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SOLUTIONS – INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 9

SOLUTIONS 

INSIGHTS REVISION TEST for Preliminary Exam 2018: Test – 9


1) Consider the following statements in respect of Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA):

  1. It ensures expeditious and transparent utilization of compensatory levies realized in lieu of forest land diverted for non-forest purpose.
  2. The Funds will be primarily spent on afforestation to compensate for loss of forest cover, regeneration of forest ecosystem, wildlife protection and infrastructure development.
  3. CAMPA act establishes the National and State Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authorities to manage the National and State Funds.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

In 2016, Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act (CAMPA), 2016 was passed by Parliament to ensure expeditious and transparent utilization of compensatory levies realized in lieu of forest land diverted for non-forest purpose, which presently is of the order of about Rs. 49,000 crore.

Therefore statement 1 is correct.

Source: MoEF Report

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/press-releases/Final%20Printed%20Book.pdf

Highlights of the CAMPA act:

The Bill establishes the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of India, and a State Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of each state.

These Funds will receive payments for: (i) compensatory afforestation, (ii) net present value of forest (NPV), and (iii) other project specific payments.  The National Fund will receive 10% of these funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90%.

These Funds will be primarily spent on afforestation to compensate for loss of forest cover, regeneration of forest ecosystem, wildlife protection and infrastructure development.

Therefore, statement 2 is correct.

The Bill also establishes the National and State Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authorities to manage the National and State Funds.

Therefore, statement 3 is correct

Source:

http://www.prsindia.org/billtrack/the-compensatory-afforestations-fund-bill-2015-3782/


 

2) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Guidelines for Eco-Tourism in Protected Areas.

  1. New tourist facilities can be set up on forest lands.
  2. The State Forest Department should be the arbiter in case of any dispute regarding the ecological advisability of any tourism plans.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

From the below source refer the guidelines (as per the sections provided in the document).

  1. GUIDELINES FOR ECOTOURISM

2.1.3. No new tourist facilities are to be set up on forest lands. This is in compliance with the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, and the directives of the Honourable Supreme Court.

Therefore, statement 1 is incorrect.

2.1.5. The State Forest Department should be the arbiter in case of any dispute regarding the ecological advisability of any tourism plans, whether Protected Area Management, private entity, temple board or community, as the welfare of wildlife and Protected Areas/ biodiversity takes precedence over tourism.

Therefore statement 2 is correct.

Source:

http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/Draft%20Ecotourism%20Guidelines%202%20June.pdf


3) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding National Biodiversity Targets.

  1. India has developed 12 national biodiversity using Aichi targets as a framework.
  2. All these targets have year 2020 as a target year.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

CoP-10 to the CBD in October 2010 had adopted a Strategic Plan for Biodiversity for 2011-2020, with five goals and 20 Aichi Targets, as an ambitious plan developed with the purpose of inspiring broad-based action in support of biodiversity over the decade by all countries and stakeholders. The Strategic Plan and Aichi Targets are the overarching framework on biodiversity not only for CBD and biodiversity related conventions, but for the entire UN system. The UN General Assembly vide a resolution has declared 2011-2020 as the UN Decade on Biodiversity, coinciding with the duration of the Strategic Plan.

Accordingly, India through an extensive consultative process, has developed 12 national biodiversity targets along with indicators for monitoring, using Aichi targets as a framework, and brought out a National Biodiversity Action Plan Addendum 2014 to NBAP 2008.

Therefore, statement 1 is correct.

All targets don’t have 2020 as a target year.

Example:

Target 9: By 2015, Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization as per the Nagoya Protocol are operational, consistent with national legislations.

Therefore, statement 2 is incorrect.

Sources: 

http://www.moef.nic.in/division/convention-biological-diversity-cbd

http://www.cbd.int/countries/?country=in

http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/NBAP%20Addendum%202014.pdf 


4) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Amur Falcon Conservation?

