SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 APRIL 2018

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 APRIL 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1 


Topic:  The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) The dream of a ‘Surat Split’ was already conceived by Curzon when he made the statement ‘Congress was tottering to its fall and one of the biggest ambitions in my life is to give it a peaceful demise’. Critically analyze. (250 Words)

India’s Struggle for Independence, Chapter – 11 (Bipan Chandra)

 

Key demand of the question

The question raises the question whether Surat split was preconceived by Lord Curzon and his policies, or whether, the split was a result of ideological and other conflicts between the moderates and extremists. Basically, answer whether the Surat split was a result of British Machiavellian policies or not.

Directive word

Critically analyze – Bring out arguments for both sides of the debate as mentioned above and provide a balanced stand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention in brief about Lord Curzon’s policies to Surat Split.

Body

  • Argue that Curzon’s policies were responsible
    • Bengal split → Swadeshi → Disagreement → Split
    • Strategy of DIvide and Rule started by Curzon
    • Democratic processes stifled which encouraged reactionary trends
    • Etc
  • Argue that split was ideological and bound to happen
    • Argument of Sunendra Nath Bannerjea, dada bhai naoroji etc vs aurobindo ghosh → explain the central ideological difference
    • Varied opinion on the pace of the movement
    • Etc

Conclusion – Balanced viewpoint that both parties failed to see British designs. Also ideological conflicts are usual at the beginning of nation building process

 

 Background:-

  • In the early twentieth century the  nationalism was gaining fervour  so Curzon  decided to divide Bengal, to break the unity of Indians and to check the growth of nationalism.

British policies led to Surat split:-

  • The new policy, known as the policy of the carrot and the stick, was to be a three pronged one. It may be described as a policy of repression-conciliation-suppression.
    • The Extremists, were to be repressed, though mildly in the first stage, the purpose being to  frighten the Moderates.
    • The Moderates were then to be placated through some concessions and promises and hints were to be given that further concessions would be forthcoming if they disassociated themselves from the Extremists.
    • The entire objective of the new policy was to isolate the Extremists. Once the Moderates fell into the trap, the Extremists could be suppressed through the use of the full might of the state.
    • The Moderates, in turn, could then be ignored. British offered a bait of fresh reforms in the Legislative Councils  began discussing them with the Moderate leadership of the Congress.
  • The Moderates agreed to cooperate with the Government and discuss reforms even while a vigorous popular movement, which the Government was trying to suppress, was  going on in the country. The result was a total split in the nationalist ranks.
  • So British were using the divide an style policy.

Ideological differences between moderates and extremists:-

  • There was a great deal of public debate and disagreement among Moderates and Extremists in the years 1905-1907, even when they were working together against the partitioning of Bengal.
  • The Extremists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement from Bengal to the rest of the country. They also wanted to gradually extend the boycott from foreign goods to 
    every form of association or cooperation with the colonial Government.
  • The Moderates wanted to confine the boycott part of the movement to Bengal and were totally opposed to its extension to the Government. 
  • Matters nearly came to a head at the Calcutta Congress in 1906 over the question of its Presidentship. A split was avoided by choosing Dadabhai Naoroji.
  • Four compromise resolutions on the Swadeshi, Boycott, National Education, and Self-Government demands were passed. Throughout 1907 the two sides fought over differing interpretations of the four resolutions. 
  • By the end of 1907 the Extremists were convinced that the battle for freedom  had begun as the people had been roused. Most of them felt that the time had come to part company with the Moderates 
  • Most of the Moderates, led by Pherozeshah Mehta, were no less determined on a split.  They were afraid that the Congress organization built carefully over the last twenty years, would be shattered.

 

Conclusion:-

  • The Moderates did not see that the colonial state was negotiating with them not because of their inherent political strength but because of the fear of the Extremists. The Extremists did not see that the Moderates were their natural outer defence line (in terms of civil liberties and so on) and that they did not possess the required strength to face the colonial state’s juggernaut.
  • The only victorious party was the rulers. Even later British applied this policy for dividing congress but congress realised the consequences of split and stayed together.

