PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) and European Bank for Reconstruction & Development (EBRD)

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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018

Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) and European Bank for Reconstruction & Development (EBRD)


Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus)


  1. Least Concern (LC) — IUCN.
  2. state bird of Haryana
  3. Local name — Kaala Teetar or Karo tittar
  4. former name — Black Partridge
  5. gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae

 

  1. Habitat
  • found in scrubby habitats, with plenty of cultivated crops tall enough to offer shelter and open beneath to provide escape routes and easy travel. They prefer the areas of thick vegetation, usually near water.
  • Range — India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Java, Afghanistan, Sumatra and Maldives
  • India — Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa to Assam

 

  1. Threat
  • Hunting
  • loss of habitat through intensification of agriculture

  1. Schedule – IV bird of wildlife (Protection) act, 1972

 

 

 


European Bank for Reconstruction & Development (EBRD)


  1. international financial institution
  2. founded in 1991
  3. headquarter — London
  4. uses investment as a tool to build market economies
  5. established to help build a new, post-Cold War era in Central and Eastern Europe

 

  1. Objectives
  • furthering progress towards market-oriented economies
  • promotion of private and entrepreneurial initiative

 

  1. EBRD’s unique mandate

Uniquely for a development bank, the EBRD has a political mandate in that it assists only those countries ‘committed to and applying the principles of multi-party democracy [and] pluralism

 

  1. EBRD serves the interests of all its shareholders – 66 countries from five continents plus the European Union and the European Investment Bank 
  2. US is the biggest shareholder
  3. Besides Europe, member countries of the EBRD are also from other continents – North America (Canada and US), Africa (Morocco), Asia (Japan, China, South Korea) and Australia.
  4. The Union Cabinet has approved India’s membership for EBRD and shareholders of EBRD also voted for India‘s full membership

 

European Investment Bank (EIB)

  1. European Union’s nonprofit long-term lending institution
  2. established in 1958 under the Treaty of Rome
  3. Headquarter — Luxemberg
  4. EIB uses its financing operations to bring about European integration and social cohesion
  5. It is the world’s largest international public lending institution

 

European Central Bank (ECB)

  1. Established in 1998 under Treaty of Amsterdam
  2. Headquarter — Frankfurt, Germany
  3. central bank for the euro
  4. administers monetary policy of the eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states
  5. one of the seven institutions of the European Union (EU) listed in the Treaty on European Union (TEU).
  6. The capital stock of the bank is owned by the central banks of all 28 EU member states