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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 06 APRIL 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 06 APRIL 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic:  Role of women, social empowerment, Poverty and developmental issues

1) Amongst the many issues that constrain equality of employment for women, law of the land is the most significant barrier. Examine (250 Words)

The Financial Express

 

Why this question

Women related issues are always important from GS 1 (topics mentioned above) and GS2 (marginalized section) perspective. Of late, employment status of women has come under the scanner. Reason for the low share of women in LFPR in the world in general and India in particular is an important topic. This question is also related to Feminization of poverty.

Key demand of the question

The question mentions that law of the land is the most significant barrier to low LFPR participation of women. Thus it is asking us to examine the causes behind low female participation in LFPR and examine whether law of the land is the most significant barrier.

Directive word

Examine- Dig deep into the reasons behind reasons that constrain equality of women in employment. Examine the legal aspect in greater detail citing arguments to support or discredit the former as the most significant factor.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write about the problem being highlighted ie the status of female participation in LFPR. Also mention why this issue is important (McKinsey Report – Power of Parity, IMF report or similar can be quoted)

Body-Divide the body of the answer into 2 parts.

In one part examine the various reasons due to which female participation in LFPR is low. Examine the legal aspect in greater detail. This part of the body will take up majority of the word limit.

In the latter part, evaluate why or why not legal aspect is the most significant factor.

Conclusion – Present your view and also mention how the legal aspect can be improved – reservation of women in Parliament, reviewing laws like Maternity Benefit Act etc.

 

Background:-

  • Women’s access to employment and entrepreneurial activity is one of the legs economic development stands on. But in India  a mere27% of working-age women were working in paid jobs in 2015-16.
  • According to the International Monetary Fund, many countries would gain from a 15% to 34% increase in GDP from closing gender gaps in female labour force participation and female entrepreneurship

Law is the most significant barrier:-

  • International:-
  • Globally, the World Bank’s Women, Business and the Law 2018 report notes, 7 billion women are legally restricted from taking up the same jobs as men.
  • 104 countries legally prevent women from specific jobs. Russian law bars women from getting employed in 456 types of work deemed too “hard” or “hazardous” for women.
  • Impact of gender-based legislation on women’s employment outcomes
    • Many countries impose restrictions on women’s access to market work and on the kind of work that women may do. Numerous African countries require by law that a woman acquire her father’s or husband’s permission to work outside the home, while in other places women may not open or operate an individual bank account.
    • In addition, restrictions on work hours and industry of work are often introduced as protective measures to women engaged in potentially hazardous jobs.
    • These restrictions appear to be associated with lower female participation rates and higher labour market segregation. 
  • India, too, has strictures in place that restrict women’s employment. 
    • These barriers include restricting women’s ability to access institutions (such as obtaining an ID card or conducting official transactions), own or use property, build credit, or get a job.
    • There is no system of universal state welfare benefits for periods of unemployment or for old age. Women without the financial support of a man must rely on the wider family structure if they are unemployed or underemployed, and this reliance is exacerbated when they have dependants.
    • Existing differences in parental leave between men and women could increase the 
      perceived cost of employing women and therefore diminish their employment opportunities

Other issues that constrain equality of employment for women :-

  • Part of the answer lies in the methods employed to measure women’s work. A woman’s work in her own household is not counted as an economic activity, and does not get reported in the national income statistics. This is unlike the case of services by a paid domestic help, which is considered an economic activity and is counted in the national income. 
  • Social norms are a key factor underlying deprivations and constraints throughout the lifecycle:-
    • In India, social factors play a significant role in reducing women’s labour participation. Husbands and in-laws often discourage women from working, while, in many parts of the country, restrictions are imposed even on their movements outside the household.
  • Massive withdrawal:-
    • Lower wages than men could be one reason for  massive withdrawal of educated women from the work force.
    • Staggering numbers of women who have withdrawn from the labour force and attend to domestic duties. In 2009-10, the total number of women attending to domestic duties in India was 216 million, which was larger than the entire population of Brazil
  • The key reason for large-scale and increasing joblessness among Indian women is that there are not sufficient jobs.
    • The slow generation of employment is linked to a specific feature of India’s economic transition. 
  • Gender sorting into different jobs, industries, and firm types  explains much of the pay gap. Throughout the world, women are concentrated in less-productive jobs and run enterprises in less-productive sectors, with fewer opportunities for business scale-up or career advancement.
    • The jobs that are available are marginal, low paying, insecure and backbreaking, like construction in the recent past. Then, there are issues of safety for women or absence of facilities like crèches.
  • Gender segregation in access to economic opportunities in turn reinforces gender differences in time use and in access to inputs, and perpetuates market and institutional failures.
  • For instance, women are more likely than men to work in jobs that offer flexible working arrangements (such as part-time or informal jobs) so that they can combine work with care  responsibilities.
    • But because part-time and in- formal jobs often pay lower (hourly) wages than full-time and formal jobs, a high concentration of women in these lower-paying jobs weakens  the incentives to participate in market work and thus reinforces the specialization in nonmarket 
      (including care) and market work along gender lines within the household.
  • Lack of education:-
    • Women are still less educated (in some countries) and more likely to suffer career interruptions than men (primarily because of childbearing).Because education and work experience are valuable inputs into production, gender differences along these dimensions contribute to differences in productivity and earnings.
  • Safety issues:-
    • In addition, sexual harassment both at work and also while travelling to work is a major barrier to women’s access to job opportunities.
  • Poor working conditions not only reduce the quality of jobs but also push prospective female workers away from the labour markets and curb companies ability to retain skilled and experienced workers.
  • Limited access to assets and property rights limits women’s ability to start or grow a business. 

Way forward:-

  • Public and private policies and actions can promote equality over a lifetime. This includes education and training during youth and creating opportunities for women to participate in paid work during their economically productive years.
  • Creating more jobs and ensuring better working conditions for women will encourage greater female participation in the economy.

 

Conclusion:-

  • As more women join the workforce, the voices against gender-based inequalities will grow louder. Empowering women and girls is vital in order to achieve twin goals: ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity.