Topic:  -The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

2) Jallianwala Bagh massacre was one of the worst acts of violence in the history of the world and a turning point in India’s freedom struggle. Comment.  (250 Words)

The Week

NDTV

Why this question

Jallianwala Bagh massacre was one of the worst crimes in the history, wherein innocent civilians were shot dead, without any provocation and without any warning. The event is said to be very important part of  India’s struggle for independence and had major repercussions for the freedom struggle as well as the colonial rule. The issue is related to GS-1 syllabus under the following heading- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to revisit the Jallianwala bagh massacre and trace its causes, give a short account of the incident and discuss its effect on our freedom struggle.

Directive word

Comment-  we have to break the issue and try to present a complete picture of the incident to highlight its brutality. We also have to present our arguments in favour of the question; how Jallianwala Bagh massacre was a turning point in India’s struggle for independence.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- you can introduce your answer here, by directly describing the incident in 2-3 lines.

Body-  divide the body into two parts. In one part, further describe the issue in detail and its highlight the response from British government and people. In the other part, present arguments as to why Jallianwala Bagh massacre was a turning point and what implications it had on our freedom struggle.

Conclusion- You can conclude your answer by mentioning how Jallianwala Bagh incident and other such acts of oppression finally led to ouster of British from India.

 

Background:-

  • Recently people paid homage to the commemoration of the 99th anniversary of Jallianwala Bagh massacre. In the incident British brigadier opened fire on an unarmed crowd of peasants in Amritsar and killed 389.

One of the worst acts of violence:-

  • Large gathering of 15,000-20,000 people with a majority of Sikhs came together to celebrate the Punjabi harvest festival of Baisakhi in this garden. They had also gathered to revolt against the repressive Rowlatt Act that provided for stricter control of the press, arrests without warrant and indefinite detention without trial.
  • The people were unarmed and British surrounded them and opened fire brutally .Even after that British was not empathetic but responded with brutal repression in the following ways.
    • Seeking to humiliate and terrorise people, Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.
    • They were forced to crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs.
    • People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab) were bombed.
  • For Indians this added the fuel to fire and national movement was taken forward more intensively
  • Leaders heavily criticised the government with Tagore renouncing his knighthood as protest.
  • The whole nation came together protesting against British so this incident brought unity to India which was essential for the freedom movement.

Turning point in Indian national movement :-

  • By the end of the 19th century, British rule, in India as well as across the globe, had gained a certain legitimacy even in the eyes of the enslaved public..Till then, most Indians had reconciled with the progressive nature of the colonial rule. Jallianwala Bagh shattered the faith that the people had in the British sense of justice and fairness.
  • To most  Indians, the massacre of the unarmed was a betrayal of the trust that they had placed on the British to rule them wisely, justly and with fairness.
  • In the eyes of the  Indian, the just, fair and liberal british suddenly turned into a ruthless, bloodthirsty tyrant who couldn’t be trusted. Jallianwala Bagh revealed the evil that resided in the ‘enlightened’ empire.
  • Since then, it was a slow but sure downward slide for British rule in India. It was on this sense of betrayal that Gandhi built his mass movement, which put a premium on breaking the laws made by the rulers.
  • As the people began to wilfully break the laws made by the state, the state itself became illegitimate.Now people actively started demanding for purna swaraj.

General Studies – 2


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,

3) Discuss how Ayushman Bharat will transform Indian healthcare system by creating a robust primary healthcare system and provide a secured access to secondary and tertiary healthcare. Also, discuss the challenges involved in implementation of the scheme.  (250 Words)

The Hindu

India.gov.in

 

Why this question

India plans to revise its present healthcare system and aims to bring a comprehensive healthcare program- Ayushman Bharat.  

Ayushman Bharat – National Health Protection Mission will subsume the on-going centrally sponsored schemes – Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) and the Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS). It is an important reform and progressive step in healthcare sector. The issue is related to GS-2 syllabus- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,

Education, Human Resources.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to discuss, how Ayushman Bharat aims to improve India’s healthcare system, what are the changes it intends to make and what are its prospects. We also have to discuss challenges faced in the implementation of such a programme.

