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SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 14

SOLUTIONS

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 14

 


 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about microorganisms?
    1. Viruses reproduce only inside the host organism: bacterium, plant or animal cell.
    2. Dead or weakened microbes are introduced in a healthy body during vaccination.
    3. Yeast reproduces rapidly and produces carbon dioxide during respiration.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

Viruses reproduce only inside the cells of the host organism, which may be a bacterium, plant or animal (Hence statement 1 is correct). Common ailments like cold, influenza (flu) and most coughs are caused by viruses. Serious diseases like polio and chicken pox are also caused by viruses.

When a disease-carrying microbe enters our body, the body produces antibodies to fight the invader. The body also remembers how to fight the microbe if it enters again. So, if dead or weakened microbes are introduced in a healthy body, the body fights and kills them by producing suitable antibodies. The antibodies remain in the body and we are protected from the disease-causing microbes. This is how a vaccine works.

Hence statement 2 is correct.

Yeast reproduces rapidly and produces carbon dioxide during respiration (Hence statement 3 is correct). Bubbles of the gas fill the dough and increase its volume. This is the basis of the use of yeast in the baking industry for making breads, pastries and cakes.

Source:

NCERT Class VIII Chapter 2


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
    1. Bacteria and algae are examples of eukaryotes.
    2. Onion cells and cheek cells are examples of prokaryotes.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

The nucleus of the bacterial cell is not well-organised like the cells of multicellular organisms. There is no nuclear membrane. The cells having nuclear material without nuclear membrane are termed prokaryotic cells. The organisms with these kinds of cells are called prokaryotes (pro:primitive; karyon: nucleus). Examples are bacteria and blue green algae (Hence statement 1 is incorrect).

The cells, like onion cells and cheek cells having well-organised nucleus with a nuclear membrane are designated as eukaryotic cells. All organisms other than bacteria and blue green algae are called eukaryotes. (eu: true; karyon: nucleus). (Hence statement 2 is incorrect).

Source:

NCERT Class VIII Chapter 8


  1. Which of the pairs of hormones and functions are correctly matched?
HormonesFunctions
1. VasopressinEjection of milk during lactation
2. OxytocinRegulation Carbohydrate, fats and Protein metabolism
3. AdrenalinAdjustment of body to stress
4. ThyroxinRegulation of water and electrolyte balance

 

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) None

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

Adrenalin helps the body to adjust to stress when one is very angry, embarrassed or worried. (Hence statement 3 is correctly matched).

Vasopressin helps in water and electrolyte balance. (Hence statement 1 is wrongly matched).

Oxytocin helps in ejection of milk during lactation. (Hence statement 2 is wrongly matched).

Thyroxin regulates Carbohydrate, fats and Protein metabolism. (Hence statement 4 is wrongly matched).

Source:

NCERT Class VIII Chapter 10

Wikipedia


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about nerve cells?
    1. Both rods and cones are photoreceptor cells.
    2. Cones are sensitive to dim light whereas rods are sensitive to bright light.
    3. Cones sense colour.
    4. Cones are located at the central part of the retina whereas rods are located at the peripheral portion of the retina.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1, 3 and 4 only

b) 1, 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 4 only

d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

The retina contains several nerve cells. Sensations felt by the nerve cells are then transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve.

There are two kinds of cells– rods and cones.

Both rods and cones are photoreceptor cells of the eye. (Hence statement 1 is correct).

Rod cells are located at the peripheral portion of the retina. Rods are sensitive to dim light.

Cone cells are located at the central part (fovea) of the retina. Cones are sensitive to bright light. (Hence statement 4 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect).

Cones sense colour. (Hence statement 3 is correct).

Source:

NCERT Class VIII Chapter 16

http://www.easybiologyclass.com/difference-between-rod-cells-and-cone-cells-comparison-table/


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about GeneXpert test device?
    1. The technology used in the device allows for the rapid detection of TB and drug resistance to rifampicin in a single test.
    2. It can be used to diagnose TB and HIV infections.
    3. Conventional drug susceptibility testing against second-line anti-TB drugs is still necessary to confirm or exclude XDR-TB.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

GeneXpert, the test device platform, was launched by Cepheid in 2004 and simplifies molecular testing by fully integrating and automating the three processes (sample preparation, amplification and detection) required for real-time PCR-based molecular testing.