Why this question

Women related issues are always important from GS 1 (topics mentioned above) and GS2 (marginalized section) perspective. Of late, employment status of women has come under the scanner. Reason for the low share of women in LFPR in the world in general and India in particular is an important topic. This question is also related to Feminization of poverty.

Key demand of the question

The question mentions that law of the land is the most significant barrier to low LFPR participation of women. Thus it is asking us to examine the causes behind low female participation in LFPR and examine whether law of the land is the most significant barrier.

Directive word

Examine- Dig deep into the reasons behind reasons that constrain equality of women in employment. Examine the legal aspect in greater detail citing arguments to support or discredit the former as the most significant factor.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write about the problem being highlighted ie the status of female participation in LFPR. Also mention why this issue is important (McKinsey Report – Power of Parity, IMF report or similar can be quoted)

Body-Divide the body of the answer into 2 parts.

In one part examine the various reasons due to which female participation in LFPR is low. Examine the legal aspect in greater detail. This part of the body will take up majority of the word limit.

In the latter part, evaluate why or why not legal aspect is the most significant factor.

Conclusion – Present your view and also mention how the legal aspect can be improved – reservation of women in Parliament, reviewing laws like Maternity Benefit Act etc.


General Studies – 2 


Topic: India and its neighbourhood relations

2) Critically comment on the extent and implications of poor unity in South Asia in general and  India, Pakistan and Bangladesh (IPB) in particular.  (250 Words)

The Hindu

 

Why this question?

Neighbourhood affair is always the most important topic in IR from GS perspective. In the current game of brinksmanship being played out between India and China, South Asia becomes even more important.

Key demand of the question:

The question is asking us about the extent of poor unity in South Asia and the implications of it. In extent we have to mention about the different fields where South Asia in general and IPB in particular is not integrated. Thereafter, we have to comment on the implications of it in various fields.

Directive Word:

Critically comment – To this question most of us tend to provide facts on extent, and implications, but it demands a fair opinion from our part based on evidences. Here one can form an opinion on how poor unity is constraining our development and emergence of India as a major power.

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction, write about some of the current events that highlight the lack of unity. Thereafter, mention that both the extent and implications are multifaceted. Also mention that the issue is closely linked to global power play since China is also in the picture.

The body of this answer is to be divided into two parts. In the first part, talk about the extent of disunity – institutional, social, political, infrastructural etc. In the second part, similarly talk about the implications.

The conclusion should mention your overall opinion on what we are missing as a result of this disunity.

Background:-

  • India-Pakistan-Bangladesh account for approximately 95% of South Asia’s GDP and population. Along with China, they account for 18.5% of global GDP and 41% of global population.

Extent of poor unity in south Asia :-

 

  • India-Pakistan rivalry, further complicated by China-Pakistan proximity and India-China hostility.
  • Souring of Pakistan-Bangladesh relations :-
    • Commercial ties between the two countries had generally been affected by a slow paced development in trade diplomacy since last few years.
    • Besides issues of non-tariff barriers, including visa issues to Pakistani businessmen hinder commercial contacts between our two countries.
    • Both states have also withdrawn their diplomatic missions and Pakistan also avoided attending the SAARC Sanitation Conference
    • The bilateral trade of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also not very significant. 
  • India Pakistan:-
    • Pakistan and India have potential trade capacity of $20 billion compared to the current $3 billion.
    • Terrorism, border disputes and militancy in Kashmir are leading to harmful impact on the South Asian region as a whole. 
    • Aircargo flights are encumbered by limited access to Indian airspace by Pakistan and vice-versa.
  • India Bangladesh :-
    • Underdeveloped transport and logistics services and bureaucratic procedures are deterring India-Bangladesh cross border trade, which can grow by 300%. 
    • India-China tug of war over Bangladesh.
    • Illegal migration,land and maritime boundary issues,insurgency,drug trafficking.
    • The growing trade deficit is also a great concern for Bangladesh. Despite Dhaka’s repeated requests, India has been tardy in relaxing tariffs and non-tariff barriers and opening up the market of Indian provinces bordering Bangladesh.
    • Another thorny issue is shooting at the border by Indian guards. 
    • Although India and Bangladesh have started exploring opportunities using Ashuganj inland port, regional inland waterways remain unexplored. 
  • Connectivity issues in south Asia :-
    • The Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM-EC) has a pivotal position in developing joint investment agreements but sluggish progress in infrastructural development has rendered the corridor nearly comatose
    • Due to cross-border barriers and lack of transport facilitation among IPB, freight movement is taking place along expensive routes, escalating investment cost. 
    • Movement of trucks across the international frontier is confined by absence of cross-border agreements between India and Bangladesh and India and Pakistan. 
    • Rail connectivity is restricted due to technical problems of different gauges, track structures, signalling and so forth. Absence of a multilateral agreement has restricted the realisation of the railway potential. 
  • Water disputes:-
    • The three largest trans-boundary river basins, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra, are all within China-India-Pakistan-Bangladesh. This represents a huge potential for water-sharing and hydro power projects across the basins, but political mistrust is an impediment.
    • The Zangmu hydroelectricity dam has raised concerns in India over downstream water supply. This damming, along with that of the Ganga, could exacerbate Bangladesh’s downstream water scarcity.
  • Other issues:-
    • IPB fail to attract sufficient tourists due to poor civil aviation connectivity, complex regulations and lack of visa liberalisation procedures.
    • Communalism has cast a pall of darkness over South Asian region. Religious zealots, who hardly practice their respective religions, are the main communal and sectarian activists fomenting troubles and dividing their society; thus undermining national solidarity.

 

However there are still good relations among the countries:-

  • India, Pakistan and Bangladesh (IPB) have  common sociocultural bonds and people-to-people connectivity remains positive.
  • India continues to be the natural choice for external investors including Chinese multinational enterprises like Alibaba and Xiaomi. In 2016, foreign direct investment to Pakistan rose by 56%, largely due to Chinese investment in Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) infrastructure. 
  • China has already pledged $38 billion to Bangladesh under the BRI. Synergetic integration of the economic corridors with other BRI projects can accelerate inward investment into IPB
  • Trade relationship has improved significantly between India and Bangladesh. India has provided zero duty access of Bangladeshi products thereby addressing the tariff related issue to a great extent. 
  • Bangladesh, Cambodia and China have signed a framework to strengthen digital regional trade.
  • Pakistan- Bangladesh:-
    • Despite problems in trade relations, Pakistani and Bangladeshi entrepreneurs continue to participate in annual exhibitions/trade fairs like Dhaka Trade Fair and Expo Pakistan.

