Print Friendly, PDF & Email



NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

General Studies – 1

Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times;

1) Some of the Islamic architectural structures in south India stand as proud reminders of not just an architectural tradition but also of cultural traditions, where Islam effortlessly adapted itself to the native customs. Examine. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question?

It’s in our topic list.   

Key demand of the question:

You should examine and explain features of some of the Islamic architecture in South India which have blended local traditions within them. The reference article provides Tamil Nadu examples. Find similar 2-3 other examples. 

Directive Word:

Examine– Explain with examples how Islamic architecture in south India projects a cultural tradition that reflects blending of native traditions and customs. 

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction, write how Islamic architecture in south India has distinct features compared to north due to influence of native customs and also how it reflects religious syncretism.  

In the body, with the help of 3-4 examples, address the demand of the question. It’s better to address this question spatially. Write few points to emphasise that these structures represent cultural traditions as well (Hindu- Islam unity).

In the conclusion write 1-2 lines about the need for preserving these traditions today and how they remind us of great syncretic past. 





  • Islam came to the south through maritime spice trade. The Muslims who were traders enriched the country with precious foreign exchange, and hence were accorded a special place by the southern rulers then.

Islamic architecture in South India  in not just an architectural tradition but in line with the traditions as well:-

  • Architectural:-
    • The inscription in thirupullani shows that a grant for mosque was granted by the pandya king and what is unique about these mosques is that they were all built of stone, in the Dravidian architectural style with Islamic sensibilities.
    • Mosques were essentially built more like mandapams, better suited to Islamic requirement for the congregation to assemble and stand together in prayer.
    • Mosques were carved with  floral and geometrical motifs instead of human figures as in a temple.While the raised ‘Adisthana’ of the Hindu temple was retained, there were no ‘Garbha Grahas’ and no figurines carved on any of the pillars.
    • The mosques of Kerala differ greatly from Muslim structures of any other region of India. The exten­ sive use of timber in the construction of the upper storeys and the tiered form of their roofs represent a type of Indo-Islamic architecture, peculiar to the region.
  • Cultural :-
    • The mosque built in the Dravidian architectural style of the late Vijayanagara period, has elements that are specific to native traditions.
      • Like many other kallupallis(mosques), this mosque too has the floral bud detailing on the pillar corbels(Podhigai), which represent positivity and auspiciousness, an essential part of the cultural beliefs of the land.
    • Many mosques use Tamil calendar for prayers.
    • Even after 400 odd years, the tradition of singing Mikurasu Malai  continues to this day at the Kottar mosque. Other literary works such as Seera Puranam, a Tamil epic on the history of the Prophet, are also recited across mosques in Tamil Nadu.
    • In Kerala a visit to the Vavar mosque is an integral part of the Sabarimala pilgrimage 


  • The significance of these architectures shows the unique features along with cultural harmony existed among different communities of the society.

General Studies – 2

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education, Human Resources.

2) Regulating school fees is one of the most significant legal and political challenges policymakers in India face. Examine why. Also comment why it’s important to regulate fees. (250 Words)

The Hindu


Why this question?

It’s one of the dimension of education sector reforms and regulation.  Though a very specific issue, it’s important.  

Key demand of the question:

TWO – demands – first, give reasons why regulation of school fees poses legal and political  challenges to policymakers.  Secondly your opinion on importance of regulating school fees is needed. 

Directive Word:

Examine: From the article, inspect reasons and present them in answer

Comment: Your opinion on the importance of school fee regulation. Here, your own view is required.  

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write in 2-3 lines why regulation in education, especially regarding fees is a challenging issue but needs to be done. 

In the body, divide answer into TWO main parts to address two demands of the question. In the first part, divide further into LEGAL and POLITICAL challenges. Within these,  write relevant points with examples.  In the Second part, in 3-4 points present your views with facts why regulation of fees is important. 

In the conclusion, write in 1-2 lines about the need for other reforms such as curriculum, teacher training, funding etc make education system robust in the interest of harnessing demographic dividend. 

Related question/Articles: Here , Here , Here



  • India has taken significant strides in making education inclusive through the implementation of right to education act. However the issue of regulation of fees has largely been neglected due to multiple challenges.

Why regulating school fees is difficult?