Directive word

Discuss- we have to write in detail about the Ayushman Bharat programme and explain how it will improve India’s healthcare problem. We have to explain how the current problems with healthcare will be solved by Ayushman Bharat. Then we have to discuss in detail about the challenges faced in implementation of the programme.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-  You can introduce Ayushman Bharat scheme and which schemes it would subsume, its other name etc.

Body-  Divide the body into two main parts. In one part, discuss in points about the strategy of Ayushman Bharat and how it will solve current problems of our healthcare.

In the other part, discuss what would be the challenges involved in implementing the Ayushman Bharat programme e.g financing issues, health being a state subject, infrastructure and human resource deficit, etc.

Conclusion- you can provide a few suggestions to make the programme more successful.

 

Background:-

  • India is concerned with many health issues be it malnutrition, infant mortality, rising non communicable diseases, growing number of deaths due to cancer etc. The national health protection scheme or the Ayushman Bharat health insurance scheme is the step in the right direction which can give impetus to healthcare in India.

Benefits:-

  • Aims to roll out comprehensive primary health care with Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) serving as the people-centric nuclei. A nationwide network of 1.5 lakh HWCs will be created by transforming the existing sub-centres and primary health-care centres by 2022. This will constitute the very foundation of New India’s health care system. HWCs will help unleash a people’s movement for a healthy India.
  • Aims to provide health cover of ₹5 lakh per family per year for hospitalisation in secondary and tertiary care facilities.
    • In one go,  40% of people, neonates to young and old, will have access to facility care for almost all the medical and surgical conditions that could occur in a lifetime.
    • The programme will cover half a billion people and would align with what the State governments are doing already, with significant resources coming from the Centre.
    • Many State governments would extend the benefits to additional beneficiaries through their own resources .
  • This mission enables increased access to in-patient health care for the poor and lower middle class. The access to health care is cashless and nationally portable.
  • It spurs increased investment in health and generate lakhs of jobs, especially for women, and will be a driver of development and growth. It is a turning point for the health sector.
  • The scheme will replace Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana under which, the government provided Rs.30,000 annually for healthcare. Under NHPS, Rs.30,000 is increased to Rs. 5 lakhs.
  • Will bring healthcare system closer to the homes of people.
  • The new program would be a vast expansion of health coverage, allowing people to visit the country’s many private hospitals for needs as varied as cancer treatment and knee replacements. 

Challenges:-

  • The amount of Rs 5 lakh per family is a massive and unexpected hike from the existing fund of Rs 1 lakh per family. This amount is 17 times bigger than the RSBY scheme and will cover 40% of India’s population.
  • Though it improved access to health care, it did not reduce out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), catastrophic health expenditure or health payment-induced poverty.
  • The NHPS addresses those concerns by sharply raising the coverage cap, but shares with the RSBY the weakness of not covering outpatient care which accounts for the largest fraction of OOPE.
  • Universal health insurance through private hospitals has not worked for the poor anywhere.Biggest beneficiaries are the private hospitals and insurance companies. There is no substitute for public health care. 
  • The government’s proposals do little to prevent poor health in the first place. India is plagued by increasing levels of water and air pollution, some of it worsened by pro-business policies. Malnutrition, poor sanitation and lack of proper housing also remain major problems.
  • Earlier programme failures cast new doubts:-
    • In its final iteration in 2016-2017, the RSBY also targeted 5.9 crore families, and managed to enroll 3.6 crore families. Thus the government’s announcement today of reaching ten crore families is also vastly ambitious
    • There is evidence to show that despite efforts towards pushing for increased insurance coverage, neither have the poorest been reached out to nor has there been efficient financial protection.

Way forward:-

  • The public healthcare needs to be strengthened especially in rural areas.
  • The government needs to provide adequate funding to improve the quality of services as well.
  • In a federal polity with multiple political parties sharing governance, an all-India alignment around the NHPS requires a high level of cooperative federalism, both to make the scheme viable and to ensure portability of coverage as people cross State borders.

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,

4) Examine the reasons behind India’s poor performance in sporting events such as Olympics. Discuss whether the provisions of National Sports University Bill will help India arrest that decline. (250 Words)

The Hindu

 

Why this question

Poor performance in sports has been a long-standing issue for India. Sports, recently has become the focus with several government schemes designed to improve India’s performance at Olympics. The provisions of the Bill thus needs to be examined as to whether they would help India arrest the decline.