Implications of poor unity in south Asia :-

  • Chinese factor:-
    • China is injecting huge funds into physical infrastructure such as Pakistan’s Gwadar port project and $20 billion in various Indian industrial and infrastructural projects. China has committed $1.4 billion for building Colombo Port City and is set to invest $1 billion more. So the influence of China is increasing in South Asia.
    • A surge in Chinese economic and diplomatic involvement in South Asia poses a serious rival for Indian influence in its neighbourhood. For instance Maldives Nepal moving towards China.
    • China’s increasing role in Nepal, Indian ocean, Srilanka is causing concerns to India . 
  • Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan are paying the price of regional disintegration.
  • Trade is still not up to the mark and is way below potential.
  • Impacts the security issues and terrorism and makes border management more vulnerable.
  • The role of SAARC is diminishing and south Asia trade is taking toll.

 

Way forward:-

  • China can lead in transport and transit agreements to facilitate smooth movement of freight and passenger vehicles across IPB resulting in integration with China and also South Asia.
  • With greater electricity generation and utilisation of domestic energy endowments, combined efforts of BCIM, CPEC and the proposed China-Nepal-India (CNI) Economic Corridor under BRI, can capitalise on regional energy potential.
  • Digital connectivity can act as the gateway to a holistic transformation of the region via the CIPB conduit.
  • China is unable to attract students from South Asia against the improved facilities provided by the U.S. and U.K. Only 5% of outbound students of IPB go to China, compared to 22% to the U.S. If these opportunities are tapped, it would enhance mobility of both tourists and students.
  • India thus needs to strengthen the various regional groupings in this region like the ASEAN and the BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation). Importantly, they should work together to resolve all the issues.
  • India and Bangladesh need to strengthen their military ties. Much more can be done in terms of increasing visits, contacts at various level as well as by selling military hardware.
    • Apart from initiating joint exercises, India should consider the China model of gifting hardware in the initial instance, and offer technical expertise that Bangladeshi military is in need of. 
  • Commonalities like shared history, more or less common language, common heritage, literature, art, and culture can be enhanced through track II diplomacy, which in turn can be expanded and taken to another level through skilled diplomacy of leaders
    • Through shared goals, means, and institutions (like SAARC) every regional state including these three can achieve their interests and get satisfactory status on the regional and international level.

Conclusion:-

  • Strategic collaboration that rises to the occasion, looking beyond historical animosity and misgivings, can unlock a new era of regionalism whose benefits far outweigh negatives.

 

Why this question?

Neighbourhood affair is always the most important topic in IR from GS perspective. In the current game of brinksmanship being played out between India and China, South Asia becomes even more important.

Key demand of the question:

The question is asking us about the extent of poor unity in South Asia and the implications of it. In extent we have to mention about the different fields where South Asia in general and IPB in particular is not integrated. Thereafter, we have to comment on the implications of it in various fields.

Directive Word:

Critically comment – To this question most of us tend to provide facts on extent, and implications, but it demands a fair opinion from our part based on evidences. Here one can form an opinion on how poor unity is constraining our development and emergence of India as a major power.

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction, write about some of the current events that highlight the lack of unity. Thereafter, mention that both the extent and implications are multifaceted. Also mention that the issue is closely linked to global power play since China is also in the picture.

The body of this answer is to be divided into two parts. In the first part, talk about the extent of disunity – institutional, social, political, infrastructural etc. In the second part, similarly talk about the implications.

The conclusion should mention your overall opinion on what we are missing as a result of this disunity.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

3) Our focus on rankings has led us to ignore the deeper malaise that plagues Indian universities. Discuss. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question?

Higher education is an important topic to be prepared for mains. Issues plaguing higher education and Indian universities are important, thus.

Key demand of the question

The question mentions focus on ranking. That can indicate two things – focus on global rankings as well as developing our own ranking system (NIRF). The question is asking whether the focus on ranking is a necessary and sufficient way to improve the status of Indian universities, or do we require to identify other issues and correct them.

Directive word:

Discuss – go through the details of the effects of focus on ranking and its correlation to the issues plaguing Indian universities by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons as to why you think focus on ranking is necessary and sufficient to address issues plaguing Indian universities.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write on the status of universities in India. Give an overall picture on what the rankings indicate.

Body –1st part – Why the focus on rankings. What is NIRF.

2nd part – Write about the issues plaguing Indian universities. Relate it to whether ranking helps address that issue. Here talk about autonomy, lack of innovation and other issues mentioned in the article. Mention how focus on rankings helps (or not) in addressing these issues.

Conclusion – Write your fair judgement and mention what other steps should be taken to improve the status of higher education in India.

 

 

Background:-

  • All over the globe, academic institutions mature with time, and hence, they last hundreds of years with growing grace but this is not the case in India.This brings to notice the issues and challenges being faced by universitiesin India.
  • Focus on rankings can help to reform and modernise higher education, encouraging universities to professionalise services and management, and improve the quality of their programmes and facilities for students and faculty.

Rankings are necessary because:-

  • Rankings will bring transparency to the education system as the institutes are funded by the public. It will also increase the level of competition among them.
  • Idea behind these rankings is to promote quality education and encourage competition to make the institutes perform better and set new benchmarks of performance. 