  • The issue of fee regulation finds itself at the intersection of constitutionally protected freedoms enjoyed by private schools and the need for making quality education affordable and accessible.
  • Article 30of the Indian Constitution upholds the right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.So fee structure is part of its internal affairs
  • Based on Supreme court judgements there is not much clarity on what the terms “surplus”, “reasonable surplus” or “commercialisation of education” entail.
  • The models adopted by the states to regulate  fees are affected by
    • The challenges of weak implementation
    • A lack of capacity
    • Constant legal challenges posed by private school associations.
    • Recently, the Maharashtra government’s decision to cap proposed fee hikes at 15% was widely criticised by schools.
  • The political representatives themselves have the ownership of educational institutions and also the nexus between leaders and educational institutions leads to this issue not being delat ith effectively.
  • Existing legislative efforts have made an incomplete assessment of the deeper problems with financial management and accounting practices adopted by private schools

Why it’s important to regulate fees?

  • Over the years, the issue of skyrocketing tuition fees has confronted parents. 
  • Adding to their burden is the annual and steep hike in tuition fees along with additional costs such as fees for transport, extra-curricular activities and sports. 
  • Regulating fees is important as the vulnerable sections of the community are left out of quality education due to this.
  • In 2010, the Comptroller and Auditor General slammed 25 well-known private schools in Delhi for arbitrary fee hikes. According to the report, money was being collected from parents under false heads, while at the same time, teachers were being underpaid, and accounts misrepresented


Way ahead:-

  • In order to make laws more effective, the solution would be to address the disease of financial mismanagement and misreporting, and not the symptoms.
    • In Modern School v. Union of India (2004), the Supreme Court recommended accounting standards for private schools.
  • Measures such as
    • Regular government supervised audits
    • Generating capacity in State-level Departments of Education
    • Regular inspections
    • Stricter sanctions for fraudulent reporting could be considered.
  • The government would be better advised to focus on improving the quality of education in government schools

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

3) In the light of China’s model of a new order and the U.S.’s commitment to the existing order, do you think India can and should strive to establish its own new order? If yes, what should be its nature and priorities? Analyse. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question?

It’s a very important question. This article provides original perspective on India’s global role. Will be helpful  for essay too

Key demand of the question:

While briefly explaining existing global orders being led by USA and China, you should analyse what order India should strive to create (if it can) and  what should be its nature and priorities in this order. 

Directive Word:

Analyse: Question itself has four parts. Wherever necessary, divide these parts further into sub-parts and write your answer.   

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write in 1-2 lines on unique position India has in providing the world with new global order without antagonising existing power structure. Also write India can and should create new order. 

Briefly explain in 3-4 lines existing orders led by the USA and China. 

In the body, divide answer into FOUR main parts as per question’s demand. First part to explain if India can establish new order; Second for giving reasons why India should; Third for describing nature, and Fourth for explaining priorities. Given article provides hints/pointers to all four dimensions. Emphasise more on sustainability, peace and security. 

In the conclusion, write in 2-3 lines giving a message that India has the potential, will and moral standing to set a new global order in the interest of the world.


  • The world is in transition stage where the influence of US is slowly fading down and rise of China is taking place. At the same time other countries like India, Japan, Germany are also playing a significant role. So it is necessary to analyse India’s role in this new order.

Why India should strive to have a new order:-

  • In the recently concluded ASEAN-India Summit countries in the region questioned the benefits of China’s model of a new order and the U.S.’s commitment to the existing order and considered India as a balancing factor.
  • China’s aggressive approach with respect to South China sea and rejection of the international tribunal award, Belt and road initiative slowly involving in the economic domains of multiple countries is leading to countries feeling insecure.
  • Similarly US approach in the recent years welcoming protectionism, pulling out of important agreements like Paris accord, TPP, planning to build Mexican wall and hard approach towards immigrants is raising concerns amongst the countries.
  • India has already had experience in leadership by playing a significant role in multiple forums like SAARC,BRICS, ASEAN etc.
  • India is one of the fastest economies in the orld with huge demographic dividend.
  • Global equitable sustainable development, which is the basis of the ISA, suggests a ‘third’ way to the inequality and environmental damage characterising the current U.S. and China-led models. This vision follows from India’s call for climate justice, which reframes climate change as a social and not a physical problem. 
  • India with its non alignment policy, nuclear policy has gained enormous trust from countries all over the world