Key demand of the question

The first part of the question demands us to examine the reasons behind India’s poor performance in sports. The second part demands us to mention the provisions of the bill and discuss whether they would help India improve its performance in sports.

Directive word

Examine – we have to probe deeper into the reasons behind India’s poor performance,  get into details, and find out the causes why these reasons are related to India’s poor performance

Discuss – Discuss the provisions and analyze whether they would be sufficient

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Write down the aim of National Sports University Bill and bring out the fact that India’s performance in sports is poor and hence steps to improve are required

Body

  • Bring out the reasons
    • Discuss under heads like training and infrastructure, education system, society etc
    • Bring out how those reasons are related to India’s poor performance
  • Discuss the steps needed to change status quo. Here bring in the provisions of the Bill and discuss how they would arrest India’s decline in sports
  • Cite some global example (such as UK) where investing in sports infra helped immensely

Conclusion – Mention the multifaceted advantages of investing in Sports and emphasize that the Bill needs to be passed asap

 

Background:-

  • In the light of the amazing performance by Indians in commonwealth games 2018 development of sports in the country need attention.

Reasons behind poor performance in sporting events such as olympics :-

  • Lack of proper health, education, public information and  physical connectedness e. a population’s ability to travel. 
    • There is little ‘physical connectedness’ in remote, isolated villages so many sporting jewels may go undiscovered.
    • In rural India, where life expectancy and primary school enrolment are below the world average and where there is more limited access to the outside world both physically and communication-wise, much of the effective participating population is lost.
    • Also most of the people from socially backward classes have constraints in access to education, good nutrition, health
  • Lack of interest:-
    • Sport has always taken a back seat to studies for young Indians, or in any case the parents of young Indians.
  • Lack of infrastructure:-
    • Not enough good sports facilities and good sports academics.
    • Not well maintained playgrounds at the local level, equipment was not available
  • No proper support staff
  • Not enough athlete-friendly sports policies which is changing sloly and the government is set to pass national sports university bill as well.
  • Corruption, favouritism, apathy and bad management among sports governing bodies as turn-off to young Indian sportspeople
  • Chronic lack of resources has undermined athletes performance. There is no proper system for athlete selection and training from a young age.
  • Social stratification has meant different castes tended not to play sport together .

National sports university bill :-

  • Objectives of the university are :
    • Research, development and dissemination of knowledge in physical education and sports sciences
    • Strengthening physical education and sports training programmes
    • Generating knowledge capabilities, skills and competence at various levels
    • Training talented athletes to help them to evolve into international level athletes.
  • Proposes a university with exclusive focus on the creation of a high standard of infrastructure for the development of sports sciences and the training of athletes
    • It is to facilitate bachelor’s and master’s degrees, research and training in various areas related to sports.
    • The university is also to double up as the national training centre for select disciplines.
    • The university will also be empowered to establish outlying campuses within and outside India.
    • Apart from academic programmes and research, the university and its outlying campuses are to impart training to elite athletes, sports officials, referees and umpires and evolve as centres of excellence in various disciplines.
  • The university is intended to fill several gaps that exist in the national sports environment, including in areas such as sports science, technology, management and high performance training.
  • Authorities of the University: 
    • The Bill provides for several authorities under the University like 
      • the Court, which will review the broad policies and programmes of the University
      • the Executive Council, which will be the principal executive body
      • the Academic and Activity Council, which will conduct the general supervision over academic policies etc
    • The Executive Council:
      • The Executive Council will conduct all of the University’s administrative affairs. 
    • Role the central government:
      • The central government will review and inspect the functioning of the University.  The Executive Council may take action based on the inspection report. .
    • Funding: 
      • The University will be required to maintain a fund which will be credited with the funds that it receives from the central government, state government, and fees and money received from any other sources (grants and gifts).
    • Disputes and appeal procedure:
      • Any student or candidate whose name has been removed from the rolls of the University and who has been debarred from appearing for the examinations may appeal to the Executive Council.  The Council may confirm, modify or reverse such a decision. 
      • Any dispute between the University and any employee will also be referred to a Tribunal of Arbitration.
    • To make the university a world class one, a memorandum of understanding has been signed by the Government of India with two Australian universities
    • The university is proposed to be established within a period of two financial years, with effect from 2017-18 to 2018-19. The total expenditure towards its establishment is estimated to be Rs. 524 crore, which includes expenditure for the establishment of outlying campuses. Land for the university has been granted by the Government of Manipur free of cost.
    • The university’s chancellor is to be appointed by the Centre. The chancellor should be an eminent person in the field of sports who is either a sportsperson himself or a sports administrator or sports academician. He or she would hold office for a term of five years and not be eligible for reappointment.

