SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 NOVEMBER 2017
SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 NOVEMBER 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
Topic: World History
Introduction :- 9 November has been the date of several important events in German history. The term Schicksalstag (Day of Fate) has been occasionally used by historians and journalists since shortly after World War II, but its current widespread use started with the events of 1989 when virtually all German media picked up the term.
There are five notable events in German history that are connected to 9 November: the execution of Robert Blum in 1848, the end of the monarchies in 1918, the Hitler putsch attempt in 1923, the Nazi antisemitic pogroms in 1938 and the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989.
- 1848: After being arrested in the Vienna revolts, left liberal leader Robert Blumwas executed. The execution can be seen as a symbolic event or forecast of the ultimate crushing of the German March Revolution in April/May 1849.
- 1918: Monarchyin Germany ended when Kaiser Wilhelm II was dethroned in the November Revolution by his chancellor Max von Baden, who published the news of abdication before the emperor actually abdicated.
- 1923: The failed Beer Hall Putsch, from 8 to 9 November, marks an early emergence and provisional downfall of the Nazi Partyas an important player on Germany’s political landscape. Without sufficient preparation Hitler simply declared himself leader in Munich, Bavaria.
- 1938: In what is today known as Kristallnacht(or The Night of Broken Glass), from 9 to 10 November, synagogues and Jewish property were burned and destroyed on a large scale. More than 400 Jews were killed or driven into suicide. The event demonstrated that the antisemitic stance of the Nazi regime was not so ‘moderate’ as it had appeared partially in earlier years. After 10 November ca. 30,000 Jewish people were arrested; hundreds of them died in concentration camps or died afterwards.
- 1989: The fall of the Berlin Wallended German separation and started a series of events that ultimately led to German reunification and the Fall of Communism in eastern Europe. November 9 was considered for the date for German Unity Day, but as it was also the anniversary of Kristallnacht, this date was considered inappropriate as a national holiday.
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
2) The intention to raise public expenditure to strengthen India’s healthcare have been repeated in the in many official plans with little or no action. Identify the sources of funding that can help India spend more on healthcare. Also discuss in addition to more funds, what else is needed to address health challenges in future. (150 Words)
Introduction :- Human endeavor creates value. Healthier people endeavor more. Thus, health is a creator of value, of prosperity. Despite of this fact India spends only 1.3 % of it’s GDP expenditure on health. Considering the population of 125 crore and out of pocket expenditure of poor as above 655 this is a crisis situation in Indian healthcare.
The stories like an impoverished man in Odisha who carried his wife’s body for 12 km after the hospital where she died allegedly due to failure to provide an ambulance, stories of hospitals full of rats, death of hundreds of children in Gorkhapur hospitals etc. shows the miserable picture of Indian healthcare scenario.
Sources of funding that can help India spend more on healthcare and what more needs to be done:-
- Country-by-country estimates of revenue loss from international corporate tax avoidance are available from several studies. The leaks of Panama Papers, Paradise papers etc. shows this money can be used to fund universal health coverage. India is estimated to be losing 2.34 per cent of GDP due to corporate tax avoidance.
- To achieve universal health coverage, India must increase health spending as a percentage of GDP through general taxation and additional private sector payments.
- The diversity of funding models that the US and Singapore follow to fund their healthcare can definitely be a better fit as it provides greater flexibility, choice and innovation.
- The U.S. relies on private insurance, paid for mostly by employers: almost half of the supersized health spending (16 per cent of GDP) is financed by tax money for the care of the old and the very poor.
- Social insurance in countries like Germany and Netherlands provide financial protection and offset high out of pocket payments.
- The increase in spending should be accompanied by changes in how that money is spent. Over time, 70% of public spending should be on primary care considering the population base.
- Government efforts like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) , enhancing health expenditure to 2.5% of GDP, moving towards universal health coverage need to be accelerated.
- Tapping resources from Corporate social responsibility, civil society organisations like Bill and Melinda gates foundations etc. is important.
Recommendations of Joseph Bhore Committee were noteworthy in this regard. K. Sujatha Rao, former Union Health Secretary, in her book, Do We Care? India’s Health System, says that with the current level of under-funding for health, we will fail to meet the National Health Policy 2017 targets. According to CDC estimates, there is a $10 return on investment for every $1 spent on childhood vaccinations, of which Peru and China are good examples. These high out of pocket payments are a major trigger for pushing people into poverty – 55 million Indians fell into poverty because of their healthcare spending during 2011-12. This shows the need to enhance public health expenditure in India.
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
Introduction :- Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person’s daily functioning. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation. A person’s consciousness is usually not affected. A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person’s usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging. These diseases also have a significant effect on a person’s caregivers.
Dementia in India :-
According to recent published figures, over four million Indians above 60 have the condition, which is around 3.7 percent of that population. Approximately, one out of every 16 households with an elder has someone with dementia.
