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SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 35(Geography)


SOLUTIONS

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 35(Geography)


 

  1. The most suitable method for prevention of gully erosion is:

a) Mulching

b) Rock dam structure

c) Ploughing

d) Perimeter runoff control

Answer: (b)

Justification:

 

 


  1. The relative proportion of sand, silt and clay in a soil refers to its

a) Profile

b) Horizon

c) Structure

d) Texture

Answer: (d)

Justification:

A soil profile is a vertical cross section of the soil. When exposed, various soil horizons, or layers of soil, become apparent. Each horizon of soil may be different from the other horizons in physical or chemical ways. The differences are developed from the interaction of such soil-forming factors as parent material, slope, native vegetation, weathering, and climate.

Texture indicates the relative content of particles of various sizes, such as sand, silt and clay in the soil. Texture influences the ease with which soil can be worked, the amount of water and air it holds, and the rate at which water can enter and move through soil.

Soil structure is defined by the way individual particles of sand, silt, and clay are assembled. Single particles when assembled appear as larger particles. These are called aggregates. Soil structure is most usefully described in terms of grade (degree of aggregation), class (average size) and type of aggregates (form).


  1. Which of the following are correctly matched?

Minerals                                Region

  1. Coal        —                    Appalachian
  2. Tin          —                   Andes region
  3. Iron-ore   —                   Urals

Which of the following is/are correct

a) 1 Only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d)

Justification:

Appalachian Mountains is rich in coal deposits. The Appalachian Province contains two-fifths of bituminous coal and nearly all the anthracites.

Bolivia is one the leading producer of Tin in the world. Bolivian Andes are famous for tin deposits.

Ural has rich deposits of iron ore. Magnitogorsk is an important mining area in Urals.  

 


  1. Consider the following statements
    1. Ocean Thermal Energy is due to pressure difference at different levels in the ocean.
    2. Ladakh a cold desert in Jammu Kashmir has huge solar energy potential.

Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) of the above

Answer: (b)

Justification:

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a process that can produce electricity by using the temperature difference between deep cold ocean water and warm tropical surface waters. OTEC plants pump large quantities of deep cold seawater and surface seawater to run a power cycle and produce electricity.

 

The Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir also known as cold desert has a vast potential to produce 111 giga watts (GWS) of solar power. The above diagram shows amount of insolation received by different regions. Barren land, clear sky and greater insolation makes it an ideal location for solar energy projects.


  1. Which one of the following statements is NOT CORRECT?

a) In intensive subsistence agriculture, animal farming is more developed.

b) Shifting cultivation is characterized by field rotation rather than by crop rotation

c) Plantation agriculture is both capital and labor intensive

d) Nomadic herding is a form of pastoralism which arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain

Answer: (a)

Justification:

Because of immense population pressure, most of land is utilized for cultivation of more than one set of crops. Cattle rearing is not well developed because of very low availability of pasture land. Cattle rearing is well developed in temperate grasslands. Intensive subsistence agriculture is important feature of south and Southeast Asia.

Shifting agriculture, system of cultivation that preserves soil fertility by plot (field) rotation, as distinct from crop rotation. In shifting agriculture a plot of land is cleared and cultivated for a short period of time; then it is abandoned and allowed to revert to its natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot. The period of cultivation is usually terminated when the soil shows signs of exhaustion or, more commonly, when the field is overrun by weeds

Plantation agriculture is a form of commercial farming where crops are grown for profit. The characteristic features of this type of farming are large estates or plantations, large capital investment, managerial and technical support, scientific methods of cultivation, single crop specialization, cheap labor, and a good system of transportation which links the estates to the factories and markets for the export of the products

Nomadism is practiced in semi and arid regions of tropical regions and tundra. Because of climatic constraints tribes wander in search of food and pasture.


  1. Which of the following are correctly matched?

 

  1. Nomadic Herding – Tundra Region.
  2. Mixed Farming – Eastern USA
  3. Commercial Grain Farming – South East Asia.

Which of the following is/are correct.

a) 2 Only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) All the above

Answer: (c)

Justification:

Nomadic Herders of Tundra

On the southern margins of Tundra, there are certain nomadic herd­ers, e.g., Lapps, Yakuts and Eskimos. These herders have adjusted themselves to the food supply of reindeer. In the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Russia and Finland such herders constitute a sig­nificant part of the population.

During the short summer they live on the grassy mountains and in autumn they migrate along with their herds in coniferous areas of the south in order to meet the fodder re­quirements of their herds and to protect them from the freezing conditions of the Tundra climate.

Eastern USA is industrialized and densely populated region. In mixed farming both agriculture cultivation and cattle rearing is well developed. Mixed farming is important characteristic of well-developed region with greater population, for e.g. Western Europe.

Commercial grain farming is important feature of temperate grasslands.