  1. The government has successfully reduced the hunting of Migratory Amur Falcons.
  2. The birds have been satellite tagged.
  3. The hunting was observed in all North Eastern states.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

 Amur falcon (eastern red-footed falcon)

  • Raptor
  • It breeds in south-eastern Siberiaand Northern China before migrating in large flocks across India and over the Arabian Sea to winter in Southern Africa.
  • Amur falcons come to roost at Nagaland (Doyang Lake) during their flight from Mongolia to Africa. 

Amur Falcon Conservation:

Migratory Amur Falcons visiting Nagaland were hunted. With support of people in the region, the Government was successful in drastically reducing the hunting of the birds. The birds have also been satellite tagged and movement tracked.

 

Statements 1 and 2 are correct.

 

Statement 3 is incorrect because the hunting was observed in Nagaland as per the report.

 

Source:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/press-releases/Final%20Printed%20Book.pdf


 

5) Which of the following activities is/are prohibited within the wetlands in India?

  1. Conversion for non-wetland uses including encroachment of any kind.
  2. Setting up of any industry and expansion of existing industries.
  3. Discharge of untreated wastes and effluents.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017.

Restrictions of activities in wetlands.

(1) The wetlands shall be conserved and managed in accordance with the principle of ‘wise use’ as determined by the Wetlands Authority.

(2) The following activities shall be prohibited within the wetlands,

(i) Conversion for non-wetland uses including encroachment of any kind.

(ii) Setting up of any industry and expansion of existing industries.

(iii) Manufacture or handling or storage or disposal of construction and demolition waste, hazardous substances, electronic waste.

(iv) Solid waste dumping.

(v) Discharge of untreated wastes and effluents from industries, cities, towns, villages and other human settlements.

(vi) Any construction of a permanent nature except for boat jetties within fifty metres from the mean high flood level observed in the past ten years calculated from the date of commencement of these rules.

(vii) Poaching.

All 3 statements are correct.

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Wetlands%20(C&M)%20Rules,%202017.pdf


6)Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding OPERATION THUNDER BIRD?

  1. It is INTERPOL’s multi-national and species specific enforcement operation.
  2. Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) coordinated the operation in India. 

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

In a major success in the fight against wildlife crime, Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB), Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, coordinated “OPERATION THUNDER BIRD” in India, from January 30-February 19, 2017.  Operation Thunderbird is the codename for INTERPOL’s multi-national and multi-species enforcement operation. 

The operation is not species-specific. Therefore, statement 1 is not correct.

The operation is co-ordinated by WCCB, not AWBI. So, statement 2 is too incorrect.


7)What is Operation Wildnet?

                (a) It is an operation to apprehend the poachers by deployment of more forest officials.

                (b) It is an operation to tackle illegal wildlife trade in border areas.

                (c) It is an operation to tackle illegal wildlife trade through internet.

                (d) It is an operation to prevent invasive species entering forest ecosystems.

                Solution: c

                Answer Justification:

                To encounter the menace of the illegal trade through e-commerce platform, WCCB organized and coordinated an enforcement operation named “Operation Wildnet” to tackle illegal Wildlife trade through internet using Social Media Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, Wechat etc. apart from various online classified sites and trade portals, websites and Blog Spots.

Source: http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Wetlands%20(C&M)%20Rules,%202017.pdf


8) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding tigers in India?

  1. 1/3rd of wild tigers of the world are there in India.
  2. Tiger is at the apex of the forest ecosystem.
  3. Tigers are indicator species of India’s jungles.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: b

Answer Justification:

In 1972 there were an estimated 1827 tigers. Now the figure stands at 2226 in 2016. The number of tiger reserves has increased to 50 from 9 in 1973. We have 2/3rd of wild tigers of the world in our country.

Tiger is at the apex of the forest ecosystem and depicts the health of our jungles. That is why tigers are called indicator species.

There are 2/3rd of wild tigers of the world in India, not 1/3rd.

So, statement 1 is incorrect. Other statements are correct.