The Xpert MTB/RIF test is currently the only molecular test of its kind and uses a cartridge containing all elements necessary for the reaction, including lyophilized reagents, liquid buffers and wash solutions. Target detection and characterization is performed in real time using a six-colour laser detection device.

It is a device released by the WHO which can be used to diagnose TB and HIV infections, and quantitatively measure HIV and hepatitis C viral loads. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

The technology allows for the rapid detection of TB and resistance to rifampicin in a single test. (Hence statement 1 is correct).  It has a sensitivity superior to that of conventional microscopy or culture on solid media, and is therefore useful in the diagnosis of TB in HIV co-infected persons where the sensitivity of microscopy alone is low. The system simultaneously detects resistance to rifampicin, which is a good and reliable proxy for MDR-TB.

Culture and conventional drug susceptibility testing against second-line anti-TB drugs is still necessary to confirm or exclude XDR-TB and to monitor response to MDR-TB treatment. (Hence Statement 3 is correct).

Source:

http://www.who.int/tb/laboratory/xpert_faqs.pdf


  1. Terms ‘Superposition’ and ‘Entanglement’ are associated with which of the following?

a) DNA sampling technique.

b) Quantum Computing.

c) Magnetic Levitation in Superconductors.

d) Plasma Confinement in Tokamaks.

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement. A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. They are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superposition of states.

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together (“superposed”) and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states. Mathematically, it refers to a property of solutions to the Schrödinger equation; since the Schrödinger equation is linear, any linear combination of solutions will also be a solution.

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Gelator?
    1. It is hydrophilic and oleilophobic material.
    2. It is developed by Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru.
    3. It is used recover marine oil spills.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 3 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

The scientists of IISER, Tiruvanantapuram have developed gelator that can suck up oil and congeal it. (Hence statement 2 is incorrect).

The gelator is hydrophobic material that has property of oleilophilic (oilloving) and takes up oil when it comes in contact with it. (Hence statement 1 is incorrect).

Gelation turns the liquid oil into semi-solid and this allows congealed oil to be simply scooped out using a scoop or a sieve.

It can be used to recover marine oil spills with a simple, efficient and cost effective method. (Hence statement 3 is correct).

Source:

Refer Insights Exclusive Science and Technology Revision Module.


  1. Which of the statements is/are correct about Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning?
    1. Deep Learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence.
    2. Machine Learning is a subset of Deep Learning.
    3. Deep Learning has been used in voice and image recognition.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 3 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

While Machine Learning is often described as a sub-discipline of AI, it’s better to think of it as the current state-of-the-art – it’s the field of AI which today is showing the most promise at providing tools that industry and society can use to drive change.

In turn, it’s probably most helpful to think of Deep Learning as the cutting-edge of the cutting-edge. ML takes some of the core ideas of AI and focuses them on solving real-world problems with neural networks designed to mimic our own decision-making. Deep Learning focuses even more narrowly on a subset of ML tools and techniques, and applies them to solving just about any problem which requires “thought” – human or artificial.

Essentially Deep Learning involves feeding a computer system a lot of data, which it can use to make decisions about other data. This data is fed through neural networks, as is the case in machine learning. These networks – logical constructions which ask a series of binary true/false questions, or extract a numerical value, of every bit of data which pass through them, and classify it according to the answers received.

Hence, statement 1 can be inferred but not Statement 2.

Deep Learning is used by Google in its voice and image recognition algorithms, by Netflix and Amazon to decide what you want to watch or buy next, and by researchers at MIT to predict the future.  (Hence, statement 3 is correct).


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Collaborative Robots (Cobots)?
    1. Cobots are intended to work hand-in-hand with humans in a shared workspace.
    2. Cobots need fencing for the protection of workers in the shop floor.
    3. Kirobo is an example of a cobot.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 only

b) 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

A cobot or co-robo (from collaborative robot) is a robot intended to physically interact with humans in a shared workspace. This is in contrast with other robots, designed to operate autonomously or with limited guidance, which is what most industrial robots were up until the decade of the 2010s. (Hence, statement 1 is correct).

Unlike industrial robots, cobots don’t need fencing for the protection of workers in the shop floor. (Hence, statement 2 is incorrect).

Kirobo is the first companion robot in space. The robot’s capabilities include voice and speech recognition, natural language processing, speech synthesis and telecommunications, as well as facial recognition and video recording. Kirobo is specially designed to navigate zero-gravity environments and will assist Commander Wakata in various experiments. Its main goal is to see how well robots and humans can interact, hopefully leading the way to robots taking more active roles in assisting astronauts on missions.

