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Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 27 : 04-18 March 2018

Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 27 : 04-18 March 2018

  1. Ocean Health Index+ (OHI+)

OHI+ assessments are independently-led assessments using the OHI framework that are conducted by any group external to the OHI team

OHI is the first assessment tool that scientifically measures key elements from all dimensions of the ocean’s health — biological, physical, economic and social — to guide decision makers toward the sustainable use of the ocean.

  • OHI is operational and included in the CBD’s list of indicators
  • First completed in 2012, more than 25 countries and regions till now have embarked on independent Ocean Health Assessments.
  • OHI+ assessments are independently-led assessments using the OHI framework that are conducted by any group external to the OHI team.
  • OHI+ assessments are often conducted at smaller, subnational spatial scales.
  • Independent assessments use the same framework as the global assessments, but allow for exploration of factors influencing ocean health at the smaller scales where policy and management decisions are made.
  • Conservation International is a founder of the Ocean Health Index and serves as the managing partner.



  1. Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs)

As defined in Securities and Exchange Board of India (Alternative Investment Funds) Regulations, 2012, AIFs refer to any privately pooled investment fund, (whether from Indian or foreign sources), in the form of a trust or a company or a body corporate or a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP).

AIF does not include funds covered under the SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996, SEBI (Collective Investment Schemes) Regulations, 1999 or any other regulations of the Board to regulate fund management activities.

Hence, in India, AIFs are private funds which are otherwise not coming under the jurisdiction of any regulatory agency in India.


As per SEBI (AIF) Regulations, 2012, AIFs shall seek registration in one of the three categories

  • Category I: Mainly invests in start- ups, SME’s or any other sector which Govt. considers economically and socially viable.
  • Category II: These include Alternative Investment Funds such as private equity funds or debt funds for which no specific incentives or concessions are given by the government or any other Regulator
  • Category III : Alternative Investment Funds such as hedge funds or funds which trade with a view to make short term returns or such other funds which are open ended and for which no specific incentives or concessions are given by the government or any other Regulator.

Assets under management by India-focused AIFs have swelled 90% over the past year, thanks to the increasing interest of high-net worth investors in the unique structures and themes of these funds that also face fewer regulations than other instruments like mutual funds.



  1. Ecological footprint

As per the Millennium Eco Assessment it is an index of the area of productive land and aquatic ecosystems required to produce the resources used and to assimilate the wastes produced by a defined population at a specified material standard of living, wherever on Earth that land may be located.

  • Ecological footprint analysis is widely used around the Earth in support of sustainability assessments.
  • It can be used to measure and manage the use of resources throughout the economy and explore the sustainability of individual lifestyles, goods and services, organizations, industry sectors, neighborhoods, cities, regions and nations.
  • In 2013, the Global Footprint Network estimated the global ecological footprint as 1.6 planet Earths. This means that, according to their calculations, the planet’s ecological services were being used 1.6 times faster than they were being renewed.

Source: Glossary of important terms used in Ecology


  1. Cyber Security Key Terms

In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.

Phishing is the attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attack in which multiple compromised computer systems attack a target, such as a server, website or other network resource, and cause a denial of service for users of the targeted resource.

  • The flood of incoming messages, connection requests or malformed packets to the target system forces it to slow down or even crash and shut down, thereby denying service to legitimate users or systems.

Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent Web sites without their knowledge or consent.

Source: Sometimes in news: Cybersecurity agencies have detected a new malware called Saposhi that can take over electronic devices and use them for Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)




  1. The “doldrums”

It is a popular nautical term that refers to the belt around the Earth near the equator where sailing ships sometimes get stuck on windless waters.  

Known to sailors around the world as the doldrums, this Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, (ITCZ), is a belt around the Earth extending approximately five degrees north and south of the equator.

  • Here, the prevailing trade winds of the northern hemisphere blow to the southwest and collide with the southern hemisphere’s driving northeast trade winds.
  • Due to intense solar heating near the equator, the warm, moist air is forced up into the atmosphere like a hot air balloon.
  • As the air rises, it cools, causing persistent bands of showers and storms around the Earth’s midsection.
  • The rising air mass finally subsides in what is known as the horse latitudes, where the air moves downward toward Earth’s surface.

Because the air circulates in an upward direction, there is often little surface wind in the ITCZ. That is why sailors well know that the area can becalm sailing ships for weeks. And that’s why they call it the doldrums.

Source: Revision: Additional Research: 11th NCERT: Physical Geography



  1. Biotope

It is an ecological area that supports a particular range of biological communities.

Biotope is almost synonymous with the term habitat. 

  • A biotope is generally not considered to be a large-scale phenomenon. For example, a biotope might be a neighbouring park, a back garden, even potted plants or a fish tank on a porch.
  • In other words, the biotope is not a macroscopic but a microscopic approach to preserving the ecosystem and biological diversity.

It is commonly emphasised that biotopes should not be isolated. Instead biotopes need to be connected to each other and other surrounding life for without these connections to life-forms such as animals and plants, biotopes would not effectively work as a place in which diverse organisms live.

  • So one of the most effective strategies for regenerating biotopes is to plan a stretch of biotopes, not just a point where animals and plants come and go. (Such an organic traffic course is called a corridor.

Source: Glossary of important ecological terms



  1. NITI Aayog Initiatives

India Energy Security Scenarios, 2047 housed under the India Energy Portal (IEP) is flagship initiative of the NITI Aayog.

The India Energy Portal (IEP), an offering of the Energy Division of NITI Aayog, is intended to provide a common platform for all energy related data and research for different sources.

It aims to reach not only policy makers but also those who use energy in their day to day lives and want to develop a holistic understanding of the sector.

It aims at the cohort of researchers and novices alike where they can gain a basic understanding of India’s energy scenario and get access to Indian energy databases and reports.