Importance:-

 

  • Proposed NSU represents the first effort to establish a sports university on a national scale and with a national perspective.
  • The Draft Bill is a commendable effort to help fill the sports knowledge and education void and it is fairly comprehensive with respect to the manner in which it details the functioning and the establishment of the NSU and associated institutions.
  • For the Government of India, the establishment of the NSU would also be a valuable avenue towards assimilating the north-east of India into the sporting mainstream.
    • Setting up of National Sports University in Manipur will result in giving an opportunity for youth of country in general and of North Eastern States in particular for pursuing courses such as BPEd, MPEd, Diploma/certificate courses in coaching, physiotherapy, fitness, sports management, sports journalism
  • Parliamentary panel felt that the proposed university would prove to be an umbrella institute at the national level and would synchronise all the sports related activities right from spreading the sports culture throughout the country to producing the medal winning sportspersons at global level.

Concerns:-

  • The bill is silent on how the NSU as well its various centres will integrate with and work with the existing national sports governance and administrative framework, including the Indian Olympic Association ,the Sports Authority of India and the various National Sports Institutes to carry out the activities specified and achieve its objectives.
  • Parliamentary Committee was concerned about the availability of funds for the University and felt that at any point of time it should not suffer due to resource constraints.

Way forward:-

  • Proposed sports university should use information technology to provide online courses to students in other parts of the country, the Parliamentary Standing Committee 
  • Corporate sector should be approached for contribution under their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative requesting for setting up of chairs, fellowships and scholarships in the varsity
  • Private companies need to step in to try to fill the gaps in funding for Olympic sports.
  • India needs to learn from the example of countries such as Australia and the UK, which have dramatically increased their medal count by investing in elite selection and training programmes.

Conclusion:-

  • The proposed NSU, if established and operated properly within a clearly defined framework, will serve as a vital part of India’s sporting growth.

 


General Studies – 3


TopicIndian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5) In the wake of the current Indian banking system crisis, discuss what measures should be taken by  the government to prevent such incidents in the future. (250 Words) 

Livemint

 

Why this question

Indian banking is reeling under the pressure of twin balance sheet problem. Stressed assets, poor corporate governance and recapitalization are some of the most urgent issues faced by Indian banks today. Banking sector is vital for the functioning of any modern economy and any crisis in banking system has spillover effects on the economy which can lead to economic crisis. The issue has been in news for a long time. IMF has recently come up with a set of suggestions for Indian banking system. Hence the issue is important for mains exam. The question is related to GS-3 syllabus under the following heading-  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to simply discuss in length, what measures should be taken by the government to prevent banking crisis of such nature, in future. The answer should be holistic and attend to all related aspects of the issue.

Directive word

Discuss- we have to discuss in length about what should be done by the government to prevent any future banking crises. There are many aspects of this issue and many radical solutions. You should stick to the most important and feasible ones.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-  Highlight the present situation of the banking sector in India and briefly mention the main causes behind the cross crisis.

Body- Divide the body into two main parts. In one part discuss in points, what measures have already been taken by the government like Bank board bureau, insolvency and bankruptcy code, recapitalization, consolidation, RBI’s Framework resolution etc.

In the other part, discuss what further measures should be taken by the government in order to prevent such incidents in future. You can mention tighter macroprudential norms, an independent banking supervisor, smaller footprint of government in the corporate sector, and strong corporate governance. You can also mention Kotak committee report and highlight some of its recommendations.

Conclusion- You can conclude your answer by citing results from global financial stability report 2017 of IMF.