Hence, statement 3 is incorrect.


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about LTE and VoLTE?
    1. LTE and VoLTE are types of networks.
    2. VoLTE support data usage and voice call simultaneously.
    3. Both LTE and VoLTE are standards for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

 LTEVoLTE
Stands forLong-Term EvolutionVoice Over LTE (Long-Term Evolution)
TypeType of NetworkType of Service provided on the network
DescriptionThe next type of cellular network. Faster than 4G.Phone Calls over the LTE Network
Definition (Wikipedia)In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.Voice over Long-Term Evolution (Volte) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals.
DataMay or may not support data usage and voice call together.Supports data usage and voice call together.
Effect on Voice CallUsing data and voice at the same time, may or may not affect the quality of the voice call.Using data and voice at the same time does not affect the quality of the voice call.

 

Hence, statement 1 is incorrect and other 2 statements are correct.

Source:

http://www.differencebetween.info/difference-between-lte-and-volte


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) technology?
    1. FSOC technology enables cable-less communication.
    2. FSOC technology enables the communication through stratosphere.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) technology is similar to the technology that is used in Project Loon which will be applied in the space closer to earth (not stratosphere) to solve connectivity challenges.  (Hence, statement 2 is incorrect.)

FSOC links use beams of light to deliver high-speed, high-capacity connectivity over long distances — just like fibre optic cable, but without the cable. And because there’s no cable, this means there’s none of the time, cost, and hassle involved in digging trenches or stringing cable along poles. FSOC boxes can simply be placed kilometres apart on roofs or towers, with the signal beamed directly between the boxes to easily traverse common obstacles like rivers, roads and railways. (Hence, statement 1 is correct).

Source:

https://blog.x.company/exploring-a-new-approach-to-connectivity-861a0159f63e


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about India’s High Performance Computer (HPC) systems ‘Mihir’ and ‘Pratyush’?
    1. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has acquired these facilities.
    2. These are dedicated HPC systems for weather and climate purposes.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

India has unveiled Pratyush – India’s fastest supercomputer and ‘Mihir’ – high performance computer system (HPC).

Ministry of Earth Science (MoES) has acquired HPC facility (Hence statement 1 is incorrect) total of 6.8 Peta Flops (PF) which has been installed at two of its constituent units:

  • 0 PF HPC facility named ‘Pratyush’ at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune.
  • 8 PF HPC facility named ‘Mihir’ at National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (NCMRWF), Noida.

India will now occupy the fourth position, next only to United Kingdom, Japan and USA in terms of dedicated capacity for HPC resources for weather and climate proposes. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

Source:

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=176000


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about climate change as per Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC)?
    1. It is a significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability.
    2. It may be due to natural internal processes or external forces.
    3. It may be due to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer). Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forces, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.

Note that United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in its Article 1, defines “climate change” as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change thus makes a distinction between “climate change” attributable to human activities altering the atmospheric composition, and “climate variability” attributable to natural causes.

All 3 statements are correct.

Source:

 http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/cc/what.htm


  1. Which of the following is/are the salient points of India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), which will be achieved by 2030?
    1. To achieve about 30 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources.
    2. To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2.
    3. To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 22 to 25 per cent.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) None

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

                India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution:

India has submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Some of the salient points of the INDC are: 

To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 from 2005 level. (Hence statement 3 is incorrect).

To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030, (Hence statement 1 is incorrect)  with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance, including from Green Climate Fund. 

To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030. 

Hence, statement 2 is correct.

Source:

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=128403


  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about the relation between green house and ozone depletion?
    1. The loss of ozone means slightly more heat can escape into space from that region.
    2. CFCs that destroy ozone are also potent greenhouse gases.
    3. Global warming is also predicted to impact on the Antarctic ozone hole.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Solution: d

 

Answer Justification:

 

CFCs that destroy ozone are also potent greenhouse gases, (Hence statement 2 is correct) though they are present in such small concentrations in the atmosphere (several hundred parts per trillion, compared to several hundred parts per million for carbon dioxide) that they are considered a minor player in greenhouse warming. CFCs account for about 13% of the total energy absorbed by human-produced greenhouse gases.

