Topic: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
1) The dream of a ‘Surat Split’ was already conceived by Curzon when he made the statement ‘Congress was tottering to its fall and one of the biggest ambitions in my life is to give it a peaceful demise’. Critically analyze. (250 Words)
India’s Struggle for Independence, Chapter – 11 (Bipan Chandra)
Key demand of the question
The question raises the question whether Surat split was preconceived by Lord Curzon and his policies, or whether, the split was a result of ideological and other conflicts between the moderates and extremists. Basically, answer whether the Surat split was a result of British Machiavellian policies or not.
Critically analyze – Bring out arguments for both sides of the debate as mentioned above and provide a balanced stand.
Structure of the answer
Introduction – Mention in brief about Lord Curzon’s policies to Surat Split.
- Argue that Curzon’s policies were responsible
- Bengal split → Swadeshi → Disagreement → Split
- Strategy of DIvide and Rule started by Curzon
- Democratic processes stifled which encouraged reactionary trends
- Argue that split was ideological and bound to happen
- Argument of Sunendra Nath Bannerjea, dada bhai naoroji etc vs aurobindo ghosh → explain the central ideological difference
- Varied opinion on the pace of the movement
Conclusion – Balanced viewpoint that both parties failed to see British designs. Also ideological conflicts are usual at the beginning of nation building process