Nature and priorities of this new order :-


  • India needs to push for infrastructure, e-commerce, human capital and technology development to position itself in the emerging global economic structure  which must operate within global ecological limits, and as a cyber global power. 
  • India needs to focus on having good relations with both China and US rather than a confronting approach
  • Balance relations with China :-
    • India and China have together been questioning the injustice of current global rules. They, along with other BRICS members, set up the BRICS Development Bank and established the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement. In 2015, China launched the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank of which India is the second largest shareholder.
    • The RCEP, dominated by China and India, avoids rules on labour, environment and intellectual property rights espoused by the U.S., the European Union, and Japan.
    • Developing countries are playing greater role:-
      • There is an emerging clash in the United Nations, World Trade Organisation, and the climate treaty with the U.S. weakening multilateral rules by redefining what is ‘fair’. 
    • India still lags behind in social indicators like health with one if the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, malnutrition and poor. So India needs to strengthen the development indices as well.
    • India need to limit itself to its own naval conclaves of the littoral states of the Indian Ocean and organise platforms which include China and Japan and allow for the development of Indian Ocean-centric rules of engagement.
    • It will need to strike a balance between being a part of the Quad and partnering with Russia and China
    • India needs to be very proactive in International forums like UN and WTO.
    • India should strengthen the relations with diverse groupings and strengthen regional cooperation.

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests 

4) As two pluralistic democracies with a firm belief in a multipolar world order and in the future of Eurasia, India and France have numerous strategic convergences. Discuss. (250 Words)

The Hindu

Why this question?

It’s in news.  

Key demand of the question:

Discuss the areas where India and France have converging interests and how they contribute to multipolar world order and to the future of Eurasia, France and India.  

Directive Word:

Discuss: Examine various dimensions of this issue and discuss them.   

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write in 2-3 lines how France and India share common interests in the interest of their respective countries and Eurasia as well. Give current affair example of recent visit of France President to India. 

Define what strategic relationship means.

In the body, divide answer into 4-5 dimensions: Security, Trade, Defence etc. Within them discuss why interests in these areas are ‘strategic’ and mutually beneficial. Give facts about recent agreements to support your views. 

In the conclusion, write in 2-3 lines on sustaining and strengthening these bilateral relations without succumbing to domestic developments (political/social).


  • India and France are celebrating 20 years of partnership. The accord signed in 1998 between the two countries is one of the oldest “strategic partnerships” that India has.
  • Both countries share a perspective that the new world order has to be a genuine multipolar world order and bilateral relationship is poised to grow in a multi-faceted manner.

Multiple strategic convergences:-

Though in recent years the term “strategic partnership” has been devalued by the multiplication of such accords, in the Indo-French case, the 1998 momentum has been regularly sustained by new initiatives.


  • The Joint Vision Statement on the Indian Ocean Region is clearly aimed at countering China’s growing presence in the region.
  • India knows it needs to diversify its diplomatic relations if it wants to play a major role in the world. An example: for India’s engagement in the Indo-Pacific region, France could also be a crucial partner.
    • Faced with a growing geopolitical turbulence and more aggressive maritime manoeuvring, India and France are eager to expand their strategic engagement in the Indo-Pacific

2.Environment and climate change:-

  • Environment and climate change are another arena of cooperation, where both India and France have shown a preference for result-oriented action.
  • The International Solar Alliance is the result of such a partnership. The success of the solar alliance could provide the blueprint for future partnerships in other spheres as well.
  • Joint ventures on climate change cooperation are reactions to the U.S. abdicating its role by announcing its pullout from the Paris accord.