Problems with focusing only on rankings:-

  • Rankings have placed a new premium on status and reputation, with a strong bias towards long-established and well-endowed institutions.
  • Rankings perpetuate a single definition of quality at a time when higher education institutions, and their missions, are diversifying. By focusing primarily on research intensity, other dimensions, such as teaching and learning, community engagement, innovation and social and economic impact are ignored.
  • In addition, higher education institutions are complex organisations with strengths and weaknesses across various departments and activities. Excellence can be defined differently depending upon the criteria or indicators/weightings which are used. By aggregating the score across the various indicators, rankings reduce the complexity of higher education to a single digit score, and exaggerate differences.
  • If the government were to allocate funds based on this list any time soon, institutions would receive and lose funding so rapidly that they would have to operate in a state of semi-emergency all the time.
  • Some public institutions do not take part of the rankings as well.
  • There is no methodology to take into account the innovative potential of this patents in the rankings as only number of research papers and patents are accounted to. So there is more focus on output orientation in the rankings.
  • Every country’s education system is different so the local intricacies are neglected international rankings.
  • Although Indian universities do not feature in the top universities in the world the quality of education is improving slowly.

Problems in Indian universities :-

  • Since Independence Indian focus on expanding the higher education sector has been to provide access. This has led to a situation where research and scholarship have been neglected.
  • Also the infrastructure of many universities is abysmal.
  • Governments and their regulators have also weakened the abilities of universities by
  • Unless the government spending on higher education doubles, India’s institutions and students therein will remain impoverished.
  • Teaching quality is bad.
  • Issues with the latest move to provide graded autonomy to institutions 
  • With this move, the institutions will have to generate their own funds for many of the freedoms they are being granted
  • So, they would be subject to the dictates of the market. Consequently, professional courses may get money but not the core social sciences or sciences
  • There would be pressure to move towards paying courses
  • Those not catering to the markets would be marginalised and the generation of the socially relevant knowledge would decline

Way forward:-

  • A systematic, coherent, and transparent approach is needed to determine the suitability of universities to pursue objectives of excellence.
  • The scrutiny of universities before starting programmes or schools should come down, as they are expected to assume greater responsibility in having self-regulating mechanisms and internal quality assurance systems.
  • Taking inspiration from the Project 5-100 initiative, India could consider empowering 50 of its top universities in every possible manner to seek global excellence.
  • RUSA can prove be a real game changer for higher education in the country
  • Government can establish all India educational services which was recommended by the Subramanian committee.

Conclusion:-

  • Governments should aim to develop a diverse range of universities each with specialist world-class expertise, to attract high-achieving students and high-skilled labour.Building such a world-class higher education system would enable countries to mobilise and leverage the potential of the whole system for the benefit of society at large.

Why this question?

Higher education is an important topic to be prepared for mains. Issues plaguing higher education and Indian universities are important, thus.

Key demand of the question

The question mentions focus on ranking. That can indicate two things – focus on global rankings as well as developing our own ranking system (NIRF). The question is asking whether the focus on ranking is a necessary and sufficient way to improve the status of Indian universities, or do we require to identify other issues and correct them.

Directive word:

Discuss – go through the details of the effects of focus on ranking and its correlation to the issues plaguing Indian universities by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons as to why you think focus on ranking is necessary and sufficient to address issues plaguing Indian universities.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write on the status of universities in India. Give an overall picture on what the rankings indicate.

Body –1st part – Why the focus on rankings. What is NIRF.

2nd part – Write about the issues plaguing Indian universities. Relate it to whether ranking helps address that issue. Here talk about autonomy, lack of innovation and other issues mentioned in the article. Mention how focus on rankings helps (or not) in addressing these issues.

Conclusion – Write your fair judgement and mention what other steps should be taken to improve the status of higher education in India.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

4) The recent trade war between US and China signals that there are looming threats over free trade. Comment. Also discuss the implications of such trade war on developing countries like India. (250 Words)

The Hindu

The Financial Express

Why this question?

Globalization and trade liberalization are important topics that remain in news. Hence they are important from mains perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question asks you to comment on the future of free trade. The next part asks you to probe deeper into the effects that trade protectionist measures would have on developing countries like India.

Directive word:

Comment – In the first part of the question present your view on whether you feel in light of the trade war and other events, future of free trade is secure or not.

Discuss – In the second part, focus on the impact that trade protectionism would have on India and how India can mitigate any future risk.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write on the issue at hand. What is the trade war about and whether it is an isolated event or in continuation with a series of events.

Body –1st part – Mention your view on the future of free trade – multilateral, plurilateral and bilateral.

2nd part – Discuss about the impacts of trade protectionism on developing countries like India – incorporate points like impact on food security, transfer of technology, trade deficits etc

Conclusion – Present a balanced view on the future of free trade and steps India should take to secure itself from effects of global trade regime uncertainties.

Background:-

  • Global stock markets have been rattled again by fears of a trade war between the world’s two largest economics after China retaliated to US’s plan to impose tariffs on up to $60bn (£42.4bn) worth of Chinese products. This is raising questions whether free trade is threatened.

Looming threats over free trade :-

  • Instances leading to trade war are :-
    • The US current account deficit averaged 2.5% during the seven-year period of deficit from 1984 to 1990, but after China’s entry into the WTO, the US trade deficit averaged 5.02% (2002-08).
    • China’s low-cost products and rising consumption of the US led to unprecedented trade deficit of the US since 2001. In fact, its trade deficit of $566 billion in 2017 is the largest trade gap since 2008.
    • US announced heavy tariffs on steel and aluminium imports from China, which are suffering from overcapacity. Though these measures are intended to address unfair trade practices by China as reflected by the number of anti-dumping cases against China and the undervalued yuan.
    • The US administration rattled market bulls by calling for 25% tariffs on $50 billion in imports from China. China fired back with a plan to impose import duties on $50 billion worth of American products. 

Trade war might not happen:-

  • Neither the U.S. nor China had announced kick-off dates for the harsher round of tariffs. 
  • China’s imports from the U.S. come to around $170 billion (2016 figures). America’s imports from China, at nearly $480 billion, are nearly three times as large  and nearly all of these imports are consumer goods. China simply can’t afford to squeeze the U.S. with tariffs, because the U.S. has so many more imports to squeeze.
  • The United States and China are the world’s two largest economies, two of the most closely integrated. With roughly $650 billion in goods and services flowing across the Pacific every year, the trading relationship between the U.S. and China is second in size only to that between the U.S. and Canada.