  1. Consider the following crops cultivated in India.
    1. Cardamom
    2. Tea
    3. Coffee

Which of the above in general are grown under shade of trees or partial sunlight?

a) 3 Only

b) 1 and 3 Only

c) 2 and 3 Only

d) All the above

 

Answer: (b)

Justification:

Cardamom is grown commercially in plantations under the shade of tall forest trees. It is a very labor-intensive crop to produce. The fruits are picked individually by hand before they are fully ripe, over a period of several months. In India, cardamom grows under natural conditions of the evergreen forests in the Western Ghats. It thrives best in tropical forests at altitudes ranging from 600-1500 metres, receiving a well-distributed rainfall of over 150 cm and a temperature of 10o – 35o C. Its optimum growth and development is observed in warm and humid places under the canopy of lofty, evergreen forest trees. It is highly sensitive to wind and drought and, therefore areas liable to be affected by these conditions are unsuitable. The crop does not survive in waterlogged or excessive moisture.

Coffee plant requires hot and humid climate with temperature varying between 15°C and 28 °C and rainfall from 150 to 250 cm. It does not tolerate frost, snowfall, high temperature above 30°C and strong sun shine and is generally grown under shady trees. Prolonged drought is also injurious to coffee. Dry weather is necessary at the time of ripening of the berries. Stagnant water is harmful and this crop is grown on hill slopes at elevations from 600 to 1,600 metres above sea level.

Tea

Temperature: 21°C to 29°C is ideal for the production of tea. High temperature is required in summer. The lowest temperature for the growth of tea is 16°C.

Rainfall: 150-250 cm of rainfall is required for tea cultivation.

Soil: Tea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron. The soil should be rich in humus.

Land: Tea cultivation needs well drained land. Stagnation of water is not good for tea plants. Heavy rainfall but no stagnancy of water, such mountain slopes are good for tea cultivation.


  1. Consider the following statements
    1. Intensive subsistence agriculture is important characteristic of fertile plains of South and South-East Asia with higher density of population.
    2. In general per hectare output in commercial agriculture is much higher compared to Intensive agriculture.

Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of the above

Answer: (b)

Justification:

Fertile alluvial plains of south and south-east Asia practice intensive subsistence agriculture. For e.g Indus, Gangetic plains.

The per hectare productivity of intensive agriculture is much higher. Fertile soil, greater labor  and agricultural inputs leads to greater productivity.


  1. According to most scientists, which of the following is NOT true about the clearing of Tropical rainforests.

a) It enlarges holes in the ozone layer

b) It causes global warming

c) It negatively impacts the quality of soil.

d) It is partly caused by shifting cultivation.

Answer: (a)

Justification:

Why does the ozone hole form over Antarctica? 

The answer is essentially ‘because of the weather in the ozone layer’. In order for rapid ozone destruction to happen, clouds (known as PSCs, Stratospheric Clouds Mother of Pearl or Nacreous Clouds) have to form in the ozone layer. In these clouds surface chemistry takes place. This converts chlorine or bromine (from CFCs and other ozone depleting chemicals) into an active form, so that when there is sunlight, ozone is rapidly destroyed. Without the clouds, there is little or no ozone destruction. Only during the Antarctic winter does the atmosphere get cold enough for these clouds to form widely through the centre of the ozone layer. Elsewhere the atmosphere is just too warm and no clouds form. The northern and southern hemispheres have different ‘weather’ in the ozone layer, and the net result is that the temperature of the Arctic ozone layer during winter is normally some ten degrees warmer than that of the Antarctic. This means that such clouds are rare, but sometimes the ‘weather’ is colder than normal and they do form. Under these circumstances significant ozone depletion can take place over the Arctic, but it is usually for a much shorter period of time and covers a smaller area than in the Antarctic.

Clearing of tropical forests leads to global warming, soil erosion and nutrient depletion.


  1. Consider the following Tropical crops, which are in great demand in Anglo-America and Europe, are produced in great variety and volume in Latin America and Africa because of
    1. Availability of a cultivable land and suitability of soil conditions.
    2. Combination of climatic and topographical conditions
    3. Lack of mineral resources for trading purpose.

Which of the following is /are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 and 3 Only

c) 1 and 2

d) All the above

 

Answer: (c)

Justification:

Factors influencing the cultivation of crops are topography, climatic conditions and soil. Because of suitable factors Africa and Latin America are important producers of plantation and cash crops which is in great in Europe and America. Latin America and Africa are rich in mineral resource which does not determine cultivation of tropical crops.


  1. A triangular population pyramid with a wide base narrowing as the age cohort progress indicates:

a) Decline

b) Rapid Growth

c) Slow Growth

d) Stability

 

Answer: (b)

 

Justification:

Rapid growth pyramids • Have a large base to show high birth rates • Amount of people decreases as the ages goes up indicating a lower standard of living • Associated with developing countries like Brazil, Uganda, China.

Slow growth pyramids • Take on a more rectangular shape • Indicates population is remaining fairly steady • Birth rates and death rates are similar • Associated with developed countries like the UK, Germany, Canada.

Negative growth pyramids • Looks like a reverse pyramid • Indicates the population of the country is decreasing • Death rates are higher than birth rates • Associated with developed countries like Austria, Japan, Italy.

