and Chennai. Apart from this the Tribunal holds three circuit Benches at Shimla, Shillong and Jodhpur.

Source: India Year Book 2018

 


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in India?
    1. It was first used in India as early as second five year plan with Hydro-electric Power Projects.
    2. It is an assessment tool to enquire into environmental concerns of developmental process at the last stage of the project.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d

Justification:

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), is a planning tool to integrate environmental concerns into the developmental process from the initial stage of planning.

(Hence, statement 2 is incorrect)

It was first used in India as early as 1978 with river valley projects, and was subsequently extended to large public sector projects requiring Public Investment Board (PIB) clearance. These practices were formally codified for the first time in the EIA Notification, 1994.

(Hence, statement 1 is incorrect)

This made the requirement of environmental clearance mandatory for 37 categories of projects/ processes, listed therein. The criterion of investment was the basis for the projects requiring environmental clearance in different sectors.

Source: India Year Book 2018


 

  1. Which of the following is/are the objectives of Project Elephant (PE)?
    1. To protect elephants, their habitat and corridors.
    2. To address issues of man-animal conflict.
    3. Welfare of domesticated elephants.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

Justification:

Project Elephant (PE) was launched by the Government of India in 1991-92 as a centrally sponsored scheme with the objectives: – to protect elephants, their habitat and corridors; to address issues of man-animal conflict; and welfare of domesticated elephants.

(Hence, all 1, 2 and 3 are correct.)

Hence, option (d) is correct.

Source: India Year Book 2018


4.Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) monitors the pollution in which of the following areas?

  1. Industrial areas
  2. Residential areas
  3. Cultivated lands

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 1, 2 ad 3

 

Solution: a

 

Answer Justification:

Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) Monitoring for Polluted Industrial Areas (PIAs)

CPCB developed Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) to find out an Index value to characterise quality of the environment. In 2009, 88 prominent industrial clusters were identified in consultation with the MoEF&CC for CEPI analysis. Out of identified 88 prominent industrial clusters, 43 industrial clusters in 17 States having CEPI score of 70 and above are identified as Critically Polluted Areas (CPAs). Further, 32 industrial clusters with CEPI scores between 60 & below 70 are categorized as Severely Polluted Areas (SPAs).

CPCB has revised CEPI concept in concurrence with MoEF&CC and subsequently issued directions on 26/4/2016 to all SPCBs/PCCs having CPAs for adoption of the revised CEPI concept, which includes:

  • Environmental quality monitoring in all the CPAs.
  • Installation of Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations.
  • Installation of Continuous Water Quality Monitoring Stations.

Hence, option (a) is correct.

Source: http://cpcb.nic.in/comprehensive-environmental-pollution-index-cepi/


5.Which of the following is/are the goal/s under National Mission for a Green India (GIM)?

  1. To increase forest based livelihood income.
  2. To improve eco-system services.
  3. To increase forest/tree cover and improve quality of forest/tree cover.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

National Mission for Green India

The National Mission for a Green India (GIM), one of the eight missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change aims at protecting and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover to counter the perils of climate change. It envisages a holistic view of greening and focuses on multiple ecosystem services along with carbon sequestration and emission reduction as co-benefit. The Mission embarks on meeting the challenge of climate change adaptation and mitigation through sub-missions and a cross-cutting intervention:

  • Enhancing quality of forest cover and improving ecosystem services.
  • Ecosystem restoration and increase in forest cover.
  • Agroforestry and social forestry.
  • Promoting alternative fuel energy.

Source: India Year Book 2018

Mission Goals

  • To increase forest/tree cover to the extent of 5 million hectares (mha) and improve quality of forest/tree cover on another 5 mha of forest/non-forest lands;
  • To improve/enhance eco-system services like carbon sequestration and storage (in forests and other ecosystems), hydrological services and biodiversity; along with provisioning services like fuel, fodder, and timber and non-timber forest produces (NTFPs); and
  • To increase forest based livelihood income of about 3 million households.

Hence, all 3 statements are correct.