Implications of such trade war :-

  • A protectionist standoff between the U.S. and China would drive up consumer prices in both economies raising the likelihood that the central bankers will raise interest rates to head off inflation.
  • Hitting Chinese manufactures in high-technology sectors could hurt U.S. businesses that have plants in China, where labour and manufacturing costs are lower.
    • S. technology firms would be caught in the crossfire of a trade war, darkening the outlook for a crucial sector already under attack for accelerating the dissemination of “fake news” and failing to safeguard users’ personal data.
  • This would affect not only US businesses but also American and Chinese consumers:-
    • Retailers such as Walmart import goods from China, so prices would go up and living standards would be squeezed.
    • And since US goods are sold worldwide, if they are reliant on parts from China, consumers here in the UK and in the rest of the world would also be affected.
    • The same applies to Chinese consumers and producers, particularly since about half of Chinese exports are made by enterprises with foreign investors.
  • Trade war among major economies would affect multilateral trading system globalisation and disrupt global supply chains
  • Tariffs create ‘deadweight’ losses, encouraging production and consumption inefficiencies a net welfare loss to the US itself and to the global economy. Also, tariffs shrink global growth. 
  • The imposition of tariffs on aluminium and steel inputs that have forward-linkages will hurt competitiveness of the final goods produced in industries such as automotive, machine tools and electronics, as was witnessed in the early 1980s when the US automotive companies lost competitiveness to their Japanese counterparts.
  • The whole integrity of WTO is at peril because the attitude US has taken. 
  • India:-
    • Diminished US-China trade engagement could have positive results for countries such as Brazil and India from a trade perspective, at least in the short run.
      • For instance in the case of soybean there could be a cascading impact in terms of openings for India to enter other markets
    • In the long term, a full-fledged trade war is not good for India. It invariably leads to a higher inflationary and low growth scenario.
    • Increase in interest rates in the US has implications for emerging economies such as India, both for the equity and debt markets.
    • The three external risk factors higher tariffs, rising interest rates, and elevated bond sales will come at a time when the domestic banking system is grappling with a renewed stress of bad loans. 
    • US-China trade war could accelerate the transition. US companies that rely heavily on imports from China would be forced to redesign their supply chains around tariffs. Multinationals and their suppliers would look for alternative facilities outside China.This is bad news for China but might benefit India.

 

Conclusion:-

  • India needs to be cautious certainly must not take the lead in forging an anti-US front with China. Its strategic relationship with both the countries need to be nurtured.

Why this question?

Globalization and trade liberalization are important topics that remain in news. Hence they are important from mains perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question asks you to comment on the future of free trade. The next part asks you to probe deeper into the effects that trade protectionist measures would have on developing countries like India.

Directive word:

Comment – In the first part of the question present your view on whether you feel in light of the trade war and other events, future of free trade is secure or not.

Discuss – In the second part, focus on the impact that trade protectionism would have on India and how India can mitigate any future risk.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write on the issue at hand. What is the trade war about and whether it is an isolated event or in continuation with a series of events.

Body –1st part – Mention your view on the future of free trade – multilateral, plurilateral and bilateral.

2nd part – Discuss about the impacts of trade protectionism on developing countries like India – incorporate points like impact on food security, transfer of technology, trade deficits etc

Conclusion – Present a balanced view on the future of free trade and steps India should take to secure itself from effects of global trade regime uncertainties.


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

5) Section 2(g) of the Aadhaar act gives unbridled powers of delegated legislation to the executive. Comment. (250 Words)

The Hindustan Times

Why this question

Aadhaar act poses huge privacy concerns for the citizens and recently a constitutional bench of Supreme Court questioned the unbridled delegated legislative powers conferred by the Aadhaar act. Thus it is an important issue for upsc exams and comes under the following heading of GS-2 syllabus- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key demand of the question

You have to introduce section 2(g) of Aadhar act and then discuss how it poses privacy concerns for citizens, what are its implications etc.

Directive word

comment- the question demands discussion of the section 2(g) of the Aadhaar act and thereof form a personal opinion. 

Structure of the answer

In the introduction part, mention the recent observation of the constitutional bench of Supreme Court regarding section 2(g) of  the Aadhaar act. You can also quote constitutional provisions dealing with right to privacy of Indian citizens.

Divide the body of the answer into 2 parts. In one part discuss the positive aspects/ need of section 2g of Aadhar act. In another part, discuss how section 2g of Aadhar act provides unlimited powers to the govt. to collect any form of biometric data.

In the conclusion part, provide some suggestions on how the act can be ensured to protect individual privacy.

 

Background:-

  • The Supreme Court recently asked if this open-ended clause in the Aadhaar Act ‘isn’t excessive delegation’ if the UIDAI is given the authority to add whatever attribute as biometric .

Section 2(g) of the Aadhar act:-

  • Section 2 (g) of the Act says biometric information means photograph, finger print, iris scan, or such other biological attributes of an individual as may be specified by regulations.

Why section2(g) is needed :-

  • Aadhaar is the best way to prevent money laundering and deliver subsidies and benefits so personal details are necessary.
  • It will let the government find the details of Anti-Social elements of the Society as with biological attributes terrorists and other threatening actors can be found out.
  • It will curb tax evasion
  • Aadhaar has helped in curbing the leakages in the disbursal of benefits under welfare schemes.
  • The legitimate State interest runs through the entire Aadhaar Act and it has helped in dissipation of subsidies, prevention of black money and money laundering by linking it with bank accounts.

How it gives unbridled powers of delegated legislation to the executive:-

  • The Section has raised concerns about Right to Privacy of Citizens and Un-regulated Powers to Union Government to Collect Personal Information including Sensitive Biometrics. The Act leaves it open to the government to add any biological attributes.
  • People opposed to the scheme say that it violated the doctrine of proportionality.
  • According to supreme court legislation was too open ended and gave excessive power to the Unique Identification Authority of India.
  • One obvious concern is the confidentiality of whatever personal information an individual may not wish to be public or accessible to others.
  • A bigger danger is that Aadhaar is a tool of unprecedented power for mining and collating personal information. Aadhaar enables the government to collect and collate all this personal information with virtually no restrictions.
  • Private agencies:-
    • Their access to multiple databases is more restricted, but some of them do have access to a fair amount of personal information from their own databases.
    • To illustrate, Reliance Jio is in possession of identity information for more than 100 million Indians, harvested from the CIDR when they authenticate themselves to buy a Jio SIM card. 