Urgent need of National Dementia policy :-
- Alzheimer’s & Related Disorders Society of India (ARDISI) advocated the need for more attention to the condition, given that the number of people with dementia is expected to rise to about 7 million by 2020 and rapidly escalate to reach 13 to 14 million by 2050.
- As per the India Dementia Report 2010 about Rs 43,000 annually per family is spent to take care of a person affected by dementia. The cost is high for many.
- Current treatments merely address the symptoms and not the underlying biological cause of the disease. With this lack of awareness, lack of specialized doctors make it necessary to formulate a national policy.
- Rising tendencies of old age family problems in India make it necessary to have adequate services for Dementia’s treatment with sensitivity towards the care-givers, who are mostly from the family and ageing themselves.
- Support from the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment becomes crucial in India as the disease has many social aspects which need awareness and service facilities at the community level, legal provisions to safeguard and protect the rights, dignity and respect of those affected and in minimising economic costs and the burden of the disease, building public campaigns and dementia-friendly initiatives are necessary.
- The Global Plan of Action on the Public Health Response to Dementia 2017-2025, adopted by 194 countries of the WHO, calls for a national dementia policy, recognition of human rights of people with dementia and the potential of dementia friendly-communities to give those rights practical effect.
- The 2011 World Alzheimer Report said that while there is evidence that early interventions are effective, an astonishing 28 million of the world’s 36 million dementia patients remain undiagnosed
An important aspect of action in dealing with dementia is to work towards risk reduction of the disease. The non-communicable diseases plan of action should include building resources for strengthening brain health by associating it with physical and spiritual health. Above all, it is important that there be focus on supporting people with dementia to maintain their independence as much as they can and retain their inclusion in families, community and society. Stop discrimination against them. Hospitals like NIMHANS, Bangalore are an excellent resource for getting dementia treatment and care. Such institutions can be roped in together once a national policy is in place.
Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act; powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Introduction :- An election exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations. Unlike an opinion poll, which asks for whom the voter plans to vote, or some similar formulation, an exit poll asks for whom the voter actually voted. A similar poll conducted before actual voters have voted is called an entrance poll. Pollsters – usually private companies working for newspapers or broadcasters – conduct exit polls to gain an early indication as to how an election has turned out, as in many elections the actual result may take hours or even days to count.
The question of exit polls has divided the media and the Election Commission (EC) for at least two decades now. Election commission used various ways to ban exit polls. Recently it has now invoked Section 188 of the Indian Penal Code. It criminalises disobedience of the order of public officials and institutions. Earlier, the EC had invoked Sections 126A and B of the Representation of People Act, which prohibit actions that sway voting while election are in progress.
However it is argued that banning exit poll goes against the freedom of speech and expression :-
- In a democracy like India every voter has right to express his/ her opinions. People can’t be banned to share their opinions.
- It also curb the freedom of press to conduct polls to gauge the mood of people in country for election.
- It may influence the opinions of other people hence subconsciously restricting, diverting their freedom of expression.
However they have much Importance and hence should not be banned:-
- Exit polls are also used to collect demographicdata about voters and to find out why they voted as they did. Since actual votes are cast anonymously, polling is the only way of collecting this information.
- Exit polls have historically and throughout the world been used as a check against, and rough indicatorof, the degree of election fraud. Some examples in global politics of this include the Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004, and the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004.
- They are used to command a mandateas well as to determine whether or not a particular political campaign was successful or not.
- The distribution of votes is not even across different polling stations, and also varies at different times of day. As a result, a single exit poll may give an imperfect picture of the national vote. Instead, the exit poll is primarily used to calculate swingand turnout.
What is the international practice?
- Sixteen European Union countries ban reporting of opinion polls, with ban timeframes ranging from a full month to just 24 hours before polling day.
- Italy, Slovakia and Luxembourg have a ban of more than 7 days.
- France – The French ban has been reduced to 24 hours ahead of voting day.
- UK – There are no restrictions on publishing results of opinion polls — however, results of exit polls can’t be published until the voting is over.
- US – Media coverage of opinion polls is regarded as an integral part of free speech in elections, and publication is allowed at any time.
- The only restriction that exists — not reporting likely outcomes from exit polls before voting is over on election day — is one that news organisations commissioning the polls voluntarily impose upon themselves.
Way forward :-
Regulation is required than outright ban. A model of professional and ethical rules, which market researchers follow, already exists in the European Society for Opinion and Market Research (ESOMAR), and the World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR). The guidelines on opinion polls and published surveys of these organisations set out the responsibilities of researchers to conduct opinion polls in a professional and ethical way. Such practices can be followed.
Topic: Accountability; Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to education
Introduction :- A quality education is the foundation of sustainable development. As a policy intervention, education is a force multiplier which enables self-reliance, boosts economic growth by enhancing skills, and improves people’s lives by opening up opportunities for better livelihoods. Hence achieving Sustainable Developmental Goal 4 is important.