Source: http://www.moef.nic.in/division/introduction-22


 

6.Real Time Water Quality Monitoring System (RTWQMS) has been established for which of the following rivers?

  1. Ganga
  2. Yamuna
  3. Brahmaputra
  4. Godavari

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 3 and 4 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 2 and 3 only

Solution: a

Justification:

Real Time Water Quality Monitoring System (RTWQMS) On River Ganga and Yamuna

  • 44 Real Time Water Quality Monitoring Stations (RTWQMS) have been established on river Ganga.
  • 2 on river Yamuna viz. Wazirabad and Okhla in Delhi to assess water quality of river Ganga/Yamuna.

Source:

http://www.moef.gov.in/sites/default/files/22-03-18.pdf

India Year Book 2018


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about different types of vegetation?
    1. Tropical deciduous forests are called monsoon forests.
    2. Thorny bushes are found in Western Ghats.
    3. Tundra Vegetation grows during the very short summer.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

Justification:

TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS

In a large part of our country we have this type of forest. These forests are also called monsoon forests. They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham. They are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and in parts of Maharashtra.

Hence, statement 1 is correct.

THORNY BUSHES

This type of vegetation is found in dry areas of the country. The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water. Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are important and are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.

Hence, statement 2 is correct.

TUNDRA VEGETATION

If you reach the polar region you will find the place extremely cold. The growth of natural vegetation is very limited here. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs are found here. It grows during the very short summer. This is called Tundra type of vegetation.

Hence, statement 3 is correct.

Source: NCERT Class VI and VII Geography


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about biosphere?
    1. Natural vegetation and wildlife exist only in the biosphere.
    2. Living beings in the biosphere are not necessarily inter-related and interdependent on each other for survival.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Justification:

Natural vegetation and wildlife exist only in the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere that we call biosphere.

Hence, statement 1 is correct.

In the biosphere living beings are inter-related and interdependent on each other for survival. This life supporting system is known as the ecosystem.

Hence, statement 2 is incorrect.

Source: NCERT Class VII Geography


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about biodiversity?
    1. It is rich in wildlife species but not cultivated species.
    2. It is diverse in form and function.
    3. It is closely integrated through multiple network of interdependencies.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: b

Justification:

Biodiversity is:

  • Immensely rich in not only wildlife but also cultivated species.

Hence, statement 1 is incorrect.

 

  • Diverse in form and function.
  • Closely integrated in a system through multiple network of interdependencies.

Hence, statement 2 and 3 are correct.

Source: NCERT Class X Geography

 


  1. Globally endangered dugong, species of dolphins and whales and species of endangered sea turtles are found in which of the following biosphere reserves?

a) Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve

b) Manas Biosphre Reserve

c) Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

d) Dihang – Dibang Biosphere Reserve

Solution: c

Justification:

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve:

  • The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve is the first marine biosphere reserve in Asia, located in the Southern part of the Bay of Bengal. NOTES
  • The reserve covers 10,500 sq. km and has 21 islands with continuous stretches of coral reef.
  • Fauna present includes globally endangered dugong, several species of dolphins and whales and three species of endangered sea turtles.
  • It is a part of UNESCO MAB (Man and Biosphere) programme.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_of_Mannar_Marine_National_Park#Flora_and_fauna

Refer Insights Exclusive Environment Module


 

  1. Which of the following are the key components of Namami Gange Prrogramme?
    1. Creating Sewerage Treatment Capacity
    2. Creating River-Front Development
    3. River Surface Cleaning
    4. Bio-Diversity Conservation
    5. Afforestation
    6. Industrial Effluent Monitoring

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1, 2 and 3 only

b) 1, 2, 3 and 6 only

c) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 only

d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Solution: d

Justification:

