Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 18 : 17-24 December, 2017
- Partyless democracy
Jayprakash Narayan gave this concept. This has also been explained well in the link shared at the Source. A very interesting read.
As per him, the spectrum of Indian political system remained stretched between the nation state on one end and the people on the other extreme.
The intermediary space seems to be completely devoid of any democratic mechanism.
In effect, the self-governing powers of the local bodies were severely compromised.
- As a consequence of centralization of power in bureaucracy may soon lead to the autocracy of the bureaucrats, which is always a threat to autonomy and freedom within any representative democracy.
- Likewise, JP also firmly believed that the centralized authority invariably fosters vast impersonal bureaucracies and huge interest groups that make organic integration impossible.
JP believed the remedy for this problem that the parliamentary democracy is rid with is actually to replace it with a communitarian democracy and decentralized political system.
- He wanted to avoid competitiveness because it is necessarily exploitative; and to achieve instead a cooperative and co-sharing integrated social order in which there would be a true harmonization of interests. Only decentralization of authority involved in the decision making process of all aspects of social development, may genuinely realize the idea of a communitarian democracy that JP believed in.
This communitarian idea of democracy that JP advocated according to him, would be a most participating democracy as it would have the capacity to integrate the entire system from top to bottom.
At the village level this would translate into local self-government idea of Panchayati Raj and at the top it would become a completely partyless democracy.
Source: Additional Research: Q on Partyless democracy: CAPF 2017
- Jain Festivals
They celebrate five major events in the life of a Tirthankar. They are called Kalyanak (auspicious events).
Chyavana Kalyanak – This is the event when the Tirthankar’s soul departs from its last life, and is conceived in the mother’s womb.
Janma Kalyanak – This is the event when the Tirthankar’s soul is born.
Diksha Kalyanak – This is the event when the Tirthankar’s soul gives up all his/her worldly possessions and becames a monk/nun. (Digambar sect does not believe that women can become Tirthankar or be liberated.)
Kevaljnana Kalyanak – This is event when Tirthankar’s soul destroys the four ghati karmas completely and attains the Kevaljnana (absolute knowledge). Celestial angels set Samavsaran for Tirthankars from where he/she delivers the first sermon. This is the most important event for the entire Jain order as the Tirthankar reinstates Jain Sangh and preaches the Jain path of purification and liberation.
Nirvana Kalyanak – This event is when a Tirthankar’s soul is liberated from this worldly physical existence forever and becomes a Siddha. On this day, the Tirthankar’s soul destroys the four aghati karmas completely, and attains salvation, the state of eternal bliss.
Source: Additional Research: Glossary: 11th NCERT: Introduction to Indian Arts
- Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB)
It was constituted under The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.
As enshrined in the act, the board has been mandated to regulate the refining, processing, storage, transportation, distribution, marketing and sale of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas excluding production of crude oil and natural gas so as and to ensure uninterrupted and adequate supply of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas in all parts of the country.
The Board shall-
(A) Protect the interest of consumers by fostering fair trade and competition amongst the entities;
(B) Register entities to-
- market notified petroleum and petroleum products and, subject to the contractual obligations of the Central Government, natural gas;
- establish and operate liquefied natural gas terminals;
- establish storage facilities for petroleum, petroleum products or natural gas exceeding such capacity as may be specified by regulations;
(C) Authorise entities to-
- lay, build, operate or expand a common carrier or contract carrier;
- lay, build, operate or expand city or local natural gas distribution network;
(D) Declare pipelines as common carrier or contract carrier;
(E) Regulate, by regulations,-
- access to common carrier or contract carrier so as to ensure fair trade and competition amongst entities and for that purpose specify pipeline access code;
- transportation rates for common carrier or contract carrier;
- access to city or local natural gas distribution network so as to ensure fair trade and competition amongst entities as per pipeline access code;
(F) In respect of notified petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas-ensure adequate availability;
- ensure display of information about the maximum retail prices fixed by the entity for consumers at retail outlets;
- monitor prices and take corrective measures to prevent restrictive trade practice by the entities;
The Board shall have jurisdiction to adjudicate upon and decide any dispute or matter arising amongst entities or between an entity and any other person on issues relating to these issues.
- Foreign Manufacturers Certification Scheme (FMCS)
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has been operating this scheme.
- Under FMCS, licence is granted to a Foreign Manufacturer for use of Standard Mark on a product that conforms to an Indian Standard.
- The standards may be under mandatory or voluntary certification.
- It has been operating since the year 2000 under BIS Act, 1986 and Rules & Regulations framed there under.
- The Scheme is applicable for grant of licence for all products except Electronics & IT Goods notified by DeitY .
- The licence is granted by Foreign Manufacturers Certification Department (FMCD) located at BIS Headquarters, New Delhi.
- The licence is granted for the products which conform to relevant Indian Standards.
- The AIR shall be an Indian resident. He shall declare his consent to be responsible for compliance to the provisions of the BIS Act executed by or on behalf of the foreign manufacturer in the foreign manufacturer or a senior person of the branch/office shall be nominated as the AIR.
- However, he can be a foreign national if employed in any office/branch of the manufacturer in India but should be resident of India.
- The BIS licence is granted for a location where the product is manufactured and tested as per relevant Indian Standard(s) and Standard Mark is applied on the product conforming to such Indian Standard(s).
Q Source: http://www.bis.org.in/fmcs/FAQs.asp
- Differences between Khurasani and Kashmiri metalwork
Image: A khurasan metal work
Khuransan metalwork were made mainly in Khurasan (northeast Persia), possibly at Nishapur and Herat between the 8th and 13th centuries.
The chief differences between this and the Kashmiri metalwork are the ratio of beaten to cast metal, the lead content of the brass medium, and the frequency of inscriptions, but there are also broad similarities between the techniques of inlay (metal) used in both regions. The two metal works differ in the lead content used in the works.
- In both traditions, linear inlay was usually hammered into place along incised and chiselled lines that were undercut.
- In both Kashmiri and Khurasani inlaid metalwork, therefore, the brass matrix overlies the edges of the silver or copper inlay and holds it in place.
- The broad historical circumstances were conducive to the circulation of Kashmiri metalwork throughout the eastern Islamic lands. Between the ninth and eleventh centuries, Kashmiri bronzes were highly prized in the temples of the Himalayas and plains India.
Through looting and trading also travelled well beyond the confines of the subcontinent: examples have been discovered in Kyrgyzstan and even as far away as a Viking site at Lake Malär in Sweden.
The rise of small quasi-independent kingdoms on the eastern edge of the Daral-Islam during the same period created the right conditions for the circulation of Indian metal sculptures within Iran and Iraq.
Source: Additional Research: Page 104: Chapter 7: 11th NCERT: Introduction to Indian Arts