Insights Learning (I-Learning) TEST 16 : 26 November – 10 December, 2017
- The Restoration Opportunities Assessment Methodology (ROAM)
It is produced by IUCN and the World Resources Institute (WRI).
It provides a flexible and affordable framework for countries to rapidly identify and analyse areas that are primed for forest landscape restoration (FLR).
- Forest landscape restoration (FLR) is an initiative supported by the IUCN that focuses on regaining ecological functionality and enhancing human well-being across deforested or degraded forest landscapes.
- FLR is more than just planting trees – it is restoring a whole landscape to meet present and future needs.
ROAM will also enable countries to define and implement national or subnational contributions to the Bonn Challenge and concurrently allow nations to meet existing international commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the United Nations Framework to Combat Climate Change.
A ROAM assessment can be undertaken by a small team through collaborative engagement with stakeholders, and can deliver the following products:
- Identified priority areas for restoration;
- A shortlist of the most relevant and feasible restoration intervention types across the assessment area;
- Quantified costs and benefits of each intervention type;
- Estimated values of additional carbon sequestered by these intervention types;
- Analysis of the finance and investment options for restoration in the assessment area; and
- A diagnostic of ‘restoration readiness’ and strategies for addressing major policy and institutional bottlenecks.
- Content Delivery Networks (CDN)
CDN is a system of distributed servers (network) that deliver pages and other Web content to a user, based on the geographic locations of the user, the origin of the webpage and the content delivery server.
This service is effective in speeding the delivery of content of websites with high traffic and websites that have global reach. The closer the CDN server is to the user geographically, the faster the content will be delivered to the user. CDNs also provide protection from large surges in traffic.
Servers nearest to the website visitor respond to the request. The content delivery network copies the pages of a website to a network of servers that are dispersed at geographically different locations, caching the contents of the page. This makes the entire process of accessing a website faster.
- Debating on CDN’s benefits Trai has kept content delivery networks (CDN) out of the regulation.
- It was contested by some that CDNs create a highway lane on the internet for specific users and violate net neutrality, but the argument has been rejected by TRAI
- While batting for the right to an open Internet, however, TRAI has been careful to allow some exceptions that allow companies to discriminate between content if it helps them regulate the flow of traffic or offer “specialised services”.
- Indian Coral Reefs Monitoring Network (ICRMN)
In India, the National Committee on Mangroves and Coral Reefs of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOF,F) is responsible for developing strategies for conservation and management of coral reefs and financially supporting their implementation.
Besides the support to regional research and development activities, the MOEF has already formulated the Indian Coral Reef Monitoring Network (ICRMN), a national coordinated programme to be implemented from 1999 onwards.
The objectives of the to monitor the biophysical, environmental and socio-economic changes that natural causes and patterns of resource utilisation entail and use this knowledge for a sustainable management of the reefs.
They are among the most diverse ecosystems in the world – the “Rainforests of the Seas”.
It is estimated that one-third of all the world’s fish species depend on coral for their existence.
- Play an important role in coastal protection by slowing down potentially damaging tidal waves;
- Act as sensitive indicators of water quality.
- Are Considered ‘medicine chests’ of the future. Scientists believe that their organisms could well hold the key to cures for cancer, and coral skeletons are already being used as bone substitutes in reconstructive bone surgery.
Phytoplankton need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, just like trees.
- Carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere dissolves in cold ocean water.
- During a phytoplankton bloom, which can span hundreds of miles and be seen from space, the tiny organisms take up the dissolved CO2 and convert it to organic carbon – a form that animals can use as food to grow, the essential base of the marine food web.
- Then when the phytoplankton cell dies, it sinks to the ocean floor, taking with it the carbon in its body.
Diatoms, the largest type of phytoplankton algae, have declined more than 1 percent per year from 1998 to 2012 globally, with significant losses occurring in the North Pacific, North Indian and Equatorial Indian oceans.
- The reduction in population may reduce the amount of carbon dioxide drawn out of the atmosphere and transferred to the deep ocean for long-term storage.
- Because they are larger than other types of phytoplankton, diatoms can sink more quickly than smaller types when they die.
- A portion will circulate back to the surface because of ocean currents, and, like fertilizer, fuel another phytoplankton bloom. But the rest will settle on the sea floor miles below, where they will accumulate in sediment.
- Sramana Tradition
The term refers to several Indian religious movements parallel to but separate from the historical Vedic religion. The sramaṇa tradition includes Jainism, Buddhism, and others such as the Ajivikas, Ajnanas and Carvakas.
- Sramaṇas held a view of samsara as full of suffering (Dukka). They practiced Ahimsa and rigorous ascetism. They believed in Karma and Moksa and viewed rebirth as undesirable.
- Vedics, on the contrary believe in the efficacy of rituals and sacrifices, performed by a privileged group of people, who could improve their life by pleasing certain Gods.
Sramanism, emphasizing thought, hard work and discipline, was one of the three strands of Hindu philosophy. The other two included Brahmanism, which drew its philosophical essence from Mimamsa.
Bhakti movement was not a part of the Sramana tradition.
Q Source: Page 19: 11th NCERT: Introduction to Arts
- Nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ)
A nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ) is defined by the United Nations as an agreement which a group of states has freely established by treaty or convention that bans the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area. It is recognized as such by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Article VII of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) states: “Nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories“.
NWFZs have a similar purpose to, but are distinct from, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons to which most countries including five nuclear weapons states are party.
The NWFZ definition does not count countries or smaller regions that have outlawed nuclear weapons simply by their own law.
- NWFZs do not cover international waters (where there is freedom of the seas) or transit of nuclear missiles through space (as opposed to deployment of nuclear weapons in space).
- Only 39% of the world’s population lives in NWFZs, while the nine nuclear weapons states have 28% of the world’s land area and 46% of the world population.
- Today there are five zones covering continental or subcontinental groups of countries (including their territorial waters and airspace), and three governing Antarctica, the seabed, and outer space which are not part of any state.
- The Antarctic, seabed, and space zones preceded all but one of the zones on national territories.
Source: Additional Research: Page 362: 12th Standard TN History Textbook