The key achievements under Namami Gange programme are:-

  1. Creating Sewerage Treatment Capacity:- 63 sewerage management projects under implementation in the States of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.12 new sewerage management Projects Launched in these states. Work is under construction for creating Sewerage capacity of 1187.33 (MLD).Hybrid Annuity PPP Model based two projects has been initiated for Jagjeetpur, Haridwar.
  2. Creating River-Front Development:-28 River-Front Development projects and 33 Entry level Projects for construction, modernization and renovation of 182 Ghats and 118 crematoria has been initiated.
  3. River Surface Cleaning:-River Surface cleaning for collection of floating solid waste from the surface of the Ghats and River and its disposal are afoot and pushed into service at 11 locations.
  4. Bio-Diversity Conservation:- Several Bio-Diversity conservation projects are namely: Biodiversity Conservation and Ganga Rejuvenation, Fish and Fishery Conservation in Ganga River, Ganges River Dolphin Conservation Education Programme has been initiated. 5 Bio-Diversity centre’s at Dehradun, Narora, Allahabad, Varanasi and Barrackpore has been developed for restoration of identified priority species.
  5. Afforestation:- Forestry interventions for Ganga through Wildlife Institute of India; Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute and Centre for Environment Education has been initiated. Forestry interventions for Ganga has been executed as per the Detailed Project Report prepared by Forest Research Institute, Dehradun for a period of 5 years (2016-2021) at project cost of Rs.2300 Crores. Work has been commenced in 7 districts of Uttarakahnd for medicinal plants.
  6. Public Awareness:- A series of activities such as events, workshops, seminars and conferences and numerous IEC activities were organized to make a strong pitch for public outreach and community participation in the programme. Various awareness activities through rallies, campaigns, exhibitions, shram daan, cleanliness drives, competitions, plantation drives and development and distribution of resource materials were organized and for wider publicity the mass mediums such as TV/Radio, print media advertisements, advertorials, featured articles and advertorials were published. Gange Theme song was released widely and played on digital media to enhance the visibility of the programme. NMCG ensured presence at Social Media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Youtube etc.
  7. Industrial Effluent Monitoring:- Real Time Effluent Monitoring Stations (EMS) has been installed in 572 out of 760 Grossly Polluting Industries (GPIs). Closure notice have been issued to 135 GPIs so far and others have been given deadlines for compliance to stipulated norms and for installations of online EMS.
  8. Ganga Gram:- Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MoDWS) identified 1674 Gram Panchayats situated on the bank of River Ganga in 5 State (Uttarakhand,Uttar Pradesh,Bihar,Jharkhand,West Bengal). Rs. 578 Crores has been released to Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MoDWS) for construction of toilets in 1674 Gram Panchayats of 5 Ganga Basin States. Out of the targeted 15, 27,105 units, MoDWS has completed construction of 8, 53,397 toilets. Consortium of 7 IITs has been engaged in the preparation of Ganga River basin Plan and 65 villages has been adopted by 13 IITs to develop as model villages. UNDP has been engaged as the executing agency for rural sanitation programme and to develop Jharkhand as a model State at an estimated cost of Rs. 127 Crore.

Hence, option (d) is correct.

Source: http://nmcg.nic.in/NamamiGanga.aspx


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Important Bird Areas (IBAs)?
    1. It is a programme of Birdlife International.
    2. All Important Bird Areas (IBAs) fall inside the Protected Area network.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Justification:

The IBA programme of Birdlife International aims to identify, monitor and protect a global network of IBAs for conservation of the world’s birds and associated biodiversity. The IBAs serve as conservation areas for protection of birds at the global, regional or sub-regional level. According to Birdlife International, designation of IBAs is based on standardized criteria, namely (i) hold significant numbers of one or more globally threatened bird species, (ii) be one of a set of sites that together hold a suite of restricted-range species or biome-restricted species and (iii) have exceptionally large numbers of migratory or congregatory birds. The IBAs contain a range of habitats, such as wetlands, mudflats, microhabitats in biodiversity hotspots, grasslands and scrublands, making them excellent indicators of biodiversity richness (India’s 5th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2014)

Hence, statement 1 is correct.

The Bombay Natural History Society and Birdlife International have identified 467 IBAs in India. Forty percent of these IBAs fall outside the PA network and thus form an important tool for landscape-level conservation planning. BNHS has also prepared a list of 96 new/potential sites which can be designated as IBAs in the future.

Hence, statement 2 is incorrect.