Being the dominant predators of the ecosystem (So, statement 2 is correct), they ensure that the numbers of herbivores like deer are kept balanced. A steep fall in tiger population could lead to a rise in herbivore population, which could potentially destroy forests by consuming the trees and plants

So, statement 3 is correct

Source:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/press-releases/Final%20Printed%20Book.pdf


9) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Coral Reef Restoration in India?

  1. Coral restoration in India is a successful and first of its kind attempt in the world to restore coral species at specific site where they had become extinct.
  2. Degraded reefs have been restored with branching coral species belonging to family Acroporidae, which are the dominant reef contributors in all world reefs.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

Coral Reef Restoration at Gulf of Kachchh by ZSI is a successful and first of its kind attempt in the world to restore coral species which have become extinct at Gulf of Kachchh about 10 thousand years ago. Significant area of degraded reefs has been restored with branching coral species belonging to family Acroporidae, which are the dominant reef contributors in all world reefs. Coral Sanatorium for Global warming affected corals (coral refugia), coral spawning and discovery of dugong are some of the outcomes of the project.

So, both statements are correct.

Source:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/press-releases/Final%20Printed%20Book.pdf


10) “e-Eye” initiative is an example of technological intervention in the efforts towards conservation. Which of the following statements is/are correct about the initiative?

  1. It uses long range, intelligent thermal and infrared cameras for surveillance.
  2. It is used for surveillance only during low vision.
  3. The cameras used can scan 360 degrees and track animal and human movement.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

A pilot initiative of electronic surveillance (“e-Eye”), using long range, intelligent thermal and infrared cameras, has been implemented in the southern part of the Corbett Tiger Reserve for round the clock surveillance. This facility would be extended to other Tiger Reserves.

It is used for surveillance not just in low vision but round the clock. So, Statement 2 is incorrect.

Statement 1 is correct.

The e-surveillance cameras can scan 360 degrees and track animal and human movement. It is an excellent tool for checking poaching as well as studying the migratory route of the big jumbos.

Statement 3 is also correct.

Source:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/press-releases/Final%20Printed%20Book.pdf

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/an-eeye-for-corbett/article3483640.ece


11) Green India Mission has many goals ecosystem services. Carbon sequestration and storage is classified under which ecosystem service?

 (a) Supporting services

(b) Provisioning services

(c) Regulating services

(d) Cultural services

 Solution: c

 Answer Justification:

 Green India Mission has a goal inter alia:

  • To improve/enhance eco-system services like carbon sequestration and storage (in forests and other ecosystems), hydrological services and biodiversity; along with provisioning services like fuel, fodder, and timber and non-timber forest produces (NTFPs).

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) report 2005 defines Ecosystem services as benefits people obtain from ecosystems and distinguishes four categories of ecosystem services i.e. Supporting services, Provisioning services, Regulating services and Cultural services. Regulating services include carbon sequestration and climate regulation, waste decomposition and detoxification, purification of water and air, pest and disease control.

                Source:

                http://www.moef.nic.in/division/introduction-22

                https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem_services


12) Deployment of artificial coral reefs near Vaan Islands was in news. How this deployment would affect the ecology near Vaan Islands?

  1. It reduces the effect of currents and waves.
  2. It enhances fish habitats for higher fish production.
  3. It reduces fish diversity.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

It is the first attempt in India to protect and restore a sinking island. Deployment of artificial reefs parallel to the sinking island in the seaward side reduces the effect of currents and waves, enhances fish habitats for higher fish production and protection of fish diversity. Natural corals get attached to artificial reefs over time and start regeneration.

Statements 1 and 2 are correct whereas statement 3 is incorrect as the deployment of artificial reefs protect fish diversity.

Source:

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/tamil-nadu-deploying-artificial-reefs-to-save-sinking-islands-58392


13) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)?