  • The strategic depth and maturity of the ties between the two countries is evident from the expansion of the defence cooperation between the two countries.
  • The reciprocal logistics support agreement in defence cooperation, is a signal to Russia and to the U.S.-led alliance that both India and France feel the need to diversify strategic postures beyond their current choices.
  • French companies, such as Dassault Aviation etc are  extremely competitive and the country’s defence industry has a reliable record of production and supply with firms having particular expertise in navigating India’s defence market for instance the contracts for the Rafale aircraft and Scorpene submarines (Project-75).
  • The Rafale fighter deal will soon prove to be a game-changer, partly due to the offset clauses forcing France to reinvest in India 50 per cent of the total deal’s amount, but also for India’s western and northern fronts.
  • Both sides also announced a new phase of cooperation in space security focussed on the maritime domain
  • Strategic ties have been given further boost by the agreement onintelligence-sharing and cooperation on investigations and judicial processes.
  • It would make economic and strategic sense for India to partner with France in more futuristic research projects such as a fifth-generation combat aircraft or an armed drone
  1. Maritime security:-
  • The cooperation between India and France is crucial to maintain the safety of international sea lanes for unimpeded commerce and communications in accordance with international law, for countering maritime terrorism and piracy, for building maritime domain awareness, for capacity building and for greater coordination in regional/international fora in the region.
  • The more substantive pay-off of a nautical pact with France for India is a potential expansion of the Indian Navy’s operational footprint across the Indo-Pacific region.
    • France is the only European power with a strong military presence in both the Indian Ocean (Réunion and Mayotte) and the Pacific (French Polynesia and New Caledonia). Its utility as a catalyst for India’s cross-theatre maritime outreach is immense
  • Shared maritime vision:-
    • seeks to uphold the law of the sea in the Indian Ocean
    • Prevent the kind of military unilateralism that has come to grip the Western Pacific
    • Secure the sea lines of communication
    • Respond to humanitarian disasters and
    • Promote sustainable blue economy


5.Political and international :-

  • By bringing 61 countries into the ISA, India and France are proposing an alternative leadership model for the less developed world.
  • As France emerges as the driving force of a rejuvenated Europe and India increases it global engagement, a partnership between the two makes sense.
  • No major political differences exist between the two countries .France has been constantly supportive of India, particularly so for a permanent seat for India in the UN Security Council,
  • As a leading Western power with shared political values, France is a more credible partner for India in constructing a more equitable world orderthrough a new concert of global powers.


  • Both the countries declared they would ensure cheaper solar energy and increase avenues for financing.
  • $1 trillion is needed to reach the ISA goals by 2030 and India and France have so far committed $1.4 billion and $1.3 billion, respectively
  • France shown comprehension for India’s nuclear policy.
  • It supported  India’s nuclear programme, helped mitigate the effects of post-Pokhran 2 sanctions as well as negotiated the civil nuclear deal with the US.


  • France in contrast to US, Britain, Russia has made a clear choice in favour of India over the alliance with Pakistan military.

Concerns in the relations:-

  • India’s solar power tariffs stand at about Rs. 2.40 a unit and there is little scope to make the domestic industry profitable unless the cost of solar panels and other components are brought down drastically.
  • More thermal power, for which tariffs are higher is being produced than the demand.
  • Negotiations between India and France for the Jaitapur plant have made very slow progress. While the two countries have committed to start construction by end-2018, they have missed deadlines multiple times.
  • Bilateral cooperation in the Indian Ocean Region too is more symbolic than substantive today, and much will depend on how closely the Indian and French navies and intelligence work together in the future.
  • The presumed joint message to Beijing may also be blurred by France’s parallel commitment to the Belt and Road Initiative with China. 
  • India-France trade hovers around $8 billion, which amounts to half of India’s trade with the U.K. or Germany.

Way ahead:-

  • India’s naval leadership would be keen to expand the scope and complexity of the Indo-French bilateral naval exercise VARUNA.
  • A partnership with the French navy in littoral South-East Asia would allow the Indian Navy to influence the security-dynamic of the Pacific, even extending operations to the Southern Pacific Islands.
  • Arianespace of France has been the major provider of launch services to Indian geo-Stationary satellites. Further space cooperation need to be explored.


  • French social security laws, long-term student visas, and the facility to work for two-three years to pay off student loans are some of the areas that need to be worked out so that more effective cooperation can take place between the two countries.

General Studies – 3

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

5) Examine critically the potential of technologies such as artificial intelligence(AI), virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (VR) and big data in transforming education in India. (250 Words)



Why this question?

Impact of technologies on various social sectors is an important topic from exam point of view.  

Key demand of the question:

Objectively examine how these four technologies are going to transform education in India.   

Directive Word:

Critically examine:  You have to write about both failures and successes of these technologies.  

Structure of Answer:

In the introduction write 1-2 lines on the potential of technology to revolutionise education sector in developing countries. Also write about indispensable nature of real world teacher-pupil relationship. 

Define each technology in one line.

In the body, there should be FOUR main part for each technology: Examine their success and failure so far. Give examples of other countries too. Write their demerits and merits. Argue why traditional human touch is necessary and can’t be replaced by technologies. 

