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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

General Studies – 1

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

1) During 1930s and 1940s, the growth and development of the peasant movement was indissolubly linked with the national struggle for freedom. Examine. (250 Words)

Bipan Chandra, India’s Struggle for Independence, Chapter 27


Why this question?

This topic is from out topic list. Related to syllabus.  

Key demand of the question:

Explain that peasant struggles during 1930s and 1940s were part of freedom struggle. 

Directive Word:

Examine–  Extract relevant facts from the reference and use them to explain   how peasant struggles during 1930s and 1940s were part of freedom struggle.

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction, write significance of peasant movements in the anti-colonial struggle (how it complimented efforts of national leaders and made anti-colonial struggle truly mass movement) 

In the body, through 4-5 arguments(categories/themes) explain how peasant movements were intertwined with national movement. Through categories of Civil Disobedience movement, Congress rule etc and within them by giving examples of important peasant movements, explain the linkages. 

In the conclusion write that even after Independence peasant movements continued due to new challenges and unmet demands. Or write any other relevant, yet thoughtful conclusion.

Background :-

  • The peasant movements of the 20th century were deeply influenced by and had a marked impact on the national freedom struggle.
  • The 1930’s and 1940’s bore witness to a new and nation wide awakening of Indian peasants to their own strength and capacity to organize for the betterment of their living conditions. This awakening was largely a result of the combination of particular economic and political developments: the great Depression that began to hit India from 1929-30 and the new phase of mass struggle launched by the Indian National Congress in 1930.

How the peasant movements were linked with the national struggle :-

  • The relationship of the peasant movement with the national movement continued to be one of a vital and integral nature.
  • Areas where the peasant movement was active were usually  the ones that had been drawn into the earlier national struggles. This was true at least of Punjab, Kerala, Andhra, U.P. and Bihar
  • Since it was the spread of the national movement that had created the initial conditions required for the emergence of peasant struggles
    • The Civil Disobedience Movement soon took on the form of a no-tax and no-rent campaign. Peasants, emboldened by the recent success of the Bardoli Satyagraha (1928), joined the protest in large numbers.
  • With the decline of the Civil Disobedience Movement, these men and women began to search for an outlet of their political energies and many of them found the answer in organizing the peasants.
  • The formation of Congress Ministries in a majority of the provinces in early 1937 marked the beginning of a new phase in the growth of the peasant movement. The political atmosphere in the country underwent a marked change a new sense of freedom born of the feeling that ‘our own people are in power’ and pro-people measures will be brought in make the years 1937-39 the high-water mark of the peasant movement.
  • The end of the World War II , followed by the negotiations for the transfer of power and the anticipation of freedom, marked a qualitatively new stage in the development of the peasant movement
    • A new spirit was evident and the certainty of approaching freedom with the promise of a new social order encouraged peasants, among other social groups, to assert their rights and claims with a new vigour.
    • Many struggles that had been left off in 1939 were renewed.
  • In its ideology as well, the kisan movement accepted and based itself on the ideology of nationalism. Its cadres and leaders carried the message not only of organization of the peasantry on class lines but also of national freedom.
    • Kisan manifesto launched by all India Kisan committee influenced agrarian programmes of congress as well.
  • With the experience of the split of 1942, the kisan movement found that if it diverged too far and too clearly from the path of the national movement, it tended to lose its mass base, as well as create a split within the ranks of its leadership. The growth and development of the peasant movement was thus indissolubly linked with the national struggle for freedom.
  • The demand for zamindari abolition was pressed with a greater sense of urgency by the popularization of the demand by the kisan sabha certainly contributed to its achievement.
  • They eroded the power of the landed class, thus adding to the transformation of the agrarian structure.


  • Thus peasant movements played a significance role in helping India attain independence and even in post independence period the process is continuing to make the live better for farmers and agriculture.

General Studies – 2

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

2) It is in India’s best interests to have a strong World Trade Organisation. Analyse. (250 Words)

The Wire


Why this question?