Background:-

  • With recent scams in banks like the PNB ,Bank of Baroda, IDBI etc coming to the forefront the need for the regulation of banking system has become imperative

Current banking system crisis :-

  • Banks in India fare poorly in giving loans and in dealing with an NPA. 
    • The last year saw banks take blow after blow- be it the forced recognition of bad loansor taking companies to bankruptcy court
  • The fraud in PNB is a case of operational risk arising on account of delinquent behaviour by one or more employees of the bank and failure of internal controls
  • RBI was also criticised as it regularly inspects banks and is expected to address these very risks.
  • There are problems in the working of the RBI board, the process through which regulations are made, the process through which licensing and investigations are done, and the quasi-judicial process through which punishments are awarded
  • Public sector banks lack Professional management
  • Political Pressure and interference forces Public sector banks to lend to not so commercially sounds project

Recently government has already taken measures like:-

  • Recapitalization plan for banks
  • Bank board bureau etc
  • Mission Indradhanushto make the working of public sector bank more transparent and professional in order to curb the menace of NPA in future.
  • Government has also proposed to introduce Bankruptcy codewhich will make it easier for banks to Recover the loans from the debtors.
  • RBI’s Framework resolution etc

Measures needed by the government:-

  • The Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI’s) new framework for the resolution of stressed assets makes it mandatory to report non-performing accounts above Rs5 crore on a weekly basis. This will make tracking easier.
  • It will be important for the banking system not to become part of an excessive build-up of leverage in the corporate sector.
  • Corporate governance:-
    • Acceptance of the Kotak committee recommendations will help improve the level of corporate governance.
    • PJ Nayak committee on corporate governance:-
      • It suggested that government banks should be brought under the Companies Act rather than the Bank Nationalisation Act as that would allow them to improve their performance and create good governance structure at the board level, and yet meet objectives of nationalisation.
    • Continued efforts to strengthen the framework to protect the interest of minority shareholders will push managements in the corporate sector to take more prudent decisions.
    • IMF suggestions:- 
      • The provision of public capital should be complemented with improved governance and meaningful restructuring of PSBs as well as exit of weak banks.
      • Along with further empowering the Reserve Bank of India over PSBs, it has also suggested increasing the supervisory resources of insurance regulator IRDAI, and enhancing SEBI’s oversight of capital markets and financial market infrastructure.
      • Urged the Indian government to consider privatizing weak public sector banks (PSBs) by selling their viable assets rather than merging them with stronger banks, 
    • Increasing the central bank’s independence, expanding other financial regulators resources, introducing a risk-based solvency regime, and enhancing safety net measures such as deposit insurance and emergency liquidity assistance to improve financial stability.
    • Bring more financing to healthy firms.
      • For this, four non-bank channels of financing need to be opened up. They are capital account liberalisation, NBFCs, the bond market and distressed asset funds (ARCs).
    • Role and function of RBI requires reform, so as to focus RBI upon its two deliverables: Price stability, and soundness of banks.
    • International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS):-
      • Assets must be carried at an estimate of prospective market value, and conservative accounting practices must be followed, through which the accounting value of the asset is shaded on the lower side. The simple application of the IFRS would go a long way in addressing the failures of banking regulation in India.
    • Use of block chain technology can also be adopted as will not only reduce the time for transactions but also improve the database management and each and every transaction can be traced 
    • Review of NPA’S/Restructured advances:-
      • Need to assess the viability case by case. Viable accounts need to be given more finance for turnaround and unviable accounts should either be given to Asset Reconstruction Company or Management/ownership restructuring or permitting banks to take over the units.
    • Improving credit risk management:-
      • This includes credit appraisal, credit monitoring, and efficient system of fixing accountability and analyzing trends in group leverage to which the borrowing firm belongs to
      • Banks should conduct necessary sensitivity analysis and contingency planningwhile appraising the projects and it should built adequate safeguards against such external factors.
    • Strengthen credit monitoring:-
      • Develop an early warning mechanism and comprehensive MIS(Management information system) can play an important role in it.MIS must enable timely detection of problem accounts, flag early signs of delinquencies and facilitate timely information to management on these aspects
    • Enforce accountability-Till now lower ring officials considered accountable even though loaning decisions are taken at higher level. Thus sanction official should also share the burden of responsibility.
    • Restructured accountsshould treated as non performing and technical write offs where Banks remove NPA’S from their balance sheets Permanently should be dispensed with.