In the conclusion, make a point about need for synergy between human interventions and technologies to ensure quality education in schools and colleges. 




  • The learningexperience has evolved as we have moved to a more connected and tech-savvy society  so much so that the global education technology and smart classroom market is forecasted to grow exponentially.
  • According to a recent report brought out by Google and KPMG, the online education in India will possibly grow from its current $247 million and reach $1.96 billion by 2021.

Potential of the following technologies in education:-

  • Artificial intelligence:- Artificial intelligence(AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines.
    • Merits:-
      • Personalization:-
        • AI systems easily adapt to each student’s individual learning needs and can target instruction based on their strengths and weaknesses, meaningless work for teachers and a more meaningful learning experience for students.
      • Tutoring:-
        • Virtual teaching assistants can be used to answer many frequently asked questions.
        • In 2014, a professor from the US Georgia Institute of Technology created a robot teaching assistant that provided responses to students’ online questions for five months without students noticing.
      • With AI teachers could analyse students’ abilities, interests and potential through education profiles, classroom interaction, social media, and find the best learning method (or even career path) for them.
      • Grading:-
        • Machines can compile data about how students performed and even grade more abstract assessments such as essays and teachers can focus on lesson planning and professional development.
        • Experimental results have shown that, using machine learning and predictive modelling, the scores from AI match human grades as much as 85 per cent of the time.
      • Feedback on course quality:-
        • AI can identify instruction gaps in the course content based on student performance on assessments.
      • Meaningful and immediate feedback to students
        • With AI, students can feel comfortable to make the mistakes necessary for learning and receive the feedback they need for improvement.
      • Many teachers stress on how learning also involves physical and multi-sensorial activities. Technology, at present cannot exercise a child’s kinaesthetic abilities, integrate visual and tactile information, and engage global senses.  One interesting AI project in education is pushing this boundary
    • Virtual reality and Augmented reality:-
      • Technically speaking, AR combines the physical reality with the digital world. Virtual reality cannot show the real world, but it creates a completely virtual one, as with video games, or a virtual reality helmet.
      • Augmented Reality, on the other hand, enables users to see the real world with virtual objects, places, and contexts. Thus, AR does not replace the reality, but augment it.
      • Merits:-
        • VR and AR can enhance course material to a point where learning abilities grow multi-fold and students retain much more than they would with just textbooks.
        • In short blasts of 10 or 12 minutes, VR changes the way a student experiences a subject
        • They provide immersive experience and helps one visualize almost accurately, thereby accelerating learning and decision making
        • They enable medical students to acquire knowledge and understanding about the human body by means of interaction within a virtual environment in which no patients are at risk.
        • Eliminates The Language Barrier:-
          • Every possible language can be implemented within the software. Therefore, language will no longer represent a barrier for student’s education plans.
        • By viewing augmented models, the students can gain a better understanding of the concepts they are studying. 
        • With Augment, you do not have to invest in physical materials.  Students can access models from any device at any time.  
        • Students will retain more knowledge for a longer period.
      • Big data:- Big data may involve multiple, simultaneous data sources, which may not otherwise be integrated
        • Merits:-
          • Intelligent tutoring systems such as Carnegie Learning or Third Space Learning are helping teachers break free from the “one size fits all” approach. These one-to-one tutoring platforms leverage Big Data and learning analytics to provide tutors with real-time feedback about their students’ performances, strengths and weaknesses. 
          • Feedback:Big learning data can be informative from a feedback and context perspective.
          • Personalization: 
            • Big Data will change the way we approach e-learning design by enabling developers to personalize courses to fit their learners’ individual needs.
          • Efficiency: 
            • Big Data can save us hours upon hours of time and effort when it comes to realizing goals and the strategies to be achieved.
          • Tracking:
            • Big Data can help understand the real patterns of  learners more effectively by allowing people to track a learner’s experience in an e-learning course.
          • Understanding the learning process: 
            • By tracking Big Data in e-learning, people can see which parts of an assignment or exam were too easy and which parts were so difficult that the student got stuck.