Stable population: A pyramids with proportional sides – almost equal base, mid-section and top. It is usually bell shaped pyramid. Countries with stable populations include France, Scandinavian countries and Canada.


  1. A country with a natural increase rate at or about zero is likely to have a

a) Low fertility rate, low standard of living and few people employed in agriculture.

b) Low fertility rate, low standard of living and many people employed in agriculture

c) Low fertility rate, high standard of living and few people employed in agriculture.

d) Low fertility rate, high standard of living and many people employed in agriculture.

 

Answer: (c)

 

Justification:

A lower fertility rate indicates a high standard of living. A high fertility rate indicates a low standard of living. . A country with a high standard of living will have access to technology, and therefore, will have relatively few people employed in agriculture,


  1. Which of the following industries will most likely locate closest to its market.

a) Automobile assembly

b) Ethanol production

c) Telemarketing

d) Textile manufacturing.

 

Answer: (a)

 

Justification:

Automobile manufacturing is a weight-gaining industry. Hence it is located near to market .Ethanol production is weight-losing industry, so it would be located close to their raw materials. Telemarketing is a footloose industry and can locate anywhere. Textile manufacturing is a raw-material and labor-intensive industry and will usually locate wherever labor is least expensive.


  1. A country’s literacy rate has a positive correlation with all of the following EXCEPT

a) Energy Consumption

b) Per capita Income

c) Percentage of female employment

d) Birth rate.

 

Answer: (d)

 

Justification:

A country with higher literacy usually has low birth rate. Greater literacy rate is characteristic of well developed economies where per capita income, energy consumption and female employment is higher.


  1. Consider the following
    1. Aravallis
    2. Vindhayas
    3. Thar Desert
    4. Satpuras

 

Which of the following extend over the state of Gujarat?

a) 1 and 4 Only

b) 1, 2 and 4 only

c) 2, 3 and 4 only

d) All of the above

 

Answer: (d)

 

Justification:

All the four physiographic units extend into Gujarat. Rajpipla hills is part of Satpura range extending into Gujarat.


  1. Khardung La known for one of world’s highest road pass is located in which range.

a) Zanskar range

b) Ladakh range

c) Pirpanjal range

d) Baltoro Kangri

 

Answer: (b)

Justification:

Khardung La  is a mountain pass in the Ladakh region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The pass on the Ladakh Range lies north of Leh and is the gateway to the Shyok and Nubra valleys. The mountain pass holds a special significance as it is the way to carry supplies to the Siachen Glacier.


  1. Consider the following statements
    1. Both Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats extend in the state.
    2. Northern part of state is composed of Black soil.
    3. The state has the smallest coastline in southern India

 

Which of the following states has the above features?

a) Tamil Nadu

b) Andhra Pradesh

c) Kerala

d) Karnataka

 

Answer: (d)

 

Justification:

Both Western and Eastern Ghats extend in Karnataka. Biligirirangana hills are connecting link between Western and Eastern Ghats.

Northern part of state is part of Deccan plateau .Northern part is predominantly black soil region

With around 320 km coastline it is smallest in South India.


  1. Consider the following statements

 

  1. Portions of Thar desert extends into Punjab
  2. Shiwaliks extends over the northern part of Haryana.

Which of the above statement/s is/are correct.

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of the above.

 

Answer: (c)

Justification:

Thar Desert, also called Great Indian Desert, arid region of rolling sand hills on the Indian subcontinent. It is located partly in Rajasthan state, northwestern India, and partly in Punjab and Sindh (Sind) provinces, eastern Pakistan.

Haryana has the Shivalik hills in the north and a range of Aravalli hills, in South West which runs through southern Delhi and the Gurgaon district up to Alwar.  These hills are known as the Morni and Tipra ranges. They belong to the outer ranges of the Himalayas.


  1. Which of the following pairs of hill station and range/hills is/are correctly matched?

 

Hill station                       Range /hills

  1. Matheran      —                 Eastern Ghats
  2. Saputara      —                Western Ghats.
  3. Pachmarhi       —                Vindhayas

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

a) 2 and 3 Only

b) 2 Only

c) 1 and 3 Only

d) 1 and 2 Only

Answer: (b)

Justification :

Matheran is a hill station and a municipal council in Karjat Tahsilin the Raigad district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The smallest hill station in India, it is located on the Western Ghats range at an elevation of around 800 m (2,625 feet) above sea level.

Saputara is situated in the Dang district of Gujarat. This beautiful hill station is situated at an elevation of about 1000 m above sea level in western ghats.

Pachmarhi is a hill station in Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh state of central India. It has been the location of a cantonment (Pachmarhi Cantonment) since British Raj. It is widely known as Satpura ki Rani (“Queen of Satpura”), situated at a height of 1067 m in a valley of the Satpura Range in Hoshangabad district.


  1. Saddle Peak, the highest peak of Andaman and Nicobar islands is located in

a) South Andamans

b) Little Andamans

c) North Andamans

d) Car Nicobar

Answer: (c)