SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 MARCH 2018
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
General Studies – 1
Topic: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
- Maulana Abul Kalam Azad played, with great dedication and distinction, the roles of a leader of the Indian Muslim community and the Indian national movement
Views on islam:-
- Azad firmly maintained that the Quran was the true guide for religion and politics
- He took a firm stand against the ulemas, or Muslim legal scholars, who interpreted the texts.According to him Man’s ultimate guidance is therefore to be derived not from these ulemas but from the word of the Koran and the Sunnat of the Prophet.
- Azad wanted to educate Muslims in the doctrines of Islam and liberate believers from the misrepresentation of Quranic injunctions .
- Azad considers the first Sura Al Fatiha to be the quintessence of the teaching of Islam. He then describes the four elements of the Islamic faith; correct understanding of the attributes of Allah; belief in the divine law of retribution and reward; belief in life after life and recognition of the right path.
- Azad writes that the Koran brought all those who fought with one another to the path of devotion to God and welded them into a brotherhood
- He comfortably merged his Islamic loyalties with secular Indian nationalism and succeeded in mobilizing the Muslims into Independence movement,
- Azad believed it was every Muslim’s religious duty to participate in politics against “oppressors” and colonialists.
- Azad’s antagonism to the British rule was more advanced than any in the Muslim community then. He met Gandhi in January 1920 and supported him throughout the Khilafat agitation.
- Therefore, the Khilafat movement, which was launched in India against the enemies of Islam, was naturally aligned with Mahatma Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement
- Panacea of all the problems of the Indian people was liberation from British colonialism which could be achieved only through the joint struggle of Hindus and Muslims.
- To educate his countrymen about his goal of freedom and the strategy of Hindu-Muslim united struggle he launched Al Hilal in
- He derived sanction for Hindu-Muslim cooperation on the basis of the prophetic tradition of the covenant of Madina which was signed between the Muslims and Jews
- Azad thinks religion cannot be divorced from politics because religious spirituality is a moral guide for the lofty goals of the politics of freedom.
- Azad campaigned for Hindu–Muslim unity, an undivided India, and Purna Swaraj (total freedom).
- Azad was most pained by the partition and was never reconciled to the fact.
Contribution to strengthening secularism:-
- Secularism for Azad rested on the principle of wahadat-e-dinon the one hand and disregarding the intermediaries the priestly class and institutionalization of religion. Every human has to struggle to live righteous life enjoining the good and forbidding evil.
- He captured the true essence of secularism and placed the highest stakes in education and development of the human mind and man’s consciousness about himself.
- As the education minister Azad desired that religious education be imparted along with secular education as the serious business of religious education cannot be left to the respective religious leadership of the communities as they tend to take supremacist and communal stand.
- Azad desired that common values of all the religions should be taught to the students so that they do not develop prejudices against each other.
- Secularism, according to Azad was not in confining religion to observances of certain rituals within home, but in religion inspiring followers to live righteous path and seeking guidance of almighty in understanding what that right path is. Therefore every human being has to struggle to become a better follower of their respective religions.
- Indians should revisit life of great humans as the Maulana rather than ignoring them and carry on their work and achieve their unfinished tasks.
General Studies – 2
Topic: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
- International law bans chemical weapons through the 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention, which requires its 192 state signatories to refrain from using, producing and stockpiling them but the recent assassination attempt on former Russian spy in UK brought the convention in to the forefront again.
Chemical weapons convention:-
- The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction within a specified period of time.
- The treaty is of unlimited duration and is far more comprehensive than the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which outlaws the use but not the possession of chemical weapons.
Failure of chemical weapons convention:-
- Novichok was a nerve agent similar to toxic substances that are already regulated by the Convention on Chemical Weapons, but it is not banned under it.
- Russia is a signatory to the convention. It declared in 2017 that it had completed the destruction of its 40,000 tonnes of chemical weapons. It didn’t declare Novichok, which it possessed despite states being obliged to declare all chemical weapons programs and holdings under the convention.