Conclusion:-

  • In the light of the rising cyber security threats and data protection being compromised at global level India needs to be cautious and take precautionary actions to ensure the trust of the public in the government is not lost.

Why this question

Aadhaar act poses huge privacy concerns for the citizens and recently a constitutional bench of Supreme Court questioned the unbridled delegated legislative powers conferred by the Aadhaar act. Thus it is an important issue for upsc exams and comes under the following heading of GS-2 syllabus- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key demand of the question

You have to introduce section 2(g) of Aadhar act and then discuss how it poses privacy concerns for citizens, what are its implications etc.

Directive word

comment- the question demands discussion of the section 2(g) of the Aadhaar act and thereof form a personal opinion. 

Structure of the answer

In the introduction part, mention the recent observation of the constitutional bench of Supreme Court regarding section 2(g) of  the Aadhaar act. You can also quote constitutional provisions dealing with right to privacy of Indian citizens.

Divide the body of the answer into 2 parts. In one part discuss the positive aspects/ need of section 2g of Aadhar act. In another part, discuss how section 2g of Aadhar act provides unlimited powers to the govt. to collect any form of biometric data.

In the conclusion part, provide some suggestions on how the act can be ensured to protect individual privacy.


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation ; Land reforms

6) CAF act is not only anti-forest but also anti-forest dweller. Discuss in the light of recently notified draft rules of CAF act. (250 Words)

The Hindu

 

Why this question

Environmental protection and rights of forest dwellers are important as far as upsc mains exam is concerned. A huge corpus of funds has been generated under CAF and environmental activists and various NGOs have raised their concerns regarding the draft rules of CAF act. This question cis related to GS-2 syllabus-Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key demand of the question

The question demands a brief description of the recent draft guidelines issued under CFA act along with a discussion on how they are anti-forest and anti forest-dweller.

Directive word

Discuss- the answer demands a detailed review of the draft rules of CAF act. The answer should contain a detailed discussion and cater to all the aspects of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- in the introduction part, mention the purpose of CAF act. You can also mention the corpus of fund generated under CAF act.

Divide the body of the answer into two parts. In one part, briefly discuss the main positive points about CAF act. Restrict yourself to the demand of the question, however.

Divide the second part into 2 subparts. in one subpart discuss how the draft rules are anti-forest and in the second subpart, discuss how they are anti-forest dwellers.

In the conclusion, either provide some suggestions about changes needed in the draft rules, or mention the need to balance environmental protection and community rights with the developmental needs.

 

 

Background:-

  • Recently the Indian government notified the draft Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF) Rules, 2018 to facilitate utilisation of over Rs50,000 crore among states to expand India’s forest cover. They specify the activities that would be allowed or restricted in a forest area.

How CAF act and draft rules are Anti forest:-

  • CAF fund’s growth over the past decade is a measure of the forest destruction under way in India.
  • Evidence establishes that CA plantations destroy natural forests, harm biodiversity, undermine the rights and nutrition of local communities, and disguise rampant misuse of public funds.
  • Subverts forest rights act and PESA:-
    • By allocating more than Rs50,000 crore, the Act enables the forest bureaucracy to entrench its control over forests and subvert democratic forest governance established by the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006 and Panchayats (Extension to Schedule Areas) Act (Pesa), 1996.
  • Places a huge fund at the unilateral disposal of the forest bureaucracy, giving it unchecked powers to undertake plantations on private and common property resources when corruption allegations are rampant.
  • Provide no meaningful safeguards against the forest bureaucracy implementing compensatory plantations on dense forests, and where FRA claims have been issued, are pending or have to be filed.
  • Consultations are not stipulated for all afforestation projects, and need not even involve the affected gram sabhas. This indicates a blindness to conflicts under way across forested landscapes.
    • Since the CAF Bill was floated, forest rights advocates report that over 2,500 gram sabhas across India have opposed it.
  • An ongoing study of 2,479 compensatory afforestation projects across 10 States by forest rights groups has shown that over 70% were on existing forest land, including dense forests.
  • Forest departments are taking over village resources, which includes existing old-growth forests, because there is a severe paucity of land to service the thousands of afforestation projects that have been floated.
  • The draft rules state that compensatory afforestation work can be carried out in consultation with a gram sabha or Van Sanrakshan Samiti, but Van Sanrakshan Samiti is not a legal body and cannot be equated with Gram Sabha

How CAF act and draft rules are Anti forest dweller:-

  • It is also a potent indicator of the scale of resource appropriation from some of India’s most marginalised citizens, namely Adivasis and other communities, living in and around forests.
  • The act reduces these communities displacement, hardship and loss of livelihood and food sources to a monetary value  to be paid to the state.
  • The law and now its draft rules spells further capture of Adivasi lands in the name of compensatory afforestation.
  • The rules provide for mere “consultation” with communities in the planning of compensatory afforestation which is a step backward from the consent provisions in the FRA and the 2014 Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act.
  • Expert study chronicled multiple forms of state violence against villagers protesting against such plantations (including beatings, arrests, criminal cases, food insecurity and forcible takeover of land).

Conclusion:-

  • The CAF Act needs to be integrated with the FRA and PESA by centering the role of gram sabhas and incorporating land and forest rights guarantees. Only then India’s target of 33% forest cover would be achieved.

 

 

Why this question

Environmental protection and rights of forest dwellers are important as far as upsc mains exam is concerned. A huge corpus of funds has been generated under CAF and environmental activists and various NGOs have raised their concerns regarding the draft rules of CAF act. This question cis related to GS-2 syllabus-Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key demand of the question

The question demands a brief description of the recent draft guidelines issued under CFA act along with a discussion on how they are anti-forest and anti forest-dweller.

Directive word

Discuss- the answer demands a detailed review of the draft rules of CAF act. The answer should contain a detailed discussion and cater to all the aspects of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- in the introduction part, mention the purpose of CAF act. You can also mention the corpus of fund generated under CAF act.