TopicInfrastructure: Energy

6) It is imperative for India to increase its energy consumption while ensuring climate justice.  Discuss how government of India aims to balance its energy demands with environmental protection. (250 Words)

Reference

 

Why this question

India’s future will be built on energy and as our economy progresses, our energy consumption is likely to increase sharply. However, Climate change and environmental degradation, associated with energy production and consumption, which are unavoidable to certain extent will not give much room to India’s energy policy. We have to devise a careful energy policy which not only assures increasing energy availability but also envisages to protect our environment. Recently, India hosted an international energy forum, in which the topic has been well debated. The issue is important for IAS mains exam and is related to GS-3 syllabus-

Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the strategy adopted by the govt of India to balance its energy demands and also discuss the policy with regard to environmental protection.

Directive word

Discuss- we have to write in detail about the energy policy of India and how India intends to generate more energy, improve efficiency of consumption. We also have to discuss how India intends to offset the environmental harm caused by increased energy generation and consumption.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-  mention the present energy consumption in India and future demand projections and also mention the need to balance energy needs with environmental protection.  

Body-  Divide the body into three main parts. Discuss each part in points. In one part, discuss how India intends to generate cleaner energy. Mention India’s energy targets ( solar, wind, hydropower, biogas) and installed capacities reached , International Solar Alliance, research on cleaner fuels etc.

In the other part, discuss how India aims to increase efficiency of energy consumption. You can mention Bharat Standards, ratings of appliances,  Ultra Mega power projects.

In the third part, discuss how India aims to offset the environmental loss. As this includes all endeavours in the direction of environmental conservation, you can be exhaustive while quoting the steps.

Conclusion- you can conclude by stressing upon the need of balancing India’s energy needs with environmental protection. Or you can better provide some further suggestions in this regard.

 

Background:-

  • India is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world. Indian cities dominate the list of the most polluted on the planet. Renewable energy can not only transform thousands of villages and towns across this vast country, it can put also India on an accelerator into the future
  • Renewable energy, , accounted for 18.37 per cent of the total installed power capacity in India in 2017.
  • Because of economic and population growth, India’s annual per-capita electricity consumption is expected to triple, from 1075 kWh in 2015-16 to over 2900 kWh in 2040.

How India aims to balance energy demands along with environment :-

  • The Government of India has announced policy initiatives such as electricity and housing for all, accelerated infrastructure development, Make in India, electrification of transport, etc. which call for more electricity and on a reliable basis.
  • Focus on Clean energy:-
    • Price of supplying solar power to the grid is falling fast. That in turn gets more companies to invest more money and create more jobs. And storing power for cloudy days has become less of a problem as the price of batteries has fallen.
    • India is initiating many proposals in renewable energy be if the latest proposal on offshore wind energy generation, nuclear power plants, international solar alliance ,targets in Paris agreement, moving towards biofuels and electric vehicles, focus on strengthening public transport etc .
  • Increase efficiency of energy consumption:-
    • Energy-efficiency is extremely important and can be promoted by setting appropriate prices and this is particularly important where energy prices are rising..
    • Ultra mega power plants have the natural advantage of scale and project level benefits which the normal power projects do not have and, therefore, they tend to be of lower risks and hence lower tariffs.
    • Bharat stage standards :-
      • Union Government in October 2016 had decided to skip one stage and migrate to BS-VI directly from BS-IV to fight the growing pollution. It was part of concerted efforts of Government to reduce vehicular emissions and improve fuel efficiency with an aim to reduce carbon footprints and keep environment healthy
    • Energy rating labels are labels that provide information about an appliance’s energy consumption. In India, BEE (Bureau of energy efficiency) regularises these labels. It’s the government’s way to standardise energy consumption levels and help consumers make an informed decision.
  • Aims to offset the environmental loss:-
    • India is striving towards the goal of33%forest cover.It has taken measures like forest rights act, most recently draft national forest policy , afforestation programmes etc