- Another issue concerns the military nature of the nerve agent used in the killing of spy in UK . Toxic chemicals can be produced and used for lawful purposes according to the convention, including for military, defence and protection reasons. It’s just the use of toxic chemicals as a method of warfare that is strictly prohibited.
- There is continuing ambiguity as to the type and specifications of those Riot control Agents means of delivery that are prohibited under the convention. This ambiguity has potentially dangerous consequences, allowing divergent interpretations, policy and practice among states parties to emerge.
- Chemical weapons have been used extensively in Syria civil war as well.
- A unique feature of the CWC is its incorporation of the ‘challenge inspection,‘ whereby any State Party in doubt about another State Party’s compliance can request the Director-General to send an inspection team.
- Under the CWC’s ‘challenge inspection’ procedure, States Parties have committed themselves to the principle of ‘anytime, anywhere’ inspections with no right of refusal.
- The key to coping with this risk is to keep proper track of movements of certain chemicals and chemical reactors and use modern data technology to analyse such information and predict when there are reasons to believe it is time to act.
- Good faith and transparency are essential for the functioning of the international law on chemical weapons both of which currently appear to be lacking
Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.
- The constitutional amendment removing the presidential and vice-presidential two-term limit in China recently will allow Xi Jinping, to hold office for at least another term after his second term ends in 2023. With this, he may emerge as the longest serving leader in the post-Mao period.
Positive implications to India and its relationship with China:-
- Engaging with a strong leadership to find a solution to the boundary dispute is a better proposition than struggling to find a solution under a weak leadership.
- Engaging in sustained negotiation with the same leadership is a better proposition:-
- India’s foreign policy and security establishment know enough about China’s grand vision, style of functioning, leadership traits, and much more. India’s political leadership can feel confident that it is dealing with someone it knows better.
- Leadership continuity under Xi will make sure that India will not have to spend too much time and resources in factoring in the changes in personality and vision of the topmost leader, thereby helping them calculate better India’s institutional response of many future developments.
- With Paris climate agreement and India’s focus on international solar alliance China under Xi has seen mass substitution of polluting fuels to renewables. India being a founder of ISA can forge a mutually beneficial deal with china in our shift towards solar and wind power towards our environmental commitments.
- The economic relations would still be strong as has been before.
Concerns to India:-
- For India, which had to deal with an aggressive China in Doklam, and manoeuvre against its rising influence in South Asia, the lack of checks and balances on Xi is a worrying sign.
- India might be forced to abandon its “non-aligned template” to check China’s rise in the Indian Subcontinent.
- It guarantees the continuation and evolution of major initiatives including the BRI,CPEC over the next decade or so. This will pose an even more severe test for India in the neighbourhood, and in Asia at large.
- Chinese foreign policy will become more BRI-centric in the years to come where infrastructure investment abroad, promoting connectivity and corridors and forging stronger trade and economic contacts .
- Continuation in China’s Asia-Pacific strategy:-
- The return of the Quadrilateral initiative involving Australia, India, Japan and the US will only reinforce China’s focus on the Asia-Pacific region.
- China will surely continue its military build-up and domination of the South China Sea.
- Increasing maritime presence in Indian Ocean region can give further impetus to the string of pearls
- India will face threat to grow as a regional power with China trying to dominate ASEAN,BRICS,SCO etc
- China is aware that the many challenges the world faces today, such as climate change, terrorism, the spread of nuclear weapons, and cyber threats, can hardly be handled by China alone. It is these regional and global challenges that paradoxically can create opportunities for India and China to engage with each other.
- India must concentrate on its core strength which is soft power projection since conventional hard-power tactics predicated on military might has obvious limitations in the international system. Panchamrit principles, as outlined by the Indian government in 2015 for guiding India’s foreign policy, must be pursued with greater vigour now.
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources
- India has abysmal health indicators. For every 1,000 live births, 28 children die in their first 28 days According to the census, the sex ratio for children below six decreased to 919 in 2011 from 2001. The World Health Organization says nearly 45,000 women die with childbirth every year in India. So women need to be more involved in the decision making process rather than imposing policies on them.
Women are best placed at resolving grassroots health problems:-
- For instance village mapping done by auxiliary nurse mid wife in Rajasthan has empowered these women, improved their effectiveness and ultimately led to healthier villages.