Source: http://wiienvis.nic.in/Database/IBA_8463.aspx


 

 

  1. Which of the following pairs of schedules of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and their details are correctly matched?
SchedulesDetails
Schedule IAbsolute Protection of the species notified
Schedule IIIIncludes the animals which may be hunted
Schedule VSpecified endemic plants are prohibited from cultivation and planting.

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) None of the above

Solution: a

Justification:

The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species. The Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed. The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act.

It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. 

Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection – offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties.

Species listed in Schedule III and Schedule IV are also protected, but the penalties are much lower. 

Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted.

The specified endemic plants in Schedule VI are prohibited from cultivation and planting.

Hence, option (a) is correct.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildlife_Protection_Act,_1972


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about brown carbon?
    1. It exists independently in the atmosphere.
    2. It is emitted mainly by biomass combustion.
    3. The absorptive properties of it can have large impacts on radiation transfer and climate.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: b

Justification:

Brown carbon (Cbrown/BrC) is brown smoke released by the combustion of organic matter. It coexists with black carbon when released in the atmosphere.

Hence, statement 1 is incorrect.

Black Carbon (BC), emitted mainly by high-temperature combustion processes (diesel engines, etc.) and Brown Carbon (BrC), emitted mainly by biomass combustion are the two most important light absorbing substances in the atmospheric aerosol.

Hence, statement 2 is correct.

The absorptive properties of these substances can have large impacts on radiative transfer and climate.

Hence, statement 3 is correct.

Despite more than 30 years of research, no standard measurement method for BC is available. The only direct technique to estimate the concentration of BrC was developed and was included in collaborative, intensive measurement method comparisons, which showed that BrC can lead to large differences in common BC measurement methods. We now investigate the physical basis of the various interferences in the measurement techniques.

Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_carbon

http://aerosols.univie.ac.at/research/black-and-brown-carbon-in-atmospheric-aerosols/

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/IIT-team-tracks-brown-carbon%E2%80%99s-effect-on-atmospheric-warming/article16703349.ece


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about mosses?
    1. They are distributed throughout the world except in salt water.
    2. They aid in soil erosion control.
    3. They release nutrients for the use of complex plants.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

Justification:

Moss, (division Bryophyta), any of at least 12,000 species of small non-vascular spore-bearing land plants. Mosses are distributed throughout the world except in salt water and are commonly found in moist shady locations.

Hence, statement 1 is correct.

They are best known for those species that carpet woodland and forest floors.

Ecologically, mosses break down exposed substrata, releasing nutrients for the use of more complex plants that succeed them.

Hence, statement 3 is correct.

They also aid in soil erosion control by providing surface cover and absorbing water, and they are important in the nutrient and water economy of some vegetation types. Economically important species are those in the genus Sphagnum that form peat.

Hence, statement 3 is correct.

Source: https://www.britannica.com/plant/moss-plant


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission standards?
    1. Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission standards specify 10 ppm sulphur for gasoline and diesel fuels.
    2. Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission standards will take effect throughout the country for all light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles as well as two and three wheelers.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Justification:

On 19 Feb 2016, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highway issued a draft notification of Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission standards, equivalent to Euro VI. The standards, as proposed, will take effect throughout the country for all light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles as well as two and three wheelers manufactured on or after 1 Apr 2020.

Hence, statement 2 is correct.

The BS VI standard specifies 10 ppm sulphur for gasoline and diesel fuels. The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG) announced nationwide supply of BS VI fuel in conjunction with the proposed BS VI emission standard implementation date of 1 Apr 2020. The BS VI regulation establishes an important precedent by leapfrogging from Euro IV-equivalent directly to Euro VI-equivalent motor vehicle emission standards and fuels.

Hence, statement 1 is correct.

Source:

https://www.transportpolicy.net/standard/india-fuels-diesel-and-gasoline/

http://egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2016/168300.pdf


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about petcoke?
    1. Petcoke itself has a low level of toxicity.
    2. There are evidences that Petcoke has carcinogenic substances.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Justification:

Petroleum coke, also called pet coke or petcoke, is a solid carbon material that resembles coal; it is a product of oil refining.

