PRELIMS BOOSTERS 2018
Nilgai (blue bull) and The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
Nilgai (blue bull)
- Least concerned – IUCN red list
- State animal of Delhi
- Largest Asian antelope
- Endemic to the Indian subcontinent.
- Sexual dimorphismis prominent –
- Females and juveniles are orange to tawny
- Adult males have a bluish-grey coat & possess horns
- Nilgai is diurnal(active mainly during the day)
- They are both browsers and grazers
- arid areas, scrub, grassy plains, dry deciduous open forests and agricultural areas, but avoid dense forest and deserts.
- Major populations occur in the Terailowlands in the foothills of the Himalayas
- In India, the nilgai shares its habitat with the four-horned antelope, chinkara, chital and blackbuck;
- Range — India and in the lowland zone of Nepal, extending into border areas of Pakistan where it is rare. Now extinct in Bangladesh. The species has been introduced to the United States of America and Mexico.
- Considered an agricultural pest in parts of India and, although legally protected in India, legislation has been amended to permit culling when crop damage becomes excessive.
- Hunting for its meat
- Habitat destruction
a) Schedule III of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972
b) Protected Areas
- Gir National Park — Gujrat
- Ranthambore National Park — Rajasthan
- Sariska National Park — Rajasthan
- Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary – Rajasthan
- Satpura National Park– Madhya PRadesh
- Bardiya National Park(Nepal)
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
- 1974– in response to the Indian nuclear test (smiling Buddha)
- multilateral export control regime
- group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
- The NSG first met in November 1975 in London, and is thus popularly referred to as the “London Club”
- Not a formal organization, and its guidelines are not binding. Decisions, including on membership, are made by consensus
- Membership: 48 supplier states
Criteria for membership
- The ability to supply items (including items in transit) covered by the annexes to Parts 1 and 2 of the NSG Guidelines;
- Adherence to the Guidelines and action in accordance with them;
- Enforcement of a legally based domestic export control system which gives effect to the commitment to act in accordance with the Guidelines;
- Full compliance with the obligations of one or more of nuclear nonproliferation agreement
- Support of international efforts towards nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their delivery vehicle
- Non-Proliferation Principle — The NSG Guidelines adopted in 1994
- Cover the rare but important cases where adherence to the NPT or to a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty may not by itself be a guarantee that a State will consistently share the objectives of the Treaty or that it will remain in compliance with its Treaty obligations.
- A supplier, notwithstanding other provisions in the NSG Guidelines, authorizes a transfer only when satisfied that the transfer would not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
- INFCIRC/254 –– NSG Guidelines were published in 1978 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
- It is to ensure that nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes and
- Ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to an unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities
- India and NSG
a) 2006 — US Congress allowed the US laws to be amended to accommodate civilian nuclear trade with India
b) 2008 – India granted a ‘clean waiver’ from its existing rules, which forbid nuclear trade with the non signatory of NPT.
- This approval was based on a formal pledge by India stating that it would not share sensitive nuclear technology or material with others and will uphold its voluntary moratorium on testing nuclear weapons
c) Opposition — China – It insisted that India should sign NPT for NSG membership. It wants a non-discriminatory criterion for the admission of countries who have not signed NPT.
d) Why the membership is important ?
- Membership will increase India’s access to state-of-the-art technology from the other members of the Group.
- Access to technology and being allowed to produce nuclear equipment will give a boost to the Make in India program. That will, in turn, boost the economic growth of our country.
- As per India’s INDC under the Paris Climate agreement, we have committed to reducing dependence on fossil fuels and ensuring that 40% of its energy is sourced from renewable and clean sources. In order to achieve this target, we need to scale up nuclear power production. This can only happen if India gains access to the NSG.
- Namibia is the fourth-largest producer of uranium and it agreed to sell the nuclear fuel to India in 2009. However, that hasn’t happened, as Namibia has signed Pelindaba Treaty, which essentially controls the supply of uranium from Africa to the rest of the world. If India joins the NSG, such reservations from Namibia are expected to melt away.
- India will get an opportunity to voice it’s concern if in case of change in the provision of the NSG guidelines