Way forward,:-

  • Indian economy’s energy mix needs to be remodelled through investments in clean renewable sources of energy like solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and low-emissions bioenergy, and by raising the level of energy efficiency through investments in building retrofits, grid upgrades, and industrial efficiency.
  • Affirmative capital allocation towards creating solar parks and associated infrastructure and green corridors is particularly critical to achieve India’s ambitious renewable energy targets of adding 175 Gigawatt (GW) of renewable energy, including addition of 100 GW of solar power, by the year 2022.
  • Drafting committees need to examine the paradigm shifts occurring in storage and electric vehicles to promote new technologies in renewable energy, such as smart grids, smart homes, battery storage and concentrated solar heat and power. 

 

However there are some concerns with the government approach :

  • In the recent draft national energy policy some concerns were there :-
    • Despite the fact that existing coal plants are running at low efficiencies, the DNEP relies on coal power to sustain the nation’s base load requirement to meet rising energy demand. It proposes that coal will fuel 67% of India’s power generation in 2022.
    • Ministry of Coal continues to push its ambitious targets to raise coal production to 1.5 billion tonnes by 2020
    • DNEP fails to highlight the gradual substitution of internal combustion engines with electric vehicles. 
  • Solar energy equipment manufacturing is still costly.
  • Off shore win energy would still take time to materialise.
  • Compensatory afforestation act is largely criticised as it is leading to deforestation and loss of rights to forest dwellers.

 


General Studies – 4


Why this question:

Scientific temper helps us wade through life in a systematic and coherent way. It helps us make sense of happenings around us. Most importantly, it helps us become rational individuals which is a necessity in the present atmosphere in India. In this light, scientific temper becomes important.

Key demand of the question

Demands us to bring out the advantages of cultivating scientific temper which will help us in answering how it will help India progress.

Directive word

Discuss – Simply establish how scientific temper would be helpful. Bring out any disadvantages, if you feel there are.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – DIscuss what do you understand by scientific temper. Bring out the fact that Nehru placed huge emphasis on scientific temper.

Body

  • Advantages of scientific temper
    • Discuss under various heads like administration, innovation, polity etc
  • Bring out specifically how it will help India
  • Discuss any cautionary advice which you feel is relevant

Conclusion – Re-establish that scientific temper is critical. Mention some recent controversy where application of scientific temper would have helped.

Answer:-

 

Scientific temper involves the application of logic and the avoidance of bias and preconceived notions in arriving at decisions, and becomes particularly valuable while deciding what is best for the community or the nation. Since the Upanishadic or Mahabharata times, arguments, disputations, questions and dialogues have characterised Indian thought.

 

The scientific method calls for inquisition. The scientific method helps us make better decisions and provides a rational outlook towards problems that we are facing especially in administration when civil servants have ethical dilemmas.

 

A scientific person questions the status quo. And often this leads to innovation both in technology as well as social sphere. Saying that scientific temper could serve as an engine for social growth as well as economic growth is not false.

 

Elements of fairness, equality and democracy are built-in in scientific temper. Twin features of internal pluralism and external receptivity have been woven into the development of Indian thought over the ages. This richness of the tradition of argument has shaped India’s social world and the nature of Indian culture. It has deeply influenced Indian politics and the development of democracy in India and emergence of its secular priorities.

 

Despite Jawaharlal Nehru’s advocacy of Scientific Temper, we are witnessing a phenomenal growth of superstitious beliefs and obscurantist practices. The influence of a variety of godmen and miracle makers is increasing alarmingly. In an age when man has travelled to the moon and returned safely, astrological predictions based on the movements of planets or the lines of one’s palm or the number of alphabets in one’s name, are widely believed. Food fads, irrational health practices are on the increase. People believing fake whats app videos showing mount Kailas as the first nuclear reactor of the world, intrusion of theology in science  etc.

 

In such a situation of social and cultural malaise, a major role of Scientific Temper is to revive confidence and hope and to dispel fatalistic outlook. The campaign to promote Scientific Temper must inculcate values like equality and dignity of all human beings, distributive justice, dignity of labour, and social accountability of one’s actions. All these are essential for bringing about social, economic and cultural transformation of our country.