  1. It provides 100% central grant to the State Governments.
  2. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is National Implementing Entity for NAFCC

 Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

NAFCC

  • Launched in 2015 to provide 100% central grant to the State Governments for implementing climate change adaptation projects. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • objective — assist states/UTs that are particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change in meeting the cost of adaptation. Union Government encourages States to come up with innovative and scalable projects to develop resilience against climate change and mainstream it in the planning processes.
  • The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is National Implementing Entity (NIE) for NAFCC. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Environment%20AR%20English%202016-2017.pdf


14) What is “Farmer Zone”?

    (a) It is an agricultural patch inside protected areas.

    (b) It is a geographical region adopted by farmers for agroforestry.

    (c) It is an agro-climatic zone suitable for shift cultivation.

    (d) It is a collective open-source data platform for smart agriculture.

                Solution: d

                Explanation:

The Department of Biotechnology (DBT), under the Ministry of Science and Technology, convened the Smart Agriculture Conclave in New Delhi from August 29 – 31 2017, in partnership with the UK’s Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Research Councils UK (RCUK) India. The objective of this conclave was to set the stage for “FarmerZone” – a collective open-source data platform for smart agriculture which will use biological research and data to improve the lives of small and marginal farmers. It is envisaged that “FarmerZone” will help cater to all needs of the farmer, from dealing with climate change, weather predictions and soil, water, and seed requirements to providing market intelligence. 

Source:

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=170426


 

15) “Wood is Good” campaign promotes wood as a climate-friendly resource and a substitute to materials like plastic and steel. Which of the following are the reasons for this substitution?

  1. Wood is a carbon neutral material.
  2. Materials like plastic and steel leave a carbon footprint in their production.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

Statement 1 : Growing trees convert carbon dioxide to woody biomass and decomposing trees release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Whether trees naturally decompose or burn, carbon dioxide is emitted back into the atmosphere, replacing what was just taken out. Hence wood is considered as carbon-neutral material. Hence statement 1 is correct.

 

Statement 2:

Plastic making process contributes to the global GHG emission during transportation of oil or petroleum products (rawmaterial for resin) and manufacturing process that involves heating resin at high temperature to breakdown larger hydrocarbons into smaller one that releases CO2 as by product.

Steel making process involves heating iron ore — which is mostly iron oxide —with carbon; the process forms carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Production of a ton of steel generates almost two tons of CO2 emissions, accounting for as much as 5 percent of the world’s total greenhouse-gas emissions.

            Hence statement 2 is correct.

 

Learning:

The government has launched “Wood is Good” Campaign under the Partnership for Land Use Science (Forest-Plus), a partnership between USAID and India’s environment ministry. The idea is to promote wood as a climate-friendly resource and a substitute to materials like plastic and steel because it is carbon neutral unlike the others while they leave a carbon footprint in their production.

Source:

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=170685


 

16) Which of the following statements are correct about Tiger range countries (TRCs)?

  1. Tiger Range Countries (TRCs) are those where the tigers roam freely.
  2. India’s all neighbours are Tiger Range Countries.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

Tiger range countries (TRCs) are those where the big cats roam freely.

The 13 tiger range countries include Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Statement 2 is incorrect as India’s all neighbours are not Tiger Range Countries. Eg: Pakistan

Source:

https://www.livemint.com/Politics/yTxetwY5x1He7AFnd7EcfL/Over-a-third-of-protected-areas-surveyed-are-at-risk-of-losi.html


 

17) SECURE Himalaya Project covers specific landscapes across which of the following states in India?

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Himachal Pradesh
  3. Uttarakhand
  4. Sikkim
  5. Arunachal Pradesh

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1, 2 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

The SECURE – securing livelihoods, conservation, sustainable use and restoration of high range Himalayan ecosystems – is meant for specific landscapes.

It includes:

  • Changthang (Jammu and Kasmir),
  • Lahaul – Pangi and Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh),
  • Gangotri – Govind and Darma – Byans Valley in Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand) and
  • Kanchenjunga – Upper Teesta Valley (Sikkim).

Arunachal Pradesh is not covered under the project.

Therefore, option (c) is correct.


 

18) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Indian Forest (amendment) Act, 2017?

