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3) What are the structural problems that the Indian federalism faces today? What are the consequences of these problems? Has time come to allow each state to have its own model of governance, bureaucracy and local governments? Comment.

Topic:  Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. 

3) What are the structural problems that the Indian federalism faces today? What are the consequences of these problems? Has time come to allow each state to have its own model of governance, bureaucracy and local governments? Comment. (250 Words)

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Why this question?

Federalism related issues gain prominence whenever there are elections and budgets. However, problems are real and their consequences are visible. Important question for Mains – 2018 (UPSC is fond of asking federalism related questions and essays)

Key demand of the question:

Direct question – what are the ‘structural’ problems, their consequences and your opinion about giving more autonomy to states. Give more weightage to first two parts. 

Directive Word:

Comment:  In the third part of the question, briefly comment why you think states should be given more autonomy

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write in 2-3 lines how federalism in India has come a long way and is facing new challenges. Write a line about your opinion – whether to give states more autonomy or not. 

Briefly define federalism and constitutional background (articles/provisions)

In the body, divide answer into THREE main parts: first to write structural problems; Second to write their consequences and Third to write your opinion regarding giving more autonomy to states with respect to their own model of governance, bureaucracy and local governments.  Within each part, categorise and write points. . 

In the conclusion, highlight in 1-2 lines the need for union government(s) to empower states to reduce inequalities and bring development to all. 

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