India is hosting mini ministerial  meeting of WTO and there is so much negativity around WTO. Important for Mains – 2018 (many times WTO related questions have been asked)

Key demand of the question:

Analyse why WTO is beneficial to India and why WTO should be strengthened (this part should be explained along with the first part)

Directive Word:

Analyse: Identify several broad categories and divide them into sub-parts to write an effective answer (analysis means breaking into parts and then examining each part closely)

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write in 2-3 lines why WTO is relevant, more so for India and why it must be strengthened, especially through India’s leadership. 

In the body, divide answer into 4-5 broad themes like Food Security, Trade etc. Within them again create sub-parts. In each part, provide an argument + supporting fact (example). 

In the conclusion, write 1-2 lines about need for reforming the governance structure of public sector banks and making RBI accountable. 

Related question/Articles: Here, Here , Here ,


  • The rhetoric against free-trade and economic liberalisation in the West has become stronger especially Post Brexit and US advocating protectionist tendencies
  • The recent announcement of US to impose higher tariff rates of 25% and 10% on steel and aluminium respectively has seriously questioned the authority of WTO especially when the multilateral trading regime, is severely crippled to take forward the trade qualizingion programme because of disagreements between its member states.

Why strong WTO is in India’s best interests ?

  • A rule based multilateral trading regime based on principles of non-discrimination, uniformly applied through an effective dispute resolution mechanism is critical for developing countries like India.
  • The WTO system needs to be strengthened and not scorned especially in the view of rising protectionism, unilateralism and mercantilist tendencies around the globe today.
  • India has taken full advantage of the WTO flexibilities to enact a patent law that does not allow evergreening of patents on drugs (i.e. pharmaceutical companies extending their patent protection through minor incremental improvements that scientifically do not qualify as an invention). This has been judicially attested in the case Novartis vs Union of India.
    • An integral part of the same WTO agreement, is the Doha declaration on TRIPS and public health that clearly underlines the importance of accessibility of medicines. Further, the recent amendment of the TRIPS agreement has secured developing countries a legal pathway to access affordable medicines.
  • Developing countries like India have used the same Dispute settlement body to hold countries like the US accountable under the same WTO rules. India has used the dispute settlement body 23 times to safeguard its interest and its complaints have often been upheld against powerful developed countries like the US.
  • India had to make certain changes in its policy as a result of losing certain WTO disputes.
    • India-Autos case is a good example, where due to an adverse WTO ruling and India emerged as a major player in the global automobile market.
    • Similarly, in the India-US Solar panel case, the DSB fully respected India’s goal to move towards clean energy.
  • WTO rules become critical for such international trade to ensure that everyone holds up to their end of the bargain.
  • Food security:-
    • India needs to look for alternative solutions within the existing WTO rules.
    • For example, WTO rules do not prohibit countries from giving direct income support to farmers provided it is not linked to production. Thus, the money that India spends on procuring food directly from farmers can be given to them as cash-transfers de-linked to production.
  • Due to economic globalisation and trade liberalisation as enshrined in WTO the focus has moved towards and global economy is getting more democratised. India’s share in the global GDP has doubled to an estimated 7.3% in 2016 from 3.6% in 1990.
  • Also trade liberalisation has had a positive impact on poverty reduction in India.
  • There have been other advantages to India through special safeguard mechanisms as well. So WTO needs reforms but that does not mean the organisation need to be dismantled all together.

Topic:  Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. 

3) Examine the impact of the recommendations of the Fourteenth Finance Commission. (250 Words)



Why this question?

As 15th Finance Commission is given terms of reference and is set to prepare its recommendations, impact of 14th FC can be asked in exam. Important question for Mains – 2018. 

Key demand of the question:

Direct question – just examine impact of 14th FC.

Directive Word:

Examine:  Refer the given link, extract relevant information and present it (categorise them). No need to provide your opinion. 

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write in 2-3 lines how Finance Commissions have impacted fiscal federalism and why 14th FC impact is important. 

Briefly define mandate of FC and constitutional background. 

In the body, divide answer into TWO main  categories( central transfers, Social sector expenditure) and within them write about impacts – both positives and negatives. 

In the conclusion, write in 1-2 lines on 15th FC and suggest that it would address shortcomings of previous FC recommendations. 