The ozone hole itself has a minor cooling effect (about 2 percent of the warming effect of greenhouses gases) because ozone in the stratosphere absorbs heat radiated to space by gases in a lower layer of Earth’s atmosphere (the upper troposphere). The loss of ozone means slightly more heat can escape into space from that region. (Hence statement 1 is correct)

Global warming is also predicted to have a modest impact on the Antarctic ozone hole. (Hence statement 3 is correct) The chlorine gases in the lower stratosphere interact with tiny cloud particles that form at extremely cold temperatures — below -80 degrees Celsius (-112 degrees Fahrenheit). While greenhouse gases absorb heat at a relatively low altitudes and warm the surface, they actually cool the stratosphere. Near the South Pole, this cooling of the stratosphere results in an increase in polar stratospheric clouds, increasing the efficiency of chlorine release into reactive forms that can rapidly deplete ozone.

Source:

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/climateqa/are-the-ozone-hole-and-global-warming-related/


  1. India had announced that it will eliminate the use of HFC-23, a greenhouse gas that harms the ozone layer, by 2030. Which of the following statements is/are correct about HFC-23?
    1. HFC-23 is produced as a by-product of HCFC–22 manufacturing.
    2. HFC-23 is used in semiconductor industry.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

HFC-23 or Fluoroform or CHF3 is produced as a by-product of HCFC–22 manufacturing. (Hence statement 1 is correct)

HFC-23 is used in the semiconductor industry in plasma etching of silicon oxide and silicon nitride. (Hence statement 2 is correct)

HCFC-22, or R-22 or Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a colourless gas. It is commonly used as a propellant and refrigerant. 

Hence both the statements are correct

Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroform


  1. Which of the following statements is correct about the efforts to combat Desertification?
    1. The UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) addresses the issue of Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought.
    2. India does not have a specific policy or legislative framework for combating desertification.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

UNCCD and India

Desertification, along with climate change and the loss of biodiversity were identified as the greatest challenges to sustainable development during the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. Adopted in 1994, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) entered into force in 1996 and became a legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management. 

The Convention addresses specifically the issue of Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought (DLDD) in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas of dry lands, (Hence statement 1 is correct) which are home to some of the most vulnerable people and ecosystems in the world. The Convention’s 195 parties work together to improve the living conditions for people in dry lands, to maintain and restore land and soil productivity, and to mitigate the effects of drought.

Though India does not have a specific policy or legislative framework for combating desertification  (Hence statement 2 is correct)  as such, the concern for arresting and reversing land degradation and desertification gets reflected in many of our national policies for e.g.,

  • National Water Policy 2012
  • National Forest Policy 1988
  • National Agricultural Policy 2000
  • Forest (Conservation) Act 1980
  • Environment (Protection) Act 1986
  • National Environmental Policy 2006
  • National Policy for Farmers 2007
  • National Rain-fed Area Authority (NRAA)- 2007)

These acts and policies have enabling provisions for addressing these problems.

Source:

http://envfor.nic.in/division/unccd-india


  1. As per Indian State of Forest Report 2017, arrange the following types of forests in the decreasing order of annual average fire detection?
    1. Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests
    2. Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
    3. Subtropical Pine Forests
    4. Montane wet Temperate Forests

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 2-1-4-3

b) 2-1-3-4

c) 1-2-3-4

d) 1-2-4-3

 

Solution: c

 

Answer Justification:

Source:

http://fsi.nic.in/isfr2017/isfr-forest-fire-2017.pdf


  1. Tree cover in “Forest and Tree Cover” in Indian State of Forest Report – 2017 includes which of the following?
    1. Small patches of trees less than 1 hectare in extent.
    2. Trees in small plantations, compact blocks and woodlots.
    3. Trees along roads, bunds and canals.
    4. Scattered trees.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1, 2 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 2, 3 and 4 only

d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

Source:

http://fsi.nic.in/isfr2017/isfr-tree-cover-2017.pdf


  1. As per Indian State of Forest Report – 2017, which of the following states has the highest Growing Stock?

a) Chhattisgarh

b) Madhya Pradesh

c) Arunachal Pradesh

d) Uttarakhand

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

Growing Stock is the sum-total of all trees, by number or volume or biomass, growing within a particular area of interest.

Explanation: Volume of all living trees more than 10 cm in diameter at breast height (or above buttress if these are higher) measured over bark from ground or stump height to a top stem diameter of 10 cm, excluding or including branches to a minimum diameter of 5 cm. Excludes: smaller branches, twigs, foliage, flowers, seeds, stump and roots

               

                Source:

                Table 6.6 of http://fsi.nic.in/isfr2017/isfr-growing-stock-2017.pdf


21) As per the National Civil Aviation Policy, 2016, with which of the following countries can India have an ‘Open Sky’ air services agreement on a reciprocal basis?