  • While technology has many uses, it cannot understand and fulfil the psychological need of a child. It cannot teach empathy.
  • High costs remain a challenge
  • No single existing AI application is sufficiently advanced to warrant the replacement of a teacher.
  • Lack of flexibility:-
    • Specific software which has been programmed has to work exactly the same.This lack of flexibility can be a disadvantage for most of the students.
  • There may be concerns as to whether or not virtual and augmented reality can harm children’s social development
  • High level of reliance on digital information: 
    • Too much reliance on digital information may cause the decrease of working memory in the brain which in turn hinders the development of brain functions.
  • Addiction To The Virtual World:-
    • The possibility of students getting addicted to their virtual world is also big. 
  • Privacy concerns: 
    • As AR and VR software and applications are developing, it will become easy to gather information on AR and VR stuff from social network services (SNS)
  • Demerits of Big data:-
    • Privacy:
      • As companies like Google have extended the services they offer to include email, document storage and processing, news, Web browsing etc and whatever else might be of interest to their users, they gain access to even more personal data, which they collect, store, and cross-reference.
    • While the quantity of publicly available information about individuals to be found online is vast, it is riddled with inaccuracies.
    • Dehumanization: 
      • Apart from the obvious potential for error and prejudice, this use of profiling is objectionable because it dehumanizes those being judged, as well as those making the judgments.
    • Deception by Numbers: 
      • Many argue that standard tests have led to a culture of constant summative testing, which has become a destructive force in education, demotivating and acting as an end-point and filter, rather than a useful mark of success.
    • Sometimes too much data can be overwhelming. Schools may have a tendency to gather more data than they need and conflicting results can make it difficult to prioritize the information
    • Collecting reliable and accurate data requires discipline. Many people are not comfortable with tracking progress over time.
    • Interpreting data can be a full-time job. Doing it in an actionable way is time-consuming and requires advanced analytical skills


  • There is need for technological advancements to be synergized with traditional way of teaching to have quality education .

General Studies – 4

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problem

6) What do you understand by public service professionalism? What is the essence and values of public service professionalism? Examine. (150 Words)

UN(Page 25)



Scandals involving public officials have captured world attention these days. Precipitated by shady privatization deals, the diversion of aid, widespread public sector patronage, crony capitalism, and campaign financing abuses, people are debating outright corruption and unprofessional behaviour in government.

With the advent of the modern state, government officials have been and are seen as stewards of public resources and guardians of a special trust that citizens have placed in them. In return for this confidence, they are expected to put public interest above self interest.

Public service professionalism:-

Public service professionalism is defined as the overall value that encompasses all other values that guide the public service. They include loyalty, neutrality, transparency, diligence, punctuality, effectiveness, impartiality, and other values

Public service professionalism embraces the notion that those people who join the public service need to be inculcated with shared values and trained in basic skills to professionally carry out their official duties.

Essence of public service professionalism:-

The effectiveness of the public service in the development process ultimately will depend on how public servants can lift people out from extreme poverty, the scourge of conflicts, debilitating diseases, and the growing inequality among the different social strata.

Further, public servants must improve the quality of their services and involve their clients in the process. Their role is a shift from one of authority to one of leadership and facilitating inclusiveness.

To promote professionalism in the public service, the merit principle needs to provide the foundation for all human resources management actions from recruitment and selections for promotions to fair remuneration and disciplinary procedures.

 Moreover, many countries are trying to promote cultural changes among their public servants by turning from the notion of being a faceless bureaucrat, following orders, to adopting a more entrepreneurial, proactive, service-oriented attitude and involving the users of public services. So administrative machinery becomes strengthened .

Public service professionalism and performance become essential parts of a good governance equation. Public service is fundamental to good governance. It is an integral part of democracy because it serves as the neutral administrative structure which carries out the decisions of elected representatives of the people.

Values of Public service professionalism:-

In reflecting upon public service professionalism, there are a number of values and principles to be considered like providing public benefits, enforcing the rule of law, ensuring public responsibility and accountability, setting an example, improving professional performance, and promoting democracy.

Being professional means more than just employing professionals or paying lip service to professional values. It requires a thorough understanding of professionalism and strict adherence to public norms of model behaviour.

In promoting ethical behaviour in the public service, there is a need to address public perception of corruption and the view that though laws (including a Code of Ethics) are in place if they are not enforced.

There is a need to improve performance-based assessment of individual officers, and adopt safeguards that promote accountability while protecting bureaucrats from political meddling. These actions will hopefully contribute to promoting professionalism and ethics in the public service.

Now the primary task of civil servants has shifted from nation building to to public welfare. So we need bureaucrats with a new ethos, more attuned to performances on the ground, and not just policy designs.