Related questions/articles on Insights: Here, Here, here


  • The overall increase in the amount of financial resources will make state financially strong. Financial stability lends to a strong federation. This is what is the result of the recommendations of the fourteenth finance commission

Positive Impact :-

  • The 14th Finance Commission’s recommendations ushered in a new era of fiscal federalism in India. Devolution to the states significantly went up from 32 per cent to 42 per cent. While most countries have found it difficult to finance federal transfers of about 30 per cent to the provinces, Indiahas taken it to 42 per cent.
  • The composition of money share has changed. Now states have the autonomy to manage a significant share of the central tax pool and they will now have greater autonomy both on the revenue and expenditure fronts.
    • This is different from the earlier practice where the Centre plans the schemes and the states merely implement them. This has not been effective because India is a diverse country and every state has different needs. 
    • will move the country toward greater fiscal federalism, conferring more fiscal autonomy on the states
  • States will now spend more on capacity building and concentrate on sectors that are lacking.
  • States like Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, which spend a lot on infrastructure, will continue with the trend. Also Bihar, which has in the recent past increased its spending on infrastructure, will have more funds because of the devolution.
  • Based on analysing recent state finances, additional transfers toward the states as a result of the FFC will improve the overall fiscal deficit of the combined central and state government.
  • Moving from CAS to FFC transfers will increase the overall progressivity of resource transfers to the states.



  • There is an upward trend in the fiscal deficits of states.
  • The inter-governmental transfer system has become overly complex with different sharing arrangements for different taxes
  • The spending autonomy of the states, combined with their ability to borrow, has obstructed efforts at consolidating public finances
  • There is little incentive for states to improve revenue performances and revenue-sharing arrangements have led to pro-cyclical policies at the state level.
  • Although grants from the union government for social sectors have fallen in most 
    states, a number of states have compensated for this  fall and increased social sector expenditures. However, expenditures on social services have received a lower priority
    over expenditures on economic services
    in the first year of the FFC award period.
    • The NITI Aayog has pointed out that social sector expenditure has increased only marginally since the 14th Finance Commission despite an increase in total central transfers to the states by 21.9 per cent.
  • The reduction in grants, however, has been an issue of concern as much of the grants relate to centrally sponsored schemes (CSS), initiated to support expenditures in the social sector and the development of infrastructure.
  • Many states have raised objections over the inadequate financial transfer under the move. Civil society groups have also raised concerns over the fear that states might reduce the spending on crucial social sectors such as health and rural development.
    • Central-tied grants, which qualiz-ted for 46 per cent of the total transfers to states in 2010-11, came down to just 25 per cent of the total fund transfer in 2015-16. 
  • Many states have gained money-wise, but have failed to qualizing the funds in the right direction.
  • There is also confusion over the amount of money that will be transferred and over the fate of the ongoing Centrally sponsored schemes.
  • Many states, particularly the ones with large poor population and heavy social spending, have complained that the sharing of Central pool of taxes will not be adequate.
    • Data shows that BIMARU states like Bihar and Rajasthan have not benefited from fiscal decentralisation. Though their share in tax pool has increased, the slash in Central grant-in-aid to states meant the actual funds available with poor states like Bihar and Rajasthan remains largely unchanged.
  • States are also unhappy with the formula that the commission has used to divide the additional money among states. The commission has used five factors population, demographic changes, income distance, geographical area and forest cover to decide the share of states in Central pool. 
    • As per the information received from Sikkim’s finance department, the 14th Finance Commission has overestimated the state’s revenue receipt and underestimated its expenditure. As a result, the state will incur an estimated shortfall of over Rs 5,800 crore between 2015-16 and 2019-20 in respect to state’s own revenue.
  • Fiscal decentralisation is a new framework and the states might take time to develop a mechanism or a structure to qualizing the money in a better way.
  • The finance commission removed the special category status altogether .This led to the ongoing protests and confusion that whether this status be granted to Andhra Pradesh as the government has promised earlier.
  • The resource requirements of the power sector remain very high. In some states, the fiscal deficit with power sector allocations have climbed to around 9 per cent.
    • The deteriorating public debtdynamics caused by the requirements of the power sector’s restructuring would be a major area of concern for the 15th Finance Commission.