Divide the body of the answer into two parts. In one part, briefly discuss the main positive points about CAF act. Restrict yourself to the demand of the question, however.

Divide the second part into 2 subparts. in one subpart discuss how the draft rules are anti-forest and in the second subpart, discuss how they are anti-forest dwellers.

In the conclusion, either provide some suggestions about changes needed in the draft rules, or mention the need to balance environmental protection and community rights with the developmental needs.


TopicAwareness in IT, computers, robotics

7) Machine learning and artificial intelligence will transform businesses and governance. Discuss. What are some of the potential uses of AI in governance sector? (250 Words)

Business World

 

Why this question

Machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies are growing at a lightning speed. These Technologies offer radical solutions to our diverse problems, ranging from climate change to operations management to driving a car. The ideas of leveraging artificial intelligence and machine learning are being mooted vigorously and the question is related to the GS-2 as well as GS-3 syllabus under the following heading-

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights and institutional and other measures.

Key demand of the question

The question demands us to discuss and explain how machine learning and artificial intelligence will transform businesses and governance and what applications will these technologies offer in the near future.

Directive word

Discuss- the answer demands an explanation for how artificial intelligence and machine learning will transform businesses and governance. The answer should also state to what levels they will be transformed and their limitations.

What- the question simply demands a brief description of potential use of these two technologies in governance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- in the introduction part briefly define machine learning artificial intelligence. You can also cite some recent development in the field of artificial Intelligence and machine learning which corroborate the fact that these technologies will transform businesses and governance.

Body- divide the body of the answer into two parts.

Divide the first path into two subparts. in one subpart, discuss how Artificial Intelligence and machine learning will transform businesses and governance.

In the other subpart discuss the limitations of these technologies at the present.

In the other part of the answer, give a brief description in points about the potential uses of artificial Intelligence and machine learning in governance.

In the conclusion, briefly mention the budget allocations for artificial intelligence and recently created artificial intelligence task force.

Background:-

  • The convergence of Big Data and Cloud powered by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning will be the next game changers .
  • Accenture said AI has the potential to increase India’s annual growth rate of gross value added (GVA) by 1.3 percentage points, lifting the country’s income by 15 percent by 2035.

How machines learning and artificial intelligence will transform business and governance:-

  • India is creating unstructured data at a very rapid pace and has datasets in volume that very few countries possess.
  • Businesses:-
    • In the Budget 2018, the Government of India announced efforts to enhance research in disruptive technologies like AI, Big Data, IoT and Robotics. This will boost digital inclusion, innovation, and manufacturing; thereby creating multi fold employment opportunities directly contributing to the upsurge of Indian economy.
    • Machine learning, inclusive of all its various subdomains such as deep learning, is providing us with the ability to dramatically amplify ability to extract insights from data and perform complex tasks at scale. 
    • Advertisers can craft and time messages tailored to each person’s behaviour.
    • For now, deep learning is making shopping faster and easier. San Francisco-based Stitch Fix, for example, provides personalized clothing recommendations based on shopper preferences.
  • Governance:-
    • The potential for AI in healthcare is awe-inspiring. It promises to predict disease in time to prevent it, speed drug development, and help doctors diagnose and treat cancer.
    • In agriculture, Blue River Technology (recently acquired by John Deere) pioneered the use of deep learning to help farmers monitor livestock, manage crops, and pinpoint weeds.
    • AI is even changing sports helping coaches plan strategy, providing insights that improve player performance, and predicting game outcomes.
    • Financial services companies like banks and investment firms are among the earliest adopters of deep learning. Many are already using it to augment investment research, improve investment performance, and bolster fraud detection.
    • Criminal justice and public safety is another area that could benefit from A.I. 
    • I. that is embedded in robotics, such as self-driving vehicles, could be a big opportunity for government as well.
    • Partnerships:-
      • Microsoft is having partnerships with a number of governments in this regard. They worked with Singapore government to actually help them create bots to better engage their customers.
      • In India, for instance Microsoft is working on the applicability of AI on improving approach to agriculture and crop sowing.
    • AI could be of great usage in various fields, including public health, law and order, education and even city sanitation and cleanliness.
    • Government today is over-burdened and there is lack of capacity to do the multitude of tasks it has taken upon itself. AI is an important answer to capacity building

Concerns:-

  • Unemployment at ‘the end of jobs’:-
    • Self-driving cars for example could put millions of truckers out of work
  • Inequality:-
    • With automation, there’ll be less of a need for a traditional human workforce and revenues will go to fewer people
  • Security :-
    • Cybersecurity wars will escalate should AI get into the hands of people with malicious intent.
  • Concerns about the possible military uses of AI have grown to the point that over 20,000 researchers have recently signed a letter warning policy makers of the dangers of autonomous weapons that use algorithms to strike specific targets.
  • In rural and remote India, Internet penetration is very low and as a result AI will have limited or no applicability there and will actually create a digital divide. 

Way forward:-

  • Ensure interpretability of AI systems:
    • Decisions made by an AI agent should be possible to understand, especially if they have implications for public safety or result in discriminatory practices.
  • Empower users:
    • The public’s ability to understand AI-enabled services, and how they work, is key to ensuring trust in the technology.
  • Responsible deployment:
    • The capacity of an AI agent to act autonomously, and to adapt its behaviour over time without human direction, calls for significant safety checks before deployment and ongoing monitoring.
  • Ensure accountability:
    • Legal certainty and accountability has to be ensured when human agency is replaced by the decisions of AI agents.
  • Consider social and economic impacts:
    • Stakeholders should shape an environment where AI provides socioeconomic opportunities for all.
  • Open Governance:
    • The ability of various stakeholders, whether in civil society, government, private sector, academia or the technical community to inform and participate in the governance of AI is crucial for its safe deployment. 

Why this question

Machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies are growing at a lightning speed. These Technologies offer radical solutions to our diverse problems, ranging from climate change to operations management to driving a car. The ideas of leveraging artificial intelligence and machine learning are being mooted vigorously and the question is related to the GS-2 as well as GS-3 syllabus under the following heading-

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights and institutional and other measures.

