Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 19 : 24-31 December, 2017

Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 19 : 24-31 December, 2017


  1. Memristors


These are considered to be a sub-category of resistive RAM, are one of several storage technologies that have been predicted to replace flash memory.

Memristors are important because they are non-volatile, meaning that they retain memory without power. Memristors are a special type of resistive device that can both perform logic and store data.


A memristor is often compared to an imaginary pipe that carries water. When the water flows in one direction, the pipe’s diameter expands and allows the water to flow faster — but when the water flows in the opposite direction, the pipe’s diameter contracts and slows the water’s flow down.

If the water is shut off, the pipe retains its diameter until the water is turned back on. To continue the analogy, when a memristor’s power is shut off, the memristor retains its resistance value.

New developments:

Scientists have developed a new type of neural network chip that can dramatically improve the efficiency of teaching machines to think like humans. The network is called- Reservoir Computing System.

  • Researchers from University of Michigan in the US created their system using memristors, which require less space and can be integrated more easily into existing silicon-based electronics.
  • Researchers used a special memristor that memorises events only in the near history. Inspired by brains, neural networks are composed of neurons, or nodes, and synapses, the connections between nodes.
  • Reservoir computing systems built with memristors can skip most of the expensive training process and still provide the network the capability to remember. This is because the most critical component of the system – the reservoir – does not require training.

For example, a system can process a new photo and correctly identify a human face, because it has learned the features of human faces from other photos in its training set.





  1. Escrow Account

It is a temporary account as it operates until the completion of a transaction process, which is implemented after all the conditions between the buyer and the seller are settled.

  • In real estate, the fund flows for the development of the project from any source is kept in the escrow account and the funds utilised for the same are also generated from the escrow account.
  • Even the buyers of the housing units in a project transfer the home price to the escrow account and the amount is not transferred to the seller until the project is completed.
  • Sometimes the construction linked payments are disbursed to the seller from the escrow account so that the builder has sufficient funds for completion of the project.
  • As per the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016, the promoter of a real estate development firm has to maintain a separate escrow account for each of their projects.

A minimum 70% of the money from investors and buyers will have to be deposited. This money can only be used for the construction of the project and the cost borne towards the land.

Source: Additional Research:


     3.Cost effective and green solutions

  1. The MoEFCC has helped develop cost effective and green solutions for increasing the life of bamboo especially beneficial for bamboo artisans. Cost effective and eco-friendly preservative ZiBOC has been developed.
  2. It also developed an ecofriendly binding material “Jivi Kalp” from the locally available bioresources for Agarbatti making to help in enhancing rural economy. It will bring down the cost of production by approximately 60%. ICFRE has also identified 10 new plant species found good for agarbatti making, which are now being promoted through extension activities.
  3. Lac cultivation techniques on Flemingia semialata (shown in image above), an evergreen native shrub,has been standardized resulting in much higher yield per acre and annual returns as compared to traditionally used Kusum trees for lac cultivation. Farmers have adopted the practice of lac cultivation on this shrub with success.



4.Common Reporting Standard (CRS)


CRS is an information standard for the automatic exchange of tax and financial information on a global level, which the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) developed in 2014. Its purpose is to combat tax evasion.

  • It provides for the exchange of non-resident financial account information with the tax authorities in the account holders’ country of residence. Participating jurisdictions that implement AEOI send and receive pre-agreed information each year, without having to send a specific request.
  • As of 2016, 83 countries had signed an agreement to implement it.
  • The CRS has been criticised for leaving many loopholes open, for how developing countries were not considered and involved and that non-reciprocity agreements were catering to tax havens.

India joined the Multilateral Competent Authority Agreement on Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information in June, 2015,




     5.“Schedule H1 Drug”

You would often see the term “Schedule H1 Drug” printed on some medicines. These are the drugs that are Dangerous to take except in accordance with the medical advice, and these are not to be sold by retail without the prescription of a Registered Medical Practitioner.

  • The Drugs and Cosmetic Rule, 1945 were amended in 2013 to incorporate a new Schedule H1 under the said rules containing 46 drugs which include IIIrd and IVth generation antibiotics, anti TB drugs and certain habit forming drugs for having strict control over the sale of these drugs.


The Drugs falling under Schedule H1 are required to be sold in the country with the following conditions:

  • The supply of a drug specified in Schedule H1 shall be recorded in a separate register at the time of the supply giving the name and address of the prescriber, the name of the patient, the name of the drug and the quantity supplied and such records shall be maintained for three years and be open for inspection.
  • The drug specified in Schedule H1 shall be labelled with the symbol Rx which shall be in red and conspicuously displayed on the left top corner of the label, and shall also be labelled with the following words (the two question statements) in a box with a red border

Q Source: Additional Research:


   6.Long Term Ecological Observatories (LTEO) programme of the MoEFCC

LTEO Programme aims to understand the biophysical and anthropogenic drivers of ecosystem change in the selected biomes and their effects on social- ecological responses through a network of scientific institutions.

  • It also focuses on establishing international observatories linked through a common Eco-center to assess the impact of climate change on global biodiversity
  • First phase of the LTEO Programme includes creating a network of field sites to assess the health of eight different biomes of the country namely; Western Himalaya, Eastern Himalaya, North-Western Arid Zone, Central Indian Forests, Western Ghats, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Jammu & Kashmir and Sundarbans.
  • Activities include experimental work to assess the change of structure and function in the natural ecosystems, identification of patterns and drivers of change in the natural ecosystems by monitoring populations of fresh water fish, birds, mammals, herbivores & carnivores, animal movements, soil processes in forests & grasslands, biophysical climatic variables, etc.