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[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 April 2018

[Insights Secure – 2018] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 April 2018

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

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LIST of TOPICS (Static)

REVISION TIMETABLE FOR PRELIMS – 2018 

Revision Tests

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

 

Topic:  Role of women, social empowerment, Poverty and developmental issues

1) Amongst the many issues that constrain equality of employment for women, law of the land is the most significant barrier. Examine (250 Words)

The Financial Express

 

Why this question

Women related issues are always important from GS 1 (topics mentioned above) and GS2 (marginalized section) perspective. Of late, employment status of women has come under the scanner. Reason for the low share of women in LFPR in the world in general and India in particular is an important topic. This question is also related to Feminization of poverty.

Key demand of the question

The question mentions that law of the land is the most significant barrier to low LFPR participation of women. Thus it is asking us to examine the causes behind low female participation in LFPR and examine whether law of the land is the most significant barrier.

Directive word

Examine- Dig deep into the reasons behind reasons that constrain equality of women in employment. Examine the legal aspect in greater detail citing arguments to support or discredit the former as the most significant factor.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write about the problem being highlighted ie the status of female participation in LFPR. Also mention why this issue is important (McKinsey Report – Power of Parity, IMF report or similar can be quoted)

Body-Divide the body of the answer into 2 parts.

In one part examine the various reasons due to which female participation in LFPR is low. Examine the legal aspect in greater detail. This part of the body will take up majority of the word limit.

In the latter part, evaluate why or why not legal aspect is the most significant factor.

Conclusion – Present your view and also mention how the legal aspect can be improved – reservation of women in Parliament, reviewing laws like Maternity Benefit Act etc.

 


General Studies – 2


 

 

Topic: India and its neighbourhood relations

2) Critically comment on the extent and implications of poor unity in South Asia in general and  India, Pakistan and Bangladesh (IPB) in particular.  (250 Words)

The Hindu

 

Why this question?

Neighbourhood affair is always the most important topic in IR from GS perspective. In the current game of brinksmanship being played out between India and China, South Asia becomes even more important.

Key demand of the question:

The question is asking us about the extent of poor unity in South Asia and the implications of it. In extent we have to mention about the different fields where South Asia in general and IPB in particular is not integrated. Thereafter, we have to comment on the implications of it in various fields.

Directive Word:

Critically comment – To this question most of us tend to provide facts on extent, and implications, but it demands a fair opinion from our part based on evidences. Here one can form an opinion on how poor unity is constraining our development and emergence of India as a major power.

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction, write about some of the current events that highlight the lack of unity. Thereafter, mention that both the extent and implications are multifaceted. Also mention that the issue is closely linked to global power play since China is also in the picture.

The body of this answer is to be divided into two parts. In the first part, talk about the extent of disunity – institutional, social, political, infrastructural etc. In the second part, similarly talk about the implications.

The conclusion should mention your overall opinion on what we are missing as a result of this disunity.

 

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

3) Our focus on rankings has led us to ignore the deeper malaise that plagues Indian universities. Discuss. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question?

Higher education is an important topic to be prepared for mains. Issues plaguing higher education and Indian universities are important, thus.

Key demand of the question

The question mentions focus on ranking. That can indicate two things – focus on global rankings as well as developing our own ranking system (NIRF). The question is asking whether the focus on ranking is a necessary and sufficient way to improve the status of Indian universities, or do we require to identify other issues and correct them.

Directive word:

Discuss – go through the details of the effects of focus on ranking and its correlation to the issues plaguing Indian universities by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons as to why you think focus on ranking is necessary and sufficient to address issues plaguing Indian universities.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write on the status of universities in India. Give an overall picture on what the rankings indicate.

Body –1st part – Why the focus on rankings. What is NIRF.

2nd part – Write about the issues plaguing Indian universities. Relate it to whether ranking helps address that issue. Here talk about autonomy, lack of innovation and other issues mentioned in the article. Mention how focus on rankings helps (or not) in addressing these issues.

Conclusion – Write your fair judgement and mention what other steps should be taken to improve the status of higher education in India.

 

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

4) The recent trade war between US and China signals that there are looming threats over free trade. Comment. Also discuss the implications of such trade war on developing countries like India. (250 Words)

The Hindu

The Financial Express

Why this question?

Globalization and trade liberalization are important topics that remain in news. Hence they are important from mains perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question asks you to comment on the future of free trade. The next part asks you to probe deeper into the effects that trade protectionist measures would have on developing countries like India.

Directive word:

Comment – In the first part of the question present your view on whether you feel in light of the trade war and other events, future of free trade is secure or not.

Discuss – In the second part, focus on the impact that trade protectionism would have on India and how India can mitigate any future risk.

Structure of the answer

In the introduction, write on the issue at hand. What is the trade war about and whether it is an isolated event or in continuation with a series of events.

Body –1st part – Mention your view on the future of free trade – multilateral, plurilateral and bilateral.

2nd part – Discuss about the impacts of trade protectionism on developing countries like India – incorporate points like impact on food security, transfer of technology, trade deficits etc

Conclusion – Present a balanced view on the future of free trade and steps India should take to secure itself from effects of global trade regime uncertainties.

.

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

5) Section 2(g) of the Aadhaar act gives unbridled powers of delegated legislation to the executive. Comment. (250 Words)

The Hindustan Times

Why this question

Aadhaar act poses huge privacy concerns for the citizens and recently a constitutional bench of Supreme Court questioned the unbridled delegated legislative powers conferred by the Aadhaar act. Thus it is an important issue for upsc exams and comes under the following heading of GS-2 syllabus- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key demand of the question

You have to introduce section 2(g) of Aadhar act and then discuss how it poses privacy concerns for citizens, what are its implications etc.