  1. Bamboo grown in forest and non-forest areas is exempted from the definition of tree.
  2. Felling or transportation of bamboos growing in forest and non-forest areas will not require any permits.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d

Answer Justification:

India Forest Amendment act that amends clause (7) of section 2 of The Indian Forest Act, 1927.

The word “bamboos” is omitted from the definition of tree, in order to exempt bamboos grown on non-forest area.

Hence statement 1 is incorrect

 

Consequent to the amendment, felling or transportation of bamboos growing in non-forest areas will not require any permits.

Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Since, Parliament was not in session and immediate action was required to be taken, the Indian Forest (Amendment) Ordinance, 2017 was promulgated by the President on the 23rd day of November, 2017.

Accordingly, the Indian Forest (Amendment) Act, 2017 replaces the Indian Forest (Amendment) Ordinance, 2017.

Source:

http://164.100.24.219/BillsTexts/LSBillTexts/asintroduced/208_2017_LS_Eng.pdf

http://www.prsindia.org/billtrack/the-indian-forest-amendment-bill-2017-5001/


 

19) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Mangroves for the future (MFF) in India?

  1. It is overseen by National Coordination Body (NCB) in India.
  2. Only 5 states in India are identified as priority areas for execution of MFF projects.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c

Answer Justification:

                Mangroves for the future (MFF) is being coordinated by International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN covering, initially, six Tsunami affected countries namely India, Indonesia, Maldives, Seychelles, Srilanka and Thailand. India has agreed to participate in the IUCN- MFF Initiative.

                New members: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Vietnam.

MFF in India works at the national level by networking, influencing policy issues, conducting training missions and through regional coordination activities. At the local level community networking, experience sharing and site-specific actions are at the core of MFF’s activities.

For execution of MFF projects, five States in India were identified as priority areas. Selection of the five States was accomplished with seven categories in mind, which include: human pressure, pollution, degradation, cyclone, climate change and sea level rise, seascape setting and unique features.

Both the statements are correct.

Source:

                https://www.mangrovesforthefuture.org/countries/members/india/


 

 

20) International Conference on “Resilient Hindu Kush Himalaya-Developing Solutions towards a sustainable future for Asia” organized by The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMD) was held recently. Which of the following statements is/are correct about ICIMD?

  1. It is a regional intergovernmental learning and knowledge sharing centre.
  2. It serves eight regional member countries of the Hindu Kush Himalayas – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.
  3. It is based in New Delhi.

Select the correct answer using the code below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: a

Answer Justification:

The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development is a regional intergovernmental learning and knowledge sharing centre serving the eight regional member countries of the Hindu Kush Himalayas – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan – based in Kathmandu.

Hence statement 1 and 2 are correct.

It is not based in New Delhi.

Statement 3 is incorrect.


 

21) Which of the following is/are uses of liquid nitrogen?

 

  1. It is used as a coolant for computers
  2. It is used in making ultra-smooth ice cream
  3. Used in medicine to remove unwanted skin
  4. Used in cryogenic engines

Select the correct answer using codes below:

a) 1 and 4 Only

b) 1,2, and 4 Only

c) 2,3 and 4 Only

d) 1,2,3 and 4

 

Solution: d)

 

Apart from above mentioned uses, it has many other applications. It was in news in AUgust 2017(following link)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/01/insights-daily-current-affairs-01-aug-2017/

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_nitrogen#Uses


 

22) Use of which of the following chemicals is prohibited by the Supreme Court in India to be used in manufacture of firecrackers?

  1. Antimony
  2. Lithium
  3. Phosphorous
  4. Manganese
  5. Potassium

Select the correct answer using codes below:

a) 1 and 4 Only

b) 1,2 and 4 Only

c) 1 and 2 Only

d) 2,3 and 4 Only

 

Solution: c)

 

Ahead of the festive seasons of Dussehra and Deepavali, the Supreme Court has prohibited the use of five chemicals, labelled as toxic by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), in the manufacture of firecrackers.

