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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

General Studies – 1

Topic:  The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) Although the impact of the Home Rule League movement fell on a much wider community outside their direct membership, the League ultimately could not not bring in mass agitational politics in India. Critically comment. (250 Words)

India’s Struggle for Independence, Chapter – 13 (Bipan Chandra)


Key demand of the question:

The question has 2 main statements which need to be commented upon. Firstly, the impact of Home Rule League movement fell on a much wider community outside their direct membership. This has to be discussed. The main part however, is the second part which hypothesizes that the impact of the movement was limited and could not bring in mass agitational politics. We need to examine the impact of the movement and whether it helped in bringing the national movement to the masses.

Directive word

Critically comment : We have to give our opinion on the main points as discussed above and come to a rational stand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Write about Home Rule Movement – what were they fighting for and what was their method.

Body – The first part of the statement needs to be discussed. We have to elucidate how the Home Rule movement had influence outside their direct membership. Points that can be mentioned here are that several leaders not directly associated with Home Rule League extended their support. Give examples.

The second part of the statement then needs to be commented upon. The answer would depend on your stand. If you are arguing that HRL Movement did not result in mass agitational politics. Give points like – did not unite Moderates and Extremists, did not include or find support from sections like peasants etc, did not find support from non Brahmin section etc. Similarly, if you take the stand that the League did result in mass agitational politics, you can give points like it laid the basis of Gandhian struggle etc.

Conclusion – Based on your arguments, mention your stand and the impact of HRL movement.


  • The home rule movement was the Indian response to the first world war in a less charged but in a more effective way. With people already feeling the burden of wartime miseries caused by high taxation and a rise in prices, Tilak and Annie Besant ready to assume the leadership the movement started with great vigour.

Impact of this movement on a wider community:-

  • The league campaign aimed to convey to the common man the message of Home rule as self government .It carried much wider appeal than the earlier mobilizations did and also attracted the hitherto politically backward regions of Gujarat and Sindh.
    • Spread political awareness in new areas like Sindh, Punjab, Gujarat, United provinces, Central provinces, Bihar ,Orissa etc
  • The movement created considerable excitement at the time and attracted many members of the Indian national congress and the All India Muslim league .It was later joined by Motilal Nehru, Malaviya etc and some of these leaders became heads of local branches.
  • Many of the moderate congressman who were disillusioned with congress inactivity and some members of Gokhale’s servants of India society also joined the agitation.
  • The movement shifted the emphasis from the educated elite to the masses and permanently deflected the movement from the course mapped by the moderates.
  • It created an organizational link between the town and the country which was to prove crucial in later years.
  • It prepared the masses for politics of the Gandhian style.
  • Tilak and Besant’s efforts in the moderate-extremist reunion revived the congress as an effective instrument of Indian nationalism.

Could not bring mass agitational politics in India because of the following reasons:-

  • Anglo Indians, most of the muslims and non Brahmins from south did not join as they felt Home rule would mean rule of the Hindu majority mainly the high caste.
  • The leagues elicited little response or enthusiasm from India’s masses and the British.
  • It was often divided upon whether to follow up with public demonstations or compromise by contesting elections to the legislative councils that were criticized.
  • Its further growth and activity were stalled by the rise of Mohandas Gandhi and his satyagraha art of revolution and mass based civil disobedience.
  • The moderates were pacified by talk of reforms contained in montague’s statement of 1917
  • Talk of passive resistance by the extremists kept the moderates off from activity from 1918 onwards.
  • The movement was left leaderless with Tilak going abroad and Besant unable to give a positive lead.


  • The home rule movement lent a new dimension and a sense of urgency to the national movement.

General Studies – 2

Topic: mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

2)Despite a plethora of laws, policies, mechanisms  and programmes in place, children in India suffer from a lot of disabilities and problems. Discuss. (250 Words)




Why this question

Child rights and issues are important for UPSC exams, and also  gross violation of child rights has been in news recently. The issue is related to GS2- syllabus under the following heading- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Key demand of the question

The main demand of the question is to know the laws, policies, mechanisms and programmes presently in place, to protect the child. It also wants us to highlight various problems and issues faced by children.