Directive word

comment- the question demands discussion of the section 2(g) of the Aadhaar act and thereof form a personal opinion. 

Structure of the answer

In the introduction part, mention the recent observation of the constitutional bench of Supreme Court regarding section 2(g) of  the Aadhaar act. You can also quote constitutional provisions dealing with right to privacy of Indian citizens.

Divide the body of the answer into 2 parts. In one part discuss the positive aspects/ need of section 2g of Aadhar act. In another part, discuss how section 2g of Aadhar act provides unlimited powers to the govt. to collect any form of biometric data.

In the conclusion part, provide some suggestions on how the act can be ensured to protect individual privacy.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation ; Land reforms

6) CAF act is not only anti-forest but also anti-forest dweller. Discuss in the light of recently notified draft rules of CAF act. (250 Words)

The Hindu

 

Why this question

Environmental protection and rights of forest dwellers are important as far as upsc mains exam is concerned. A huge corpus of funds has been generated under CAF and environmental activists and various NGOs have raised their concerns regarding the draft rules of CAF act. This question cis related to GS-2 syllabus-Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key demand of the question

The question demands a brief description of the recent draft guidelines issued under CFA act along with a discussion on how they are anti-forest and anti forest-dweller.

Directive word

Discuss- the answer demands a detailed review of the draft rules of CAF act. The answer should contain a detailed discussion and cater to all the aspects of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- in the introduction part, mention the purpose of CAF act. You can also mention the corpus of fund generated under CAF act.

Divide the body of the answer into two parts. In one part, briefly discuss the main positive points about CAF act. Restrict yourself to the demand of the question, however.

Divide the second part into 2 subparts. in one subpart discuss how the draft rules are anti-forest and in the second subpart, discuss how they are anti-forest dwellers.

In the conclusion, either provide some suggestions about changes needed in the draft rules, or mention the need to balance environmental protection and community rights with the developmental needs.

 

 

TopicAwareness in IT, computers, robotics

7) Machine learning and artificial intelligence will transform businesses and governance. Discuss. What are some of the potential uses of AI in governance sector? (250 Words)

Business World

 

Why this question

Machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies are growing at a lightning speed. These Technologies offer radical solutions to our diverse problems, ranging from climate change to operations management to driving a car. The ideas of leveraging artificial intelligence and machine learning are being mooted vigorously and the question is related to the GS-2 as well as GS-3 syllabus under the following heading-

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights and institutional and other measures.

Key demand of the question

The question demands us to discuss and explain how machine learning and artificial intelligence will transform businesses and governance and what applications will these technologies offer in the near future.

Directive word

Discuss- the answer demands an explanation for how artificial intelligence and machine learning will transform businesses and governance. The answer should also state to what levels they will be transformed and their limitations.

What- the question simply demands a brief description of potential use of these two technologies in governance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- in the introduction part briefly define machine learning artificial intelligence. You can also cite some recent development in the field of artificial Intelligence and machine learning which corroborate the fact that these technologies will transform businesses and governance.

Body- divide the body of the answer into two parts.

Divide the first path into two subparts. in one subpart, discuss how Artificial Intelligence and machine learning will transform businesses and governance.

In the other subpart discuss the limitations of these technologies at the present.

In the other part of the answer, give a brief description in points about the potential uses of artificial Intelligence and machine learning in governance.

In the conclusion, briefly mention the budget allocations for artificial intelligence and recently created artificial intelligence task force.


General Studies – 4


Why this question?

In the arena of international ethics, we must be ready with justification of India’s role in major world events. This is a broad question which would apply to various situations like India’s role in refugee crisis etc. Hence it becomes important for mains.

Key demand of the question:

The question has two statements

  • India’s belief in Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam – means that world is a family and India should take a stand for atrocities committed anywhere
  • Raises question of India’s record on upholding human rights at international forums

We have to address the central query whether India has done enough to promote global peace at international forums.

Directive Word:

Critically Comment:   Here we have to make our stand clear on whether we agree or disagree with the hypothesis of the statement that India has not done enough to protect human rights at international forums. We have to provide arguments for our stand along with examples. A balanced stand needs to be taken

Structure of Answer:

Introduction – Write about the ideals of vasudhaiv kutumbakam and what it means and its significance for Indian Foreign policy (Non Alignment, Panchsheel etc)

Body –

In support of the hypothesis we can quote from reports such as Human Rights Watch World Report 2018 which states that India continued to play a negative role in country specific resolutions at UNHRC and GA (Israel eg etc). We can also talk about how the non interventionist approach of India does little to turn up the pressure on gross violations of human rights such as in Gaza, Yemen war etc. We only get bothered when Indian citizens are involved.

Against the hypothesis we can give arguments such as mutual non interference in domestic affairs as per Panchsheel, in IR national interest takes precedence, India believes in a democratic, systemic approach to world issues and thus focuses on efforts such as bringing into force a CCIT, also India takes lead for developin countries at WTO summits etc.

Conclusion – A fair judgment needs to be provided whether India has done enough or not. We should ideally take a positive stand and suggest that India should take up these issues through the platform of BRICS, IBSA which would be in line with India’s foreign policy of multilateralism.

 

 


 Other IMPORTANT issues that are NOT covered Today in Secure/Covered Previously:

  1. Artificial Intelligence and Healthcare – Livemint
  2. Verdict on living wills- The Indian Express
  3. Memorialisation of Ambedkar is no substitute for his political vision – The Indian Express
NOTE: 
We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

Please Give us 3-4 days to come back to New Secure –  Trying to cope up with many  things at a Time. 

 

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