  • The banned chemicals include antimony, lithium, mercury, arsenic and lead in any form whatsoever.
  • The responsibility to ensure compliance particularly in Sivakasi is given to the Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organisation (PESO).

23) With reference to the Ratle Hydroelectric Plant, consider the following statements:

 

  1. It is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station
  2. It is currently under construction on the Jhelum River

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Solution: a)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/02/insights-daily-current-affairs-02-aug-2017/

 

 

The Ratle Hydroelectric Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station currently under construction on the Chenab River, downstream of the village of Ratle, near Drabshalla in Kishtwar district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The project includes a 133 m (436 ft) tall gravity dam and two power stations adjacent to one another.

 

Run-of-river hydroelectricity (ROR) or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation plant whereby little or no water storage is provided. Run-of-the-river power plants may have no water storage at all or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as pondage. A plant without pondage is subject to seasonal river flows, thus the plant will operate as an intermittent energy source. Conventional hydro uses reservoirs, which regulate water for flood control and dispatchable electrical power.


 

24) With reference to NABARD, consider the following statements:

 

  1. It is established by an act by the Parliament of India
  2. As of now NABARD can not provide credit to Micro, small and medium enterprises
  3. The central government can unilaterally increase the capital of NABARD beyond Rs 30000 crores

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 Only

b) 1 and 2 Only

c) 1 Only

d) 2 and 3 Only

 

Solution: c)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/04/insights-daily-current-affairs-04-aug-2017/

 

Statement – 2: It can provide credit to MSMEs (see below)

 

As per  National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Amendment) Bill, 2017 , which is passed by the parliament, following are the changes brought in NABARD.

 

  • Increase in capital of NABARD: Under the 1981 Act, NABARD may have a capital of Rs 100 crore.  This capital can be further increased to Rs 5,000 crore by the central government in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • The Bill allows the central government to increase this capital to Rs 30,000 crore. The capital may be increased to more than Rs 30,000 crore by the central government in consultation with the RBI, if necessary.
  • Transfer of the RBI’s share to the central government: Under the 1981 Act, the central government and the RBI together must hold at least 51% of the share capital of NABARD.  The Bill provides that the central government alone must hold at least 51% of the share capital of NABARD.  The Bill transfers the share capital held by the RBI and valued at Rs 20 crore to the central government.  The central government will give an equal amount to the RBI.
  • Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME): The Bill replaces the terms ‘small-scale industry’ and ‘industry in the tiny and decentralised sector’ with the terms ‘micro enterprise’, ‘small enterprise’ and ‘medium enterprise’ as defined in the MSME Development Act, 2006.  Under the 1981 Act, NABARD was responsible for providing credit and other facilities to industries having an investment of upto Rs 20 lakh in machinery and plant.  The Bill extends this to apply to enterprises with investment upto Rs 10 crore in the manufacturing sector and Rs five crore in the services sector.
  • Under the 1981 Act, experts from small-scale industries are included in the Board of Directors and the Advisory Council of NABARD. Further, banks providing loans to small-scale, tiny and decentralised sector industries are eligible to receive financial assistance from NABARD.  The Bill extends these provisions to the micro, small, and medium enterprises.

 


 

25) Orange colour in firecrackers is caused by

 

a) Strontium salts

b) Sodium salts

c) Copper salts

d) Calcium salts

 

Solution: d)

 

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2017/08/07/insights-daily-current-affairs-07-aug-2017/

 

 

What gives colour to the firecrackers?

Red: Strontium salts (Nitrates, carbonates and sulphates of strontium).

Orange: Calcium salts (Carbonates, chlorides and sulphates of calcium).

Yellow: Sodium salts ( Nitrates and oxalates of sodium).

Green: Barium salts (Nitrates, carbonates, chlorides and chlorates of barium).

Blue: Copper salts (Carbonates and oxides of copper).

Purple: A combination of copper and strontium compounds.

White: The burning of metals like magnesium, aluminium and titanium).