The health risks of petroleum coke:

Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA is particularly concerned about particles that are 10 micrometers in diameter or smaller (referred to as PM10) because those are the particles that generally pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs. Once inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects.

Petroleum coke is 90% elemental carbon and 3% to 6% elemental sulfur; the rest is elemental hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There are also trace amounts of metals and organic compounds. While trace amounts of toxic materials have been measured in petroleum coke, studies on rats show that petroleum coke itself has a low level of toxicity and that there is no evidence of carcinogenicity.

Hence, statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.

Source: https://www.epa.gov/petroleum-coke-chicago/health-effects-petroleum-coke

 


  1. Which of the following organizations publishes Greenhouse Gas Bulletin?

a) World Meteorological Organization

b) International Union for Conservation of Nature

c) International Institution for Sustainable Development

d) Global Environment Facility

Solution: a

Justification:

WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin

The Atmospheric Environment and Research Division of WMO’s Research Department publishes the WMO-GAW Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletins. Each year, these bulletins will report the latest trends and atmospheric burdens of the most influential, long-lived greenhouse gases; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as a summary of the contributions of the lesser gases. The Bulletins represent the consensus of a consortium of networks operated since the mid-1980s. These three major gases alone contribute about 88% of the increase in radiative forcing of the atmosphere by changes in long-lived greenhouse gases occurring since the beginning of the industrial age (since 1750).

Hence, option (a) is correct.

Source: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/GHGbulletin.html


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Circular Economy?
    1. It shifts towards the use of renewable energy.
    2. It eliminates the use of toxic chemicals.
    3. It aims for the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

Justification:

The 8th India-European Union Environment Forum was organised by EU on the theme of “Resource Efficiency and the Circular Economy – Benefits beyond environment” in New Delhi on 30th June, 2017.

A circular economy is an industrial system that is restorative or regenerative by intention and design. It replaces the end-of-life concept with restoration, shifts towards the use of renewable energy, eliminates the use of toxic chemicals, which impair reuse and return to the biosphere, and aims for the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials, products, systems and business models.

Such an economy is based on a few simple principles.

First, at its core, a circular economy aims to design out waste. Waste does not exist: products are designed and optimized for a cycle of disassembly and reuse. These tight component and product cycles define the circular economy and set it apart from disposal and even recycling, where large amounts of embedded energy and labour are lost.

Second, circularity introduces a strict differentiation between consumable and durable components of a product. Unlike today, consumables in the circular economy are largely made of biological ingredients or ‘nutrients’ that are at least non-toxic and possibly even beneficial, and can safely be returned to the biosphere, either directly or in a cascade of consecutive uses. Durables such as engines or computers, on the other hand, are made of technical nutrients unsuitable for the biosphere, such as metals and most plastics. These are designed from the start for reuse, and products subject to rapid technological advance are designed for upgrade. Third, the energy required to fuel this cycle should be renewable by nature, again to decrease resource dependence and increase systems resilience (to oil shocks, for example).

Hence, all statements are correct.

Source: http://reports.weforum.org/toward-the-circular-economy-accelerating-the-scale-up-across-global-supply-chains/from-linear-to-circular-accelerating-a-proven-concept/?doing_wp_cron=1525336658.3817360401153564453125


 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Global Wildlife Programme?
    1. It is a World-Bank led global partnership programme.
    2. It seeks to reduce both the supply and demand that drives the illegal wildlife.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Justification:

India hosted the fifth Global Wildlife Programme (GWP) conference in New Delhi and Pench Tiger Reserve, MP from 2nd to 5th October, 2017. Representatives from 18 Global Wildlife Programme Partner Countries participated in the conference.

The GWP is a World-Bank led global partnership that promotes wildlife conservation and sustainable development by combatting illicit trafficking in wildlife.

By approaching the poaching crisis holistically through various country projects and a larger global project, it seeks to reduce both the supply and demand that drives the illegal wildlife trade, and protect species and habitats through integrated landscape planning.

Hence, both the statements are correct.

Source: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/environment/brief/global-wildlife-program