Directive word

Discuss- we have to write in detail about all the laws, policies, mechanisms  and programmes put in place to protect the children. We also have to discuss in detail about various issues and disabilities faced by the children and then identify the reasons behind the same.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- you can start your answer by citing UNICEF’s child rights’ definition.   Or you can cite the Integrated Child Protection Scheme’s concept of child protection.

Body- divide the body into three main parts. In the first part ( further divided into subparts) discuss in points about the laws, policies, mechanisms  and programmes in place to protect children. DIvide the answer into constitutional, legal provisions, policies and other associated measures.

In the other part, discuss what are the problems faced by children e.g. sexual exploitation, begging, trafficking, child labour, child marriage  etc.

In the third part, which can be treated as conclusion, try to highlight the reasons behind the current state of affairs where despite a plethora of laws, policies, mechanisms children still face a lot of vulnerabilities and violation of their rights.



  • Children represents 39% of total population of India and are the future of the country but the amount of issues they are facing are rampant. So there is a need for concentrating on child rights and child protection.

Laws, policies, mechanisms and programmes related to children in India:-

  • Constitutional provisions:-
    • Article 14, 15,21,21 A, 23, 24 of fundamental rights provide rights to children
    • The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act was notified on 2002, making free and compulsory education a Fundamental Right for all children in the age group of 6-14 years.
    • Directive Principles
      • Article 39(e) and (f) ,45, 47,Article 243G read with Schedule 11 – provide for institutionalization of child care by seeking to entrust programmes of Women and Child Development to Panchayat ,apart from education ,family welfare, health and sanitation and other items with a bearing on the welfare of children.
    • Laws:-
      • Prohibition of child marriage act
      • Right to education act
      • Child labour act
      • Juvenile justice act
    • The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012, the Criminal Law (amendment) Act 2013, the Indian Penal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure 1973, and the Indian Evidence Act, 1972 were formulated to effectively address the heinous crimes of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children
  • Policies and mechanisms:-
    • National policy on children
      • The policy affirmed that survival, health, nutrition, development, education, protection and participation are the undeniable rights of every child and are the key priorities of the policy.
  • National Policy on Early Childhood care and Education
      • The policy lays down the way forward for a comprehensive approach towards ensuring a sound foundation for survival, growth and development of child with focus on care and early learning of every child.
    • A landmark judgment on child rights was pronounced by the Supreme Court of India, which ruled that a man is guilty of committing rape if he engages in sexual intercourse with his wife who is aged between 15 and 18.
  • Programmes:-
    • The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme is one of the flagship programmes of the Government of India and represents one of the world’s largest programmes for Early Childhood Development.
      • This Scheme has improved over the years and restructured to address the emerging issues and demands of the time, and has evolved as the foremost tool of to break the vicious circle of child morbidity and mortality along with other objectives.
    • Mid day meal scheme, Sarva shiksha abhiyan, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao etc.
    • National Health Mission
      • The child health programme under the National Health Mission (NHM) comprehensively integrates interventions that improve child survival and addresses factors contributing to infant and under-five mortality.

Where are these laws,mechanisms failing:-

  • Magnitude of child sexual abuse is extraordinarily high (especially within school premises in the recent past) since the laws are not very stringent.
  • Child labour:-
    • lack of effective labour inspections in the informal economy. 
    • absence of national legislation to give effect to global conventions on the employment of children in hazardous industries, as well as on the minimum age of work. 
    • goal to eradicate child labour by 2025 seems elusive
  • Child education:-
    • More focus on rote learning is affecting the creativity in children. The laws focus mostly on enrolment but not on quality of the education.
  • Despite health initiatives India has largest number of malnutritioned children in the world.