- Similarly in UP ,Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojana is improving maternal and child health in villages through women-led self help groups. Local women trained as Swasthya Sakhis (health volunteers) visit homes, discourage child marriage, promote institutional deliveries and connect beneficiaries with ASHA workers.
- ASHAs are valued for their contribution towards maternal health education and for their ability to provide basic biomedical care.
- Majority of the ASHAs during their interactions with the beneficiaries discussed one or all aspects of micro-birth planning.
- ASHAs were aware of their roles and responsibilities in JSY regarding antenatal services, complications during pregnancy and child-birth and thereafter, micro- planning, referral care, arranging for transport, accompanying women for deliveries to institutions and ensuring child immunization services.
- The sex workers community came together to design and implement a solution regarding the use of contraception considering it as a social problem and abuse of women then the response time to abuse improved and HIV infection rates dropped.
- It is women again, whose demands for toilets in rural India is helping improve the health, hygiene and of course safety.
- Lack of access by women to education and training also has a striking impact on nutrition. Mothers education level determines their children’s nutritional status, finding rates of underweight and stunted children significantly higher among mothers with lower levels of education.
- When women farmers have the opportunity to earn and control income, they are more likely to focus their spending on their children’s nutrition, education and health.
- Improving the knowledge and status of women within the household and at the farmer group level would deliver significant improvements to agricultural production, food security, child nutrition, health and education.
- While empowering women is a goal within itself to achieve gender equality, women’s empowerment can lead to achieving other development goals through its effect on women’s health status, such as gains in human capital formation.
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources
- Recently the budget for Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan is increased 4 times, and the second phase of the scheme is also approved.For the current year, Rs. 1,300 crore has been provided and funding is conditional to performance
- Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), launched in 2013 aims at providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions
Objectives of RUSA:-
- Improve the overall quality of state institutions by ensuring conformity to prescribed norms and standards and adopt accreditation as a mandatory quality assurance framework
- Usher transformative reforms in the state higher education system by creating a facilitating institutional structure for planning and monitoring at the state level, promoting autonomy in State Universities and improving governance in institutions.
- Ensure reforms in the affiliation, academic and examination systems.
- Ensure adequate availability of quality faculty in all higher educational institutions and ensure capacity building at all levels of employment.
- Create an enabling atmosphere in the higher educational institutions to devote themselves to research and innovations.
- Expand the institutional base by creating additional capacity in existing institutions and establishing new institutions, in order to achieve enrolment targets.
- Correct regional imbalances in access to higher education by setting up institutions in unserved & underserved areas.
- Improve equity in higher education by providing adequate opportunities of higher education to SC/STs and socially and educationally backward classes; promote inclusion of women, minorities, and differently abled persons.
Significance of continuing the scheme :-
- Government is backing the scheme speaks volumes about the robustness and relevance of the scheme.
- When RUSA began, the gross enrolment ratio (GER) was 19.4%, faculty vacancies were at a high level of 60%, and a large number of universities were with a teacher-student ratio of 1:24. Today, the GER is 25.2%, faculty vacancies are down to 35%, the ban on faculty recruitment by States has been lifted, and the teacher-student ratio is now 1:20.
- RUSA can prove be a real game changer for higher education in the country.
- It has not only reprioritised the country’s needs, from funding just a few premier institutions to reaching out to institutions at the bottom of the pyramid, but has also changed the way regulators need to function.
- RUSA also seeks to enhance the state government spending on higher education.
- Second phase of this higher education scheme aims to create 70 new model degree colleges and 8 new professional colleges.
- In 10 selected universities and 70 autonomous colleges, government wishes to raise the quality and excellence levels. This would be done through providing infrastructural support to around 50 universities and 750 colleges.
- New RUSA Proposal will help to improve access, equity and accessibility of higher education. This would be done through academic reforms, governance reforms and affiliation reforms.
- Providing opportunities of higher education to socially deprived communities, promotion of women inclusion, minorities, SC / ST / OBC and Person with Disabilities (PWDs) shows the inclusive approach this scheme has.