  1. Sri Lanka
  2. Nepal
  3. Japan
  4. United Kingdom

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

 

a) 1, 3 and 4 Only

b) 1,2 and 3 Only

c) 2,3 and 4 Only

d) 1,2,3 and 4

 

Solution: d)

 

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=146238

 

As per the Policy, India can enter into ‘Open Sky’ ASA on a reciprocal basis only with SAARC countries and countries located beyond 5000 km from Delhi.

From 2016: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=146238;

Improvisation: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/indojapan-open-sky/article19687123.ece;


 

22) ‘Inclusive India Initiative’ is

a) A mass awareness campaign of the National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities

b) A programme of the National Literacy Mission Authority to promote digital literacy among adults

c) An initiative to uplift SC and ST women

d) None of the above

 

Solution: a)

 

Inclusive India Initiative is a mass awareness campaign of the National Trust aimed at reducing the barriers for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, by making the workplaces, public zones and educational institutes more inclusive and accessible. Aligned with the goals of the United Nations Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (UNCRPD), this initiative aims at full participation by persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (PwIDDs) in their schools, colleges, communities and workplaces.

From June: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=164434;

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=170686;


 

23) Which of the following income sources is/are components of non-tax revenues of the central government?

  1. Telecom spectrum auctions
  2. Interest receipts on loans granted
  3. Reserve Bank of India’s annual dividend payout

Select the correct answer using codes given below:

 

a) 1 and 3 Only

b) 2 and 3 Only

c) 1 and 2 Only

d) 1,2 and 3

 

Solution: d)

 

Insights Quiz

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/09/18/quiz-2017-insights-current-affairs-quiz-18-september-2017/

Non-tax revenue (receipts) of the central government mainly consists of interest receipts on account of loans by the central government, dividends (this will include RBI’s annual dividend payout) and profits on investments made by the government, fees (this will include spectrum charges) and other receipts for services rendered by the government. Cash grants-in-aid from foreign countries and international organisations are also included.


 

24) In which of the following circumstances does the Constitution permit the Presiding Officer of a House to disqualify a legislator?

  1. A legislator withdrawing support to his/her own party’s government
  2. A legislator voting or abstaining from voting in the House contrary to any direction given by his/her political party

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

 

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Solution: b)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/09/19/quiz-2017-insights-current-affairs-quiz-19-september-2017/

 

 

Whether the interpretation that legislators withdrawing support to their own party’s government amounts to them voluntarily giving up their membership (and thus being subject to provisions of the tenth schedule) is acceptable, will have to be decided by the courts if the decision of the Speaker of the TN Assembly is challenged.

A member incurs disqualification under the defection law (tenth schedule):

  1. if he voluntary gives up the membership of the political party on whose ticket he is elected to
  2. if he votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction given by his political
  3. if any independently elected member joins any political party; and
  4. if any nominated member joins any political party after the expiry of six months.

Chapter ‘Parliament’; Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth;

Source/Improvisation: http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/a-partisan-ruling/article19710531.ece;


 

25) With reference to ‘CARB-X’, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a NewSpace enterprise
  2. It is focused on research and development projects to address the problem of “Gram-negative” bacteria

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Solution: b)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/09/12/quiz-2017-insights-current-affairs-quiz-12-september-2017/

 

 

A Bengaluru firm has become India’s first to receive the international CARB-X grant to develop antibiotics to treat hospital-acquired infections.

  • CARB-X, or Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator, is a public-private international partnership (US Dept. of Health and Human Services, and London-based biomedical research chairty Wellcome Trust), which was set up in 2016 to focus on innovations to improve diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant infections. It grew out of President Barack Obama’s 2015 Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (CARB) initiative.
  • Bacteria are classified as Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for 20-25% of infections, and are multi drug resistant. All CARB-X funding so far is focused on projects to address the most resistant “Gram-negative” bacteria.
  • Additional Information: Technically, antibiotic resistance is a subset of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which is a wider category that covers resistance in all microorganisms — bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi — to drugs. But as antibiotics (drugs against bacteria) are the commonest antimicrobials, the two terms are often used interchangeably.

Read more (ESKAPE pathogens, Delhi Declaration etc.) at http://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-infections-picked-up-in-hospitals-are-the-big-threat-today-how-world-is-trying-to-cope-4837567/;