Problems faced by children:-

  • Child sexual abuse is an under-reported offence in India and has reached epidemic proportions.
  • Child labour:-
    • Around 71% of working children are concentrated in the agriculture sector, with 69% of them undertaking unpaid work in family units.
  • Child marriage is a social evil that adversely affects the physical and mental health of children, denies them opportunities for education and self-advancement, infringes on their bodily autonomy and deprives them of any role in deciding on many aspects of their lives.
  • Thousands of children are being trafficked from India’s remote rural areas and sold into work in cities, often as domestic staff for wealthy families. Between 2011 and 2013, more than 10,500 children were registered as missing from the central state of Chhattisgarh, one of India’s poorest states.
  • Disabilities:-
    • In the general school curriculum, there is nothing about education for children with special needs.
    • 2014 data:-
      • India has 20.42 lakh disabled children aged between 0 and 6 years. Around 71% of them – 14.52 lakh children are in rural areas. There are 5.9 lakh disabled children in cities. 
    • Mental health of children, problems with Mother’s health leading to malnutrition in children ,caste discrimination, begging, drug abuse, corporal punishment etc  are other issues.
    • Female foeticide and female infanticide leading to adverse child sex ratio
    • Children are vulnerable to pornographic abuse.

Way forward:-

  • Develop Human Resources for Child Protection – focusing on mid-level cadres:
    • Facilitate development of a framework for Child Protection social workforce development
    • Develop core trainer groups in states
    • Develop standardized training modules
  • Improve quality of Child Protection Services
    • Set standards for services through Standard Operating Procedures, guidelines, pilot models of functional structures like Special Juvenile Police Units (SJPUs), Special Courts etc
    • Enhance monitoring and supervision of ICPS and Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POSCO) through the judiciary and Commissions for Protection of Child Rights
    • Strengthen medical sector’s capacity to respond to violence against children
  • Community-based protection mechanisms
    • Support formation and strengthening of community based structures from village, block and district level
    • Support the synergy of structures with other community structures like Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management Committees etc.
    • Build referral linkages with child protection services
    • Develop safe communities model in two cities
  • Strengthen data systems for Child Protection
    • Create prototype and roll out on ICPS scorecard to advocate for greater investment in the quality of Child Protection Management Information Systems (CPMIS)
    • Generate, analyze and use data to advocate for policies and programmes to strengthen child protection systems
  • International lessons:-
    • One of the focal reasons as to why child rapes and other assaults are comparatively less aboard is primarily because of the norms that are affixed in the employment process. 
      • An educational institution demands a Federal Check Certificate from prospective employees in the United States of America.
      • Obtaining an International Child Protection Certificate, which is nothing but a criminal record check for people looking to work with children is made mandatory in the United Kingdom. 
    • Such practices must also be adopted in India and the Government of India must take the sole responsibility of conducting such background checks on individuals and issue certificates which must characteristically certify such a prospective employee.
  • The key to successful implementation of POCSO lies in having infrastructure of trained body of investigators, Public Prosecutors and Special Courts which requires investment by state governments and the commitment.

Topic: Separation of powers between various organs,

3) Withdrawal of cases against accused should be the sole prerogative of the state. Critically examine in light of various judicial pronouncements. (250 Words)

The Indian Express


Why this question:

This issue has recently received lot of media attention, courtesy developments in UP. Moreover, the Allahabad HC verdict rekindles the debate over Section 321 of CrPC. Hence, the issue becomes important.

Key demand of the question:

The question is asking us to examine whether Section 321 of CrPC makes sense legally, constitutionally, practically. The question is also asking us to focus more on the various judicial pronouncements on the subject to examine the statement.

Directive word

Critically examine – We have to provide arguments for

  • Withdrawal of cases should be the prerogative of state
  • Withdrawal of cases should not be the prerogative of state

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention Section 321 of CrPC and the debate over it.

Body – Mention the HC judgment on the issue. Then examine the main issues that have been raised by the judgment

  • Role of state
  • How far can judiciary reinterpret Section 321
  • Separation of power etc

Thereafter present your argument under broad heads like Legal, Constitutional etc. Here, mention the judgments of SC in support of your argument.

Conclusion – Mention your stand and why you think so.

 Background :-

  • The withdrawal of pending criminal cases against politicians in UP, Rajasthan, MP and Kerala in recent months points at the overpowering stranglehold of the political establishment on all the organs of governance.