- RUSA will also identify gaps in the education system and fill up these gaps by providing support to State Government efforts.
- Furthermore, central government wants to promote healthy competition among states for excellence in quality education, research and innovation.
General Studies – 3
Topic: Conservation; Lad reforms; Environmental pollution
- Forests conserve and provide water for humans, cattle, agriculture and industry. The loss of forest cover to encroachment is also a lost opportunity for carbon sequestration.
- The FRA 2006 was ostensibly designed to undo “historical injustice” by offering a one-time settlement of individual and community claims over forest land.
How wrong implementation of forest rights act has serious implications for climate change mitigation:-
- It would leave forest-dependent people vulnerable to adverse impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
- Indeed, the wrong recognition of individual forest rights (IFR) under the FRA has made a large chunk of the country’s tribal population participants in a climate change disaster.
- TERI’s report provided satellite images of land patches where forest cover existed before 2005 but was flattened later .The analysis was based on a scrutiny of 66,300 FRA rights on 10,7897 ha spread across 19 Maharashtra districts.
- TERI report reveals an increasing tendency at the village-level to claim as much forestland as possible. This will lead in more deforestation, exploitation of water ,desertification,lack of carbon sequestration and further vulnerability to climate change .
- A new report by World Resources Institute and the Rights and Resources Initiative finds that strengthening forest rights for forest communities is a valuable tool to protect forests and fight climate change.
- An added advantage in protecting community forest rights is that the quality of the forests tends to be better, often containing about one-third more carbon per hectare than areas outside community forests.
- When governments do not recognize or enforce community forest rights, communities are often powerless to keep external forces such as unscrupulous actors in the timber and oil industries or illegal settlers from destroying forests.
- Since there is no cut off date for the receipt of new claims and gram sabhas are empowered to extend the 90-day window for such pleas, this process has become a never ending one.
- The result is those indulging in fresh encroachments can get away because as per the Act, no action can be taken against them while their claims are being assessed. Encroachers are not being evicted even after their claims have been rejected.
- The Forest Survey of India’s (FSI) State of the Forest Report has documented that 67,900 ha of forest cover has been lost in 188 tribal districts between 2009 and 2011, mainly due to encroachments.
- A range of obstacles are revealed in the implementation of FRA
- Starting from a lack of ambition among top officials
- Resistance among lower level officials
- General lack of awareness
- Restrictive rules
- Commercial pressures linked to the natural wealth within forests.
- The Forest Department continues to be seen as an obstacle, despite attempts to limit its role in the implementation.
- Initially it was prepared only for tribals but later was extended to all forest dwellers.
- Implementation of the protective provisions in the law and the process of recognition and assertion of forest rights is obstructed by contradictory processes like
- Diversion of forest land alienating Adivasis and other forest dwellers’ rights
- Displacement from the protected areas and Tiger Reserves
- Displacement due to intervention by the Forest Department through forceful plantation in the forest lands.
- The historical injustice perpetuated against forest dwellers is unlikely to subside with the passage of a single law. However, the Forest Rights Act could, if implemented in letter and spirit, be a significant step towards this goal.
- In terms of scope and reach, effective implementation of FRA can indeed be one of the largest exercises of land reform India has ever seen and an effective climate mitigating strategy.
Topic: Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
Why this question?
Very important question for Mains. It might be repeated in a different form in Mains-2018.
Key demand of the question:
You should objectively evaluate design and performance of the MUDRA scheme.
Critically Evaluate– Based on data and facts, and also based on opinion of experts/reports/studies/ assess the deficiencies and outcomes. But you should write about both positives and negatives.
Structure of Answer:
In the introduction write 2-3 lines why flagship programs sometimes fail to deliver to their potential despite much attention and resources being spent on them.
Write 1-2 lines on background of the scheme.
In the body, divide answer into TWO main parts: First to evaluate Design of MUDRA. Here, categorise into Finance, Institutions, Implementation mechanism etc and write about robustness or weaknesses. In the Second part, evaluate performance. In the reference article you will find many negative points. Search for positive points (Refer PIB).
In the conclusion write about the need for banks to be more proactive in lending and need for government to clean NPA problem. Or write any other related thoughtful valid conclusion.
