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PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Nilgiri Tahr and International Energy Agency (IEA)


Insights IAS Prelims Boosters – 2018



Nilgiri Tahr


International Energy Agency (IEA)

Nilgiri Tahr

Nilgiri Tahr UPSC IAS prelims

  1. Endangered — IUCNNilgiri Tahr, Nilgiri Tahr IUCN, Nilgiri Tahr IAS
  2. Habitat :
  • Open montane grassland habitat of the South Western Ghats montane rain forests ecoregion.
  • Endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India (ex: Anamalai Hills, Palni Hills)
  1. State animal of Tamil Nadu
  2. Only species of Caprine ungulate that is found south of the Himalayas in India
  3. Threats
  4. Habitat loss (mainly from domestic livestock and spread of invasive plants)
  5. Poaching
  6. Populations of these animals are small and isolated, making them vulnerable to local extinction
  7. Currently, the only populations with more than 300 individuals are in Eravikulam National Park and in the Grass Hills in Anamalai.
  8. Competition from domestic livestock, whose overgrazing has allowed for the invasion of graze-resistant weedy species into preferred meadows, thus in competition with the native grasses that tahr prefers
  9. Conservation efforts
  • Eravikulam National Park — home to the largest population
  • Silent Valley National Parks
  • Srivilliputhur Grizzled Giant Squirrel Sanctuary 
  • Kalakadu-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
  • Mukurti Wildlife Sanctuary
  • The Tamil Nadu Forest Department is removing exotic monocultures along the periphery of the Mukurti National Park.
  • Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuaries
  • Periyar National Park
  • Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972

12. Interesting Fact:

Adult males develop a light grey area or “saddle” on their backs and are hence called “saddlebacks”.

International Energy Agency (IEA)

UPSC, IAS exam

  1. Established in 1974 as per framework of the OECD
  2. MISSION – The IEA works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 30 member countries and beyond. Our mission is guided by four main areas of focus: energy security, economic development, environmental awareness and engagement worldwide
  3. Headquarters (Secretariat): Paris, France
  4. Origin

Established in the wake of the 1973-1974 oil crisis, to help its members respond to major oil supply disruptions, a role it continues to fulfill today. IEA’s mandate has expanded over time to include tracking and analyzing global key energy trends, promoting sound energy policy, and fostering multinational energy technology cooperation

  1. Members: 30

A candidate country must be a member country of the OECD. But all OECD members are not IEA members (Ex:Chile, Iceland, Israel, Latvia and Slovenia To become member a candidate country must demonstrate that it has:

  • crude oil and/or product reserves equivalent to 90 days of the previous year’s net imports, to which the government has immediate access (even if it does not own them directly) and could be used to address disruptions to global oil supply
  • a demand restraint programme to reduce national oil consumption by up to 10%
  • legislation and organisation to operate the Co-ordinated Emergency Response Measures (CERM) on a national basis
  • legislation and measures to ensure that all oil companies under its jurisdiction report information upon request;
  • measures in place to ensure the capability of contributing its share of an IEA collective action
  1. Association countries (7) — Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Singapore, and Thailand
  2. IEA mandate
  • To focus on the “3Es” of effectual energy policy:

Energy security

Economic development

Environmental protection

  • Promote alternate energy sources (including renewable energy), rational energy policies and multinational energy technology co-operation.
  • It acts as energy policy advisor to 29 member countries and also non-member countries like China, India and Russia.
  1. IEA collective action — initiated in response to a significant global oil supply disruption and would involve IEA Member Countries making additional volumes of crude and/or product available to the global market (either through increasing supply or reducing demand), with each country’s share based on national consumption as part of the IEA total oil consumption.


  1. Reports
  • Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2017
  • World Energy Outlook
  • World Energy Statistics 2017
  • World Energy Balances 2017
  • Energy Technology Perspectives
  • Oil 2018 —  annual five-year forecast of global oil demand, supply refining, and trade
  1. Ocean Energy Systems (OES)It seeks to harness energy from all forms of ocean renewable resources through international cooperation and information exchange by promoting advance research, development and technologies.