Yes, withdrawal of cases is the sole prerogative of state:-

  • Legal provisions:-
    • Section 321 of Crpc:-
      • The power to withdraw criminal cases is vested with the public prosecutor or assistant public prosecutor under Section 321 of the CrPC.
      • According to the statute, at any stage before the judgment, the prosecutor can decide to withdraw prosecution against one or all offenders in a case under one or all offences. If such an application is made before the chargesheet is filed, it would lead to discharge. In case the chargesheet is filed, it would lead to acquittal of the accused.
    • In UP, through an amendment, permission of the state government for withdrawal of cases has been made mandatory.
    • In cases where the matter relates to the executive powers of the Centre, or comes under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, or is related to damage of central government property, permission from the Union is needed.
    • Judgements which support it:-
      • Allahabad High Court held that the power of withdrawal can be invoked by the Public Prosecutor/Assistant Public Prosecutor, In-charge of the case when same is made in good faith, in the interest of public policy and justice and not to thwart or stifle the process of law..

Some concerns were raised though:-

  • Section 321 is silent on the grounds on which the state government or public prosecutor can push for withdrawal.
  • Successive judgments by the Supreme Court and various high courts have held that it cannot be whimsical or arbitrary, and must be guided by public interest and furtherance of justice
    • In Rahul Agarwal versus Rakesh Jain in 2005, the Supreme Court observed that even if the government directs the public prosecutor to withdraw the prosecution and an application is filed to that effect, the court must consider all relevant circumstances and find out whether the withdrawal of prosecution would advance the cause of justice.
    • If the case is likely to end in an acquittal and the continuance of the case is only causing severe harassment to the accused, the court may permit withdrawal of the prosecution.
    • If the withdrawal of prosecution is likely to bury the dispute and bring about harmony between the parties and it would be in the best interest of justice, the court may allow the withdrawal of prosecution.
  • Various court judgments, including from the Supreme Court, have held that even after a case has been withdrawn by a state government and received the consent of the court concerned, it can be challenged for a judicial review under Article 226 of the Constitution.
  • Courts have also held that besides the victim, even a third party can intervene and challenge the withdrawal of the case since a crime is committed against the society. 
    • Courts have held that every member of the society has the locus standi to oppose or challenge withdrawal in a criminal case, particularly in case of corruption and criminal breach of trust or cheating.
  • While it has not become a norm for governments to withdraw a case, there have been a number of precedents. In 2013, the a political party in UP had withdrawn the prosecution against 19 accused in various cases of terrorism. The decision was shot down by the Lucknow Bench of Allahabad High Court. 
  • Appointment of public prosecutor :-
    • Given that the appointment of public prosecutors is solely the prerogative of the state government, with some exceptions where the central government can also play a role, the issue whether public prosecutors can indeed function effectively, independently and fearlessly calls for serious reflection.
    • Given the prevalence of the politician-bureaucrat-corporate nexus in the country, the probability of public prosecutors to function effectively, independently and fearlessly becomes seriously doubtful.



  • The Court has a special duty in this regard as it is the ultimate repository of legislative confidence in granting its consent to withdrawal from the prosecution.

General Studies – 3

Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment, Disaster and disaster management.

4)Tropospheric ozone adds yet another factor to the existing nexus of poverty, malnourishment and climate-change effects that challenge food and nutrition security in some of the agriculture intensive regions of the world. Analyse the given statement with regards to India. (250 Words) 

Down to Earth

Business Standard


Why this question

Agriculture employs around 48% of India’s population and with one of the largest populations, Indian agriculture plays a crucial role in global food security. Climate change, ozone and pollution will have marked effects on agriculture. The issue is related to GS-3 syllabus under the following heading- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment, Disaster and disaster management.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss and explain the causes effects of tropospheric ozone on food and nutrition food security. It also wants us to dig deep into the issue and see how poverty, climate change and malnourishment are exacerbating the woes of agriculture in such areas and what could be the possible implications.