  • In sum, it is clear that the far-reaching recommendations of the FFC, along with the creation of the NITI Aayog, will radically alter Centre-state fiscal relations, and further the government’s vision of cooperative and competitive federalism.

Topic:Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. 

4) The momentous changes in Indian fiscal federalism have implications for the functioning of the Fifteenth Finance Commission. Analyse. (250 Words)


Why this question?

It’s in news. Related to topic in syllabus. Also introduces you to an important concept – fiscal federalism (if you don’t know it) 

Key demand of the question:

Analyse how recent changes such as GST, NITI Aayog will impact 15th FC functioning and recommendations. 

Directive Word:

Analyse: Divide into parts and sub-parts, and examine as per demand of the question.   

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write in 3-4 lines about recent changes in fiscal federalism and challenges they pose to FC. 

Define fiscal federalism. Briefly explain mandate and constitutional provisions of FC.

In the body, divide into recent changes related to fiscal federalism (NITI Aayog, GST). Under them examine how they will impact 15th FC. Refer here for more points. 

In the conclusion, write  that it’s an uphill task for 15th FC and it should overcome challenges to accommodate interests of states.

Related articles/questions on Insights: Here

Fiscal federalism :-

  • Fiscal Federalism refers to the division of responsibilities with regards to public expenditure and taxation between the different levels of the government.
  • Having a Fiscal Federalism mechanism allows the government to optimize their costs on economies of scale, because in this manner, people will get public service which they prefer, and there will be no unnecessary expenditure
  • From the economic point of view also, having a federalized structure helps as it creates a unified market.

How does finance commission ensures the fiscal federalism in the country?

  • Under the federal structure envisaged in the Constitution, most of the taxation powers are with the Centre but the bulk of spending is done by the states. Such a federal structure requires transfer of resources from the Centre, which levies and collects the big taxes such as income tax and indirect taxes like excise and customs, to the states. 
  • So with the help of proper allocation of resources among the different states on the basis of population of the state, fiscal condition of the state, forest cover of the states, income distance and area of the states. So by this proper bifurcation the finance commission avoids the confrontation between the states and centre

Momentous changes in the Indian fiscal federalism:-

  • The replacement of the Planning Commission by the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog in 2015
  • The removal of the distinction between plan and non-plan expenditure in the budgets of the union and the states from 2017–18
  • The 101st constitutional amendment resulting in the introduction of the long-awaited goods and services tax (GST) from 2017 across the country
  • Besides these major changes, there is a slowdown in the growth of the economy since last year and pressures building up on both the union and state finances.
  • There are incipient signs of states, which so far, by and large, adhered to the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) limits, slipping on them.
  • There is an upward trend in the fiscal deficits of states.
  • The inter-governmental transfer system has become overly complex with different sharing arrangements for different taxes
  • The spending autonomy of the states, combined with their ability to borrow, has obstructed efforts at consolidating public finances
  • There is little incentive for states to improve revenue performances and revenue-sharing arrangements have led to pro-cyclical policies at the state level.


  • The replacement of the Planning Commission, with the removal of the practice of classifying expenditure into plan and non-plan, has conferred full freedom to the XV-FC to look at the entire revenue expenditure in totality, instead of a fragmented view of resource allocations.
  • As the revenue impact of the GST across the states is not yet known, the XV-FC will have the challenging task of addressing this issue as its recommendations are applicable till 2024–25.
    • For the 15th Finance Commission, GST will usher in higher tax buoyancy by bringing in a large number of new tax payers into the net
  • The 15th Finance Commission has the responsibility of qualizing the widening gap between richer states and the low-income states. These inequalities have resulted in widely differing social and capital expenditure between the states.
  • The deteriorating public debt dynamics caused by the requirements of the power sector’s restructuring would be a major area of concern for the 15th Finance Commission
  • XV-FC has a major task on hand in putting in place a transfer system consistent with the recent changes in fiscal federalism, promoting cooperative fiscal federalism and ensuring fiscal stability.
  • The 15th Finance Commission will review the current status of the finance, deficit, debt levels, cash balances and fiscal discipline efforts of the Union and the states and recommend a fiscal consolidation roadmap for sound fiscal management, taking into account the responsibilities of the central and state governments.
  • The Commission may also examine whether revenue deficit grants be provided at all.

