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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Sambar Deer and Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)






Sambar and Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)


Sambar Deer

  1. Vulnerable –IUCN Red List
  2. State animal of OdishaSambar Deer
  3. Nocturnal and solitary
  4. Native range — Indian subcontinent, southern China, and Southeast Asia
  5. Habitat
  • Gentle slopes and the steeper parts of forested hillsides. They prefer to live near cultivated areas like gardens and plantations, where they can find food, but are also seen in swamp forests, thick forests and open scrub
  • Wide range due to broader diet
  • Thorn and arid forests — Gujarat and Rajasthan
  • Moist and dry deciduous forests — peninsular India
  • Pine and oak forests — Himalayan foothills
  • Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests — northeastern India and the Western Ghats
  • Temperate-latitude and alpine-zone woodlands – Taiwan
  1. Threat
  • hunted for sport, food, medicinal products and other purpose
  • industrial exploitation of habitat
  1. conservation
  • Schedule – I of wildlife (Protection) act, 1972
  • Protected areas like Kanha, Corbett, Ranthambore, Bandhavgarh, Gir, Dudhwa, Manas, Kaziranga and Sariska


Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)


  1. Established in 1987, by G-7 countries – USA, UK, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, and Japan
  2. Aim — to limit the spread of ballistic missiles and other unmanned delivery systems that could be used for chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons of above 500kg for more than 300km
  3. Membership : 35 members
  • India- Admitted in 2016
  • China is not a member
  1. It is not a legally-binding treaty.
  2. MTCR Chairmanship — rotates on an ad hoc basis. Normally the country that hosts the Plenary then serves as Chair for the ensuing year.
  3. MTCR decisions including decisions on membership require a consensus decision by all current Regime members.
  4. MTCR Guidelines — common export control policy adhered to by the MTCR Partners. The Guidelines define the purpose of the MTCR and provide the overall structure and rules to guide the member countries and those adhering unilaterally to the Guidelines.
  5. MTCR Annex — Regime’s list of controlled items. The Annex is divided into two parts:
  • Category Iitems — include complete rocket and unmanned aerial vehicle systems (including ballistic missiles, space launch vehicles, sounding rockets, cruise missiles, target drones, and reconnaissance drones), capable of delivering a payload of at least 500 kg to a range of at least 300 km,
  • Category IIitems — include other less-sensitive and dual-use missile related components, as well as other complete missile systems capable of a range of at least 300 km, regardless of payload. Their export is subject to licensing requirements 
  1. Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation
  • Formerly known as — International Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation
  • Establish a norm against missiles that could be armed with chemical, biological, or nuclear warheads
  • 138 member states — including all MTCR members except Brazil. Brazil has expressed concerns about how the initiative might affect its space program