Key demand of the question

The question demands us to discuss and explain how machine learning and artificial intelligence will transform businesses and governance and what applications will these technologies offer in the near future.

Directive word

Discuss- the answer demands an explanation for how artificial intelligence and machine learning will transform businesses and governance. The answer should also state to what levels they will be transformed and their limitations.

What- the question simply demands a brief description of potential use of these two technologies in governance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- in the introduction part briefly define machine learning artificial intelligence. You can also cite some recent development in the field of artificial Intelligence and machine learning which corroborate the fact that these technologies will transform businesses and governance.

Body- divide the body of the answer into two parts.

Divide the first path into two subparts. in one subpart, discuss how Artificial Intelligence and machine learning will transform businesses and governance.

In the other subpart discuss the limitations of these technologies at the present.

In the other part of the answer, give a brief description in points about the potential uses of artificial Intelligence and machine learning in governance.

In the conclusion, briefly mention the budget allocations for artificial intelligence and recently created artificial intelligence task force.


General Studies – 4


Why this question?

In the arena of international ethics, we must be ready with justification of India’s role in major world events. This is a broad question which would apply to various situations like India’s role in refugee crisis etc. Hence it becomes important for mains.

Key demand of the question:

The question has two statements

  • India’s belief in Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam – means that world is a family and India should take a stand for atrocities committed anywhere
  • Raises question of India’s record on upholding human rights at international forums

We have to address the central query whether India has done enough to promote global peace at international forums.

Directive Word:

Critically Comment:   Here we have to make our stand clear on whether we agree or disagree with the hypothesis of the statement that India has not done enough to protect human rights at international forums. We have to provide arguments for our stand along with examples. A balanced stand needs to be taken

Structure of Answer:

Introduction – Write about the ideals of vasudhaiv kutumbakam and what it means and its significance for Indian Foreign policy (Non Alignment, Panchsheel etc)

Body –

In support of the hypothesis we can quote from reports such as Human Rights Watch World Report 2018 which states that India continued to play a negative role in country specific resolutions at UNHRC and GA (Israel eg etc). We can also talk about how the non interventionist approach of India does little to turn up the pressure on gross violations of human rights such as in Gaza, Yemen war etc. We only get bothered when Indian citizens are involved.

Against the hypothesis we can give arguments such as mutual non interference in domestic affairs as per Panchsheel, in IR national interest takes precedence, India believes in a democratic, systemic approach to world issues and thus focuses on efforts such as bringing into force a CCIT, also India takes lead for developin countries at WTO summits etc.

Conclusion – A fair judgment needs to be provided whether India has done enough or not. We should ideally take a positive stand and suggest that India should take up these issues through the platform of BRICS, IBSA which would be in line with India’s foreign policy of multilateralism.

 

 

 

Answer:-

The concept of Vasudhaiva kutumbakam (the world is one family) is taken from the Maha Upanishad, to elucidate the country’s global outlook. Its significance in India’s foreign policy is that India is part of non alignment where it supports countries which are suffering and do not take sides in the international powers. It is in the light of this concept that India supported South Africans as family against apartheid , Fought for liberation of Bangladesh, doing development efforts in Afghanistan etc.

 

According to human rights watch 2018 India continued to abstain, and even played a negative role, in country-specific resolutions at the international forums like UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and General Assembly.

 

India’s non interventionist approach is visible in west Asian incidents of Syrian civil war,Rohingya issue in Myanmar etc. India committed to providing aid for large-scale infrastructure and socio-economic development projects in Rakhine State, but did not call on the government to check abuses by its security forces or to amend its discriminatory citizenship law that effectively keeps the Rohingya stateless. 

 

Several countries, including the US, Norway, South Korea, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Canada, Germany, and Sweden raised concerns over restrictions on civil society and called on India to ensure freedom of association and  ratify human rights conventions, including the Convention against Torture. 

 

However mutual non interference in domestic affairs as per Panchsheel is the policy of India’s foreign approach  so if any Indians are harmed abroad India takes action for instance Indians evacuated during Kuwait crisis.

 

 India also  takes lead for developing countries at WTO summits, UN etc where it supported Palestinian cause and supported UN sanction against Israel. Also  India believes in a democratic, systemic approach to world issues and thus focuses on efforts such as bringing into force a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.

 

India’s stature as a regional power is increasingly accepted by the world. It can play a greater role for human rights by being part of organisations like SAARC,BRICS etc.

 

Why this question?

In the arena of international ethics, we must be ready with justification of India’s role in major world events. This is a broad question which would apply to various situations like India’s role in refugee crisis etc. Hence it becomes important for mains.

Key demand of the question:

The question has two statements

  • India’s belief in Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam – means that world is a family and India should take a stand for atrocities committed anywhere
  • Raises question of India’s record on upholding human rights at international forums

We have to address the central query whether India has done enough to promote global peace at international forums.

Directive Word:

Critically Comment:   Here we have to make our stand clear on whether we agree or disagree with the hypothesis of the statement that India has not done enough to protect human rights at international forums. We have to provide arguments for our stand along with examples. A balanced stand needs to be taken

Structure of Answer:

Introduction – Write about the ideals of vasudhaiv kutumbakam and what it means and its significance for Indian Foreign policy (Non Alignment, Panchsheel etc)

Body –

In support of the hypothesis we can quote from reports such as Human Rights Watch World Report 2018 which states that India continued to play a negative role in country specific resolutions at UNHRC and GA (Israel eg etc). We can also talk about how the non interventionist approach of India does little to turn up the pressure on gross violations of human rights such as in Gaza, Yemen war etc. We only get bothered when Indian citizens are involved.

Against the hypothesis we can give arguments such as mutual non interference in domestic affairs as per Panchsheel, in IR national interest takes precedence, India believes in a democratic, systemic approach to world issues and thus focuses on efforts such as bringing into force a CCIT, also India takes lead for developin countries at WTO summits etc.

Conclusion – A fair judgment needs to be provided whether India has done enough or not. We should ideally take a positive stand and suggest that India should take up these issues through the platform of BRICS, IBSA which would be in line with India’s foreign policy of multilateralism