General Studies – 3


Topic: Conservation, Environmental pollution

5) India’s environment ministry has unveiled a draft of the new National Forest Policy. Discuss its features. (250 Words)



Why this question?

Relate dto syllabus and has been in news since 2016. Important question for Mains- 2018. 

Key demand of the question:

Discuss (significance, consequences, shortcomings etc) features of draft national forest policy.

Directive Word:

Discuss:  Explore important dimensions such as significance, consequences, shortcomings (discuss is like written debate – covering important dimensions of an issue)

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write 2-3 lines why there was a need for new forest policy and how the new policy might address some important issues today.    

In the body, divide answer into 5-6 categories – Role of private players, urban green, economic value, forest management etc. Within them write significance, consequences, shortcomings). 

In the conclusion, press the need for implementation of these policies in letter and spirit by increasing funds, forest governance, human resources etc. 



  • Forests are very important economically, ecologically and even for the survival of the human kind. The new draft policy seeks to replace the country’s 30-year-old national forest policy.
  • In the light of the contemporary challenges like climate change, human-wildlife conflict, intensifying water crisis, increasing air and water pollution and deteriorating environment a new policy is necessary.

 Draft of the new national forest policy :-

  • The overall objective and goal of the present policy is to safeguard the ecological and livelihood security of people, of the present and future generations, based on sustainable management of the forests for the flow of ecosystem services.
  • Features:-
    • Public private participation for afforestation in degraded forest areas
      • Public-private participation models will be developed for undertaking afforestation and reforestation activities in degraded forest areas and forest areas available with forest development corporations and outside forests
    • Promoting urban greens
      • It says the management plans for urban green will be prepared and implemented in consonance with the development plan of cities.
    • Measures to safeguard ecosystems from forest fire (map the vulnerable areas; develop and strengthen early warning systems)
      • It proposes to restrict schemes and projects which interfere with forests that cover steep slopes, catchments of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, geologically unstable terrain and such other ecologically sensitive areas
    • It also suggests setting up of two national-level bodies
      • National Community Forest Management (CFM) Mission and National Board of Forestry (NBF) for better management of the country’s forests
      • The draft calls for state boards of forestry headed by state ministers in charge of forests to be established for ensuring inter-sectoral convergence, simplification of procedures, conflict resolution, among other things
    • Afforestation in catchment areas for river rejuvenation and water recycling
      • The ecologically sensitive catchment areas shall be stabilized with suitable soil and water conservation measures, and also by planting suitable trees and grass like bamboo
    • Economic valuation of forests
    • Forest certification to provide premium on forest produce
    • Integration of climate change concerns in forest management
    • Promote agro-forestry and farm forestry
    • Management of north-eastern forests
  • Besides, it had suggested launching a national forest streams revival programme in mission mode to tackle the water crisis.



  • It addressed the issue of forest fires, stating that adequate measures would be taken to safeguard ecosystems from forest fires, map the vulnerable areas and develop and strengthen early warning systems and methods to control fire, based on remote sensing technology and community participation.”
  • The latest draft of National Forest Policy has omitted any reference to a green tax or a national stream revival programme.
  • It emphasized on integrating climate change concerns into forest management while noting that forests acts as a natural sink of carbon dioxide thereby assisting in climate change mitigation.
    • Contributes to the forestry-related Nationally Determined Contribution Targets and by integrating, climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in forest management through the mechanism of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus) so that the impacts of the climate change is minimised.
  • To tackle rising human-wildlife conflict, the draft outlined short-term and long-term actions.
  • The draft policy document also talks about degraded land and how it can be improved by undertaking afforestation activities using public private partnership models. 
  • It seeks to sync it with the country’s forestry-related ‘Nationally Determined Contribution’ targets under the Paris Agreement where India has promised to rapidly increase its forest cover so that an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent is created by the year 2030.
  • The draft policy also talks about the need to stimulate growth in the forest based industry sector. This sector being labour intensive can help in increasing green jobs. Forest corporations and industrial units need to step up growing of industrial plantations for meeting the demand of raw materials