Directive word

Analyse – we have to bring out the causes, and implications of tropospheric ozone on agriculture and food security with special reference to India.  We also have to explain how poverty, climate change and malnourishment affect agriculture and food security in such areas.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- you can introduce your answer by highlighting increasing concentration of ozone in troposphere around agriculturally intensive areas of the world, by quoting credible sources/ reports.

Body- divide the body of the answer into parts.

  1. Bring out the causes of increasing tropospheric ozone.
  2. Discuss its implications on agriculture and food security.
  3. Trace the prevalence of poverty, malnourishment and climate change in agriculturally intensive areas of India. Ganga basin would be a good example.
  4. Discuss how poverty, malnourishment and climate change coupled with tropospheric ozone will affect the agriculture and food security in such areas and in the country as a whole.

Conclusion- you can conclude your answer by mentioning government efforts in this direction or you can simply provide a few suggestions to tackle the issue.



  • Ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. There’s substantial evidence that ozone is one of the most phytotoxic (toxic to plants) air pollutants, causing significant damage to agricultural crops worldwide.
  • Ozone levels have doubled since pre-industrial timesdue to anthropogenic emissions. Motor vehicles are the main anthropogenic sources of ground-level ozone precursors. Other anthropogenic sources of VOCs include emissions from the chemical and petroleum industries and from organic solvents in small stationary sources such as dry cleaners.


Tropospheric ozone implications on agriculture and food security:-


  • South Asia’s Indo-Gangetic plainsexperience higher levels of ozone concentration enough to affect crop physiology, growth and yield
  • Ozone enters plant leaves through stomata pores that facilitate gas exchange where it reacts with cellular components, producing a series of chemical reactions that create strong oxidative stress.
    • Damage ranges from visible leaf injuries such as yellowing (chlorosis) and stippling and localised cell deaths (necrosis), to subtle physiological changes such as reduced photosynthesis and premature senescence. These effects ultimately reduce crop yields.
  • China and India are important examples of countries where ozone pollution already threatens crop production. In India, up to 14 and 6% yield losses in wheat and rice, respectively, are estimated to have been caused by ozone.
  • Instability of these food systems due to ozone will have far-reaching socioeconomic implications via changes in food prices, farm incomes, consumer behaviours and nutritional access for different groups of society, including women.
  • Studies indicate that crop losses due to environmental factors like ozone often hit farmersby increasing debts and intensifying workloads as well as altering gender relations.

The prevalence of poverty, malnourishment and climate change in agriculturally intensive areas :-


  • Fundamental role of food systems and agriculture are heavily affected by climate change, but at the same time are also major drivers of climate change.
    • Number of undernourished people has increased for the first time again in a decade with 815 million people going hungry every day. This spike is due mainly to conflict and economic downturns, but also the impact of climate change, particularly prolonged droughts
    • Estimates by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change show that climate change might increase the risk of hunger and malnutrition by up to 20 percent by 2050.
  • In the Gangetic plains there is already enormous stress on food production with efficiency of yields of rice and wheat considerably reducing .Also poverty is rampant in these areas as majority are considerably depending on agriculture.

How poverty, malnourishment and climate change coupled with tropospheric ozone will affect the agriculture and food security:-

  • Urban poverty:-
    • Rapid growth of the urban economy, largely unplanned, has also meant haphazard growth of urban centres and proliferation of urban slums lacking in basic amenities such as decent shelter, safe drinking water and toilets and sanitary facilities. This has implications for the absorption dimension of food security, since lack of safe drinking water and sanitation leads to poor biological utilisation of food and repeated episodes of morbidity.
  • Crop yields are affected so poor cannot afford the food and become more malnourished diluting the concept of food security.
  • Ozone air pollution and climate change pose major threats to global crop production, with ramifications for future food security. 
  • Climate change puts millions of people in a vicious cycle of food insecurity, malnutrition and poverty.