- Large enterprises in India have always managed to secure credit facilities because of the perception that they create more employment. However, statistics show that large industries employ only 1.25 crore people, while small scale industries which fall under the unorganized sector always experience a dearth of credit facilities, although they employ around 12 crore people in the country.
- With these facts coming to light, India envisaged the Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency Ltd (MUDRA) scheme.
Pradhan Mantri Mudra yojana:-
- PMMY is another financial inclusion initiative of Government of India which aims not only on funding the unfunded but also aims to increase the funding gap to micro enterprises.
- It also helps the existing micro units to enhance their activities.
- MUDRA is Non-banking finance institution for supporting the micro enterprises segment in the country. It provides support to the banks and all MFIs for micro enterprises having loan necessity up to 10 lakhs
- Mudra is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the SIDBI and provides refinancing facilities to banks and micro financing institutions against the loans that they have provided to small enterprises in order to promote the development of these micro units.
- The Mudra scheme was created with the sole purpose of funding small entrepreneurs and saving them from exploitation at the hand of money lenders.
- The Mudra scheme offers loans without asking for collaterals. There is no fixed interest on the loans availed under this scheme. Interests are being charged at a minimum of the base rate plus 1-7%. This can be also be higher and depends upon the risk involved and the customer profile.
- Loans offers to small businesses in the unorganized sector are now covered by a credit guarantee scheme. It also helps bridge the shortfall in loans for these businesses.
- This helps small entrepreneurs save on the interests that they need to pay. Beneficiaries of the loan do not have to visit the bank every time for withdrawal of the loan amount, as they can make withdrawals using the Mudra Debit Card.
- Landless and vulnerable sections can make significant gains from this scheme because of the increased liquidity and access to funds.
- The MSME sector has remained stunted and they have suffered due to lack of access to capital.
- The Mudra scheme addresses this very issue by offering them hassle free services with easy clearances and by eliminating the need for collaterals all of which have helped the sector immensely.
- The scheme can give support and empower the needy people and small business
- Financial inclusion through PMMY increases the opportunities for credit requirement and refinance.
- Mudra like schemes reflects the sensitivity of the government towards the need for empowering the poor to eliminate poverty from the country.
- It is one of the very progressive initiatives aimed at addressing the issue of skill development and unemployment in the country.
- There can be a potential of conflict of interest due to the nature of roles and responsibilities of MUDRA Bank.
- There can be the promotion of shadow banking.
- There can be multiple regulators for MFIs.
- There is unawareness about the scheme.
- Small ticket business loans are a relatively high risk category and typically a bank would not lend to this segment at base rate.
- With the government doubling the target for the current year, banks may be forced to step up lending to this segment to show the required amount under the MUDRA classification. This could prove to be a concern since bad loans in this segment have started to pick up.
- MUDRA has emerged as a grant success in terms of the number of beneficiaries and amount sanctioned. In the first year, 2015-16, about 1.5 crore new entrepreneurs have got support from banks and microfinance institutions (MFIs) to set up small businesses under.
- Mudra website shows that Rs 5 trillion has been disbursed by banks, microfinance companies and non-banking financial companies since the inception of the scheme.
- The duress on lenders through Mudra has made them lend to the smallest borrower.
- Data from states:-
- There is a slow growth of the scheme all around the country except two states Assam and Tripura, which shows a tremendous growth of 179% and 189% respectively.
- States like Rajasthan and West Bengal that consist of a large population but still having the growth of 68% and 100% respectively. This shows that the scheme is having a great success
in these states and people are aware of the scheme benefits.
- Different categories:-
- General category peoples are utilizing the scheme at full pace also OBC category is utilizing it in a healthy pace.
- On the other hand SC and ST category are lacking behind on the total actual amount but in terms of their size they are pretty good.
- Apart from the share in the disbursement, growth of the OBC category in terms of disbursement in more than that in general category which is a tremendous achievement.
- Women entrepreneurs are ahead in the disbursement share.
- Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY), has resulted in the generation of 1.68 crore incremental jobs in the first two years since its launch
- The share of loans to micro and small enterprises has come down from 13.33% at the end of fiscal year 2014-15. The year-on-year growth in such loans too is slowing down.
- Relevance of the Mudra scheme is in the refinance support that the Mudra agency extends toward such disbursals. The progress here leaves much to be desired.
- Banks are wary of lending to small borrowers due to the bad loan rates in this segment.
- There are number of already existing refinancing agencies.
- There can be confusion due to variable interest rates.
- Minority sector is still lagging behind
- 6 percent of all loans disbursed by non-banking financial corporations (NBFC) under the MUDRA scheme has been in the Shishu category, with a ticket size of less than Rs 50,000, in financial year 2015-16, according to data from agency’s website.
- Because of dispatch of this plan, monetary consideration has expanded towards positive heading. So it can be said that if it is implemented properly, it may work as a game changing financial inclusion initiative of India and may boost the Indian economy.
General Studies – 4
Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world
Why this question?
It is related to syllabus. There was a question of John Rawls’s theory in CSM-2016.
Key demand of the question:
First define what’s political morality(political ethics). Then, explain how should political morality view equality – should it try to treat all equally, or should focus on equity? Based on what John Rawls and Amartya Sen says about equality, take your own stand and explain it through examples.
Explain– Based on examples, make it clear what do you understand by political morality. When asked to explain, like in NCERT books they do, simplify the concepts so that any layman can understand your views.
Structure of Answer:
In the introduction write in 1-2 lines about importance of political morality and equality in societies.
Define political morality with a suitable example.
In the body, divide answer into THREE main parts, One to explain John Rawls’s theory (limit scope to equality); Second to explain Amartya Sen’s view; Third to explain, on the basis of previous TWO parts, what should be the conception of equality for political morality. For each part give examples. You may take a balanced stand in the THIRD part (For instance, for Norway and India, equality has contrasting connotation. Politicians in Norway have different conception of equality compared to Indian politicians – and within India, we have many more dimensions depending upon political attitude and ideology).
Write all parts in paragraphs.
In the conclusion, write why equality and liberty matter more these days, and how they have new dimensions in the digital age. You may also write how even political morality is changing these days.
Tip: Build answer based on political policies, ideologies, influence of moral philosophy on political morality etc. Create many dimensions within your concise answer to score more marks.
Related Question/Article on Insights: Here
Political morality is the practice of making moral judgements about political action and political agents. It covers two areas. The first is the ethics of process (or the ethics of office), which deals with public officials and the methods they use. The second area, the ethics of policy concerns judgments about policies and laws.
Ethical dilemma arises whether a representative follow the will of constituents or the dictates of conscience. To win and retain office (a democratically desirable end), the representatives must sometimes act against their judgment about what is right or what the general interest requires (a morally questionable means). The problem is more complex than this simple opposition suggests, because the constituents do not have a single will, and representatives have many different responsibilities
Basically John Rawls theory of justice is a kind of radical egalitarian liberalism in which focus is on the fact that one person should not resort to maximising profit so much that it leads to deterioration of the other person.
Sen’s axiom demanded that in an optimal distribution of income between two individuals, the person who is worse off in both distributions deserves a larger share of the total income.
For instance in Indian scenario the provision of food grains to the BPL families at cheaper rates ,LPG subsidy show the implementation of this thought .
It can be to put forth that Sen’s ‘Idea of Justice’ in a way completes and moves forward Rawls’s ‘Concept of Justice’. So, Sen’s effort should be seen as fulfilling the grooves of Rawls’s concept and not an alternate view.
In Indian scenario the restriction on freedom of movement ,expression show the approach to respect the rights of the vulnerable sections .Indian constitution focuses on the both the concepts of fair oppurtunity and equity to make Indian society more inclusive so that majoritarian imposition do not take place and vulnerable groups achieve better quality of life. Within India, we have many more dimensions depending upon political attitude and ideology as well.
At the international level for instance in the case of Norway and India, equality has contrasting connotations. Politicians in Norway have different conception of equality compared to Indian politicians and
So equality and liberty are the cornerstones of any foundational conception of justice and of any inclusive view of political morality.