  • The draft NFP 2018 mentions major forestry issues ailing the forest sector, but it doesn’t provide answers to them as to how these objectives will be achieved considering the competitive demands for forestlands.
  • New draft also says efforts will be made to achieve harmonization between policies and laws like Forest Rights Act (FRA) 2006 . People may see it as an attempt to weaken role of gram sabhas (village councils)
  • While the role of forests as climate change mitigation factor has been recognised, the draft NFP is vague on the issue of forests rights for forest dwelling communities
  • Continues to speak about private participation in forest management, which was criticized in 2016.


  • There is a need for a comprehensive approach for successful forest management like ensuring proper funding, filling the vacancies (the necessity of which was very visible in the recent Theni forest fire incident),effective implementation of provisions etc

General Studies – 4

Topic: Human Values

6) Are moral values less important today compared to money? How does money affect morals? Comment. (150 Words)

Why this question?

Importance of moral, ethics and values is decreasing (or perceived to be decreasing) due to more importance given to money and material prosperity. This question seeks to test your understanding of linkage between money and values. 

Key demand of the question:

Comment if importance of values have diminished in society due to importance given to money. Also comment on the impact of money on morals. 

Directive Word:

Comment: Through valid examples, write your opinion on two parts of the question.   

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write 1-2 lines about importance of values and morals today and take a stand if their importance has diminished or not.

In the body, divide answer into TWO main parts: First to comment to whether money has eaten up values or not. Second to comment on impact of money on morals (refer to article). In each part give two examples to substantiate your opinion. 

In the conclusion write something like values change with times but there are eternal values such as love, faith, trust etc which will not change.  




The love of money is the root of all evil is increasingly evident in the modern society. In the Subprime Mortgage Crisis between 2007 and 2009, hundreds of Wall Street tycoons repeatedly sought out and exploited loopholes within the federal banking system. The crisis represented the classic irony world suffers from, where the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer. The financial disaster is just one of many instances in recent history where high-class individuals have utilized their wealth, power, and status to manipulate various institutions. 


Beyond the basic needs, money helps people to achieve their life’s goals and supports the things they care about most deeply like the family, education, health care, charity, adventure and fun. It helps people get some of life’s intangibles like  freedom or independence, the opportunity to make the most of their  skills and talents, the ability to choose their own course in life, financial security. With money, much good can be done and much unnecessary suffering avoided or eliminated.


Money can give people the power to make a difference in the lives of others, but not the desire to do so. It can give them the time to develop and nurture relationships, but not the love and caring necessary to do so. It can just as easily make us jaded, escapist, selfish, and lonely. There  have been some instances where money power succeeded in making people vote to a person which is visible in the criminalisation of politicians in India .


By placing a premium on wealth, modern society essentially programs your brain to view money accumulation as the ultimate goal and abuse of power is rampant. The way a person earns money is not considered now a days . In many marriages it is considered if a girl gets a rich groom and a wealthy family she is very lucky but the values of the person are totally ignored which are essential for a human.


Money probably isn’t the root of all evil. But it can definitely lead to some wicked behaviour, shows a new study from Harvard Business School. When people were primed to think about money, 88 percent cheated and kept funds they hadn’t earned.


Several studies have shown that wealth may be at odds with empathy and compassion. Research published in the journal Psychological Science also found that people of lower economic status were better at reading others facial expressions  an important marker of empathy than wealthier people


There appears to be an abundance of data supporting the lack of empathy, compassion, and general prosocial behavior exhibited by the wealthier subpopulation of individuals. The latest scams by business tycoons like Vijay mallya and Nirav Modi uphold this fact.


We always think if we just had a little bit more money, we’d be happier, but when we get there, we are not. Once you get basic human needs met, a lot more money doesn’t make a lot more happiness. This needs to be remembered and it is always important to remember how you become rich rather than ho much you own.