 Way forward:-

  • Recognising these challenges, scientists should consider integrating ozone pollution in seasonal crop-yield forecasts.
  • A recent reporthighlights the importance of ozone-monitoring networks in rural areas for assessing background ozone concentrations and the frequency of high ozone episodes. This is particularly important because air-quality monitoring is generally focused on urban and semi-urban areas.
  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation must be integrated into the entire food system: from production to transportation, from processing to food consumption, and in both rural and urban areas.
  • Reducing deforestation; restoring degraded lands and forests; eliminating food loss and waste; enhancing soil carbon sequestration; low-carbon livestock – these are only a few known solutions to address hunger, poverty and sustainability at the same time.
  • Climate-smart agriculture is one of the solutions that have been proposed to fight climate change. It is an approach that aims at combining food security and development, adaptation to climate change as well as reducing and removing emissions, whenever possible.

General Studies – 4

Why this question

We are heading towards fourth industrial revolution, in which IT technologies will play a much greater role in our lives. Universally, search engines are being used to access information about almost everything ranging from sports and entertainment to politics, work and news. Recently, Facebook has been involved in a huge controversy around privacy issue and search engines hold much larger amount  and more sensitive data than Facebook and they could be the next focus of attention. The question is related to GS-4 syllabus under the following heading- ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to identify and discuss upon various ethical concerns around search engines.  

Directive word

Discuss- we have to dig deep into the issue and identify all the ethical aspects involved. We have to identify various ethical concerns revolving around the search engines and discuss each of them briefly.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – you can introduce your answer by highlighting the nature and volume of data generated by our interaction with search engines and by mentioning that a lot of ethical concerns are generated by such interaction.

Body- Divide the body of the answer into points and in each point discuss briefly, what are the ethical concerns involved;

e.g manipulation of search results, privacy issues, advertisement issue, non-voluntary disclosure of personal information etc.

Conclusion- you can conclude your answer by highlighting the importance of search engines and need to allay the ethical concerns surrounding them. You can also briefly mention a few suggestions that could be implemented to ensure ethical behaviour on part of search engines.





Search engines provide Internet users with access to important information by directing them to links to available online resources on a plethora of topics, many are inclined to see search engine technology in a positive light. However, search engines can raise a number of ethical controversies. 


Ethical concerns :-

  • Search-engine bias and the problem of opacity/non-transparency
    • Major search engines systematically favour some sites over others in the lists of results they return in response to user search queries
    • Search algorithms do not use objective criteria in generating their lists of results for search queries.
    • Search engine technology, as well as computer technology in general, is value-laden and thus biased because of the kinds of features typically included in their design.
    • Concerns affecting objectivity and bias in the context of search engines are also closely related to controversies pertaining to the lack of openness or transparency.
      • Search engine companies do not always disclose, either fully or clearly, their practices with respect to
        • Whether (and to what extent) they collect information about users
        • What they do with that information once it has been collected.
      • Personal privacy and informed consent
        • One set of privacy issues emerges because search engine companies can collect personal information about search engine users.
        • It is not clear that most people have voluntarily consented to having information about them placed in databases or in online forums that are accessible to search engines
        • Search engines can also be used to find information about people, their activities, interests, and backgrounds. In the Amy Boyer case she as stalked using her information from the search engines and was murdered later.
      • Monitoring and surveillance
        • There is a track of user’s search queries.
        • Individual searches made by a particular user could theoretically be analyzed in ways to construct a profile of that user that is inaccurate. 
      • Censorship and democracy
        • Advertising:-
          • Major search engine companies such as Google direct hundreds of millions of users towards some content and not others, towards some sources and not others.
        • Any kind of filtering on the Internet is equivalent to censorship because it blocks out some forms of expression
      • Moral accountability issues for search engine companies
        • Search engines also have provided links to Web sites whose content is either illegal or considered morally controversial
      • Emerging (cyber)security issues in the context of the Internet of Things also has threat to the security of a nation’s critical infrastructure and military defense systems as well


Therefore  search engines contribute significantly to the social construction of knowledge i.e., not only do they provide access to knowledge, but they also increasingly play a crucial role in the constitution of knowledge itself but need to be used responsibly and there needs to be regulation over the user’s data.