UNESCO’s new Global Education Monitoring Report 2017/18 is a comprehensive and nuanced look at the role of accountability in global education systems in the effort to achieve the vision of the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4: to ensure inclusive and quality education for all, and to promote lifelong learning.
The report points out that providing universal quality education depends not on the performance of teachers alone, but is the shared responsibility of several stakeholders: governments, schools, teachers, parents, the media and civil society, international organisations, and the private sector.
SDG 4 :-
Role of accountability :-
- In 2014, a UNESCOreport revealed that around 250 million children around the world are in school but not learning the basics. Accountable schooling will ensure that productive years of students will not go waste.
- The curriculum regulation and it’s scientific up gradation, maintenance of competitive syllabus and testing patterns, gauging the new trends in interregional and international area in education is important to maintain necessary standards in education.
- Accountability in apex educational institutions like UGC, Medical Council of India etc. is utmost important to ensure quality education system in country.
- Accountability on parts of school administration in terms of maintain quality libraries, laboratories, extra curricular infrastructure, regular quality teaching staff etc. is important. This will enhance the output of educational standards.
- Accountable parents will make it easy for students to sustain in schooling, in competition and in constantly pushing the learnability of children.
- Governmental systems must be accountable to ensure that their investment is being utilized efficiently and effectively. The assessment of programmes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Mid day meal, Rashtriya Ucchatar Shikasha Abhiyan must be done regularly with periodic improvements. This will be prudential in future.
A culture of accountability makes a good system great and a great system unstoppable. Hence accountability of all stakeholders is necessary to achieve the Sustainable Developmental Goal 4.
Topic: Environmental pollution
6) Analysis of the Central Pollution Control Board’s AQI bulletin archives has revealed that the air quality has clearly deteriorated across the northern-Gangetic plain. Examine the causes and consequences. (200 Words)
Introduction :- The northern Indian plains have again come into focus as one of the globe’s most-polluted regions, with nine of the world’s 20 most polluted cities in the 2016 WHO urban air pollution database from this swathe of land.
It’s a confluence of factors to make this region so foul with geography, climate, population, agricultural practices as well as fossil fuel emissions all playing a part.
Causes of air quality deterioration in Northern plain :-
- Geography :- A major reason for high pollution in the Indo-Gangetic plains is its geography. Located next to the Himalayas, this is a wind convergence zone which transports pollution from other places into these region.
- Weather and seasons :- The convergence factor shows up the most in winters, when the region sees spells of dense fog due to cold winds coming from the west. Fog traps pollutants, leading to sharp deterioration in air quality. Cold winds also leads to `inversion’, wherein pollutants are trapped near the surface.
- Population :- The northern plains also have among the highest population densities in the world. This translates to higher pollution from human activities.
- Unsustainable practices :- The other major source of pollution is the practice of crop burning. During winters, soot from these fires hang in the air longer. The region also sees high use of coal and wood, which are very polluting, for cooking.
- Soil :- The region’s fertile alluvial soil, which attracted people to this belt, also contributes to its pollution. Alluvial soil is highly dusty when dry.
- Low rainfall :- Many parts of this region do not get much rain — the average for Delhi is 40 days in a year -which is why these places are very dusty.
- These natural causes have combined with growing vehicular and industrial emissions to make the plains the pollution hotspot of the world.
Consequences of high pollution in northern Indian belt :-
- Health effects :- Air pollution is a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseasesand health conditions including respiratory infections, heart disease, COPD, stroke and lung cancer. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, asthma and worsening of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death.
- Mortality :- The World Health Organizationestimated in 2014 that every year air pollution causes the premature death of some 7 million people worldwide. India has the highest death rate due to air pollution. India also has more deaths from asthma than any other nation according to the World Health Organization. In December 2013 air pollution was estimated to kill 500,000 people in China each year. Most of these deaths belong to north India.
- Agricultural effects :- In India in 2014, it was reported that air pollution by black carbonand ground level ozone had cut crop yields in the most affected areas by almost half in 2010 when compared to 1980 levels.
- Economic effects :- Air pollution costs the world economy $5 trillion per year as a result of productivity losses and degraded quality of life, according to a joint study by the World Bankand the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington.
- Acid Rain:Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. Acid rain is causing great damage to human, animals and crops.
Topic: Indian economic growth and planning
7) In terms of long-run economic prospects, do you think India will be ahead of China in near future? Substantiate your views emphasising on the role of India’s democratic and secular credentials. (250 Words)
Introduction :- The estimate that India is growing at 7.1% and China growth has shrink to 7.6 % by IMF and recognition of India as a bright spot in world economy has created many hopes and debates about India overtaking China in near future. It is perceived that the difference between the political systems of two countries play important role in determining their economic
However the holistic picture needs to be taken into account :-
- Even if India’s economy is growing faster than China, it does not mean that India has become economically as powerful as China. While India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was $2.5 trillion in 2016, China’s GDP is nearly five times of that, at $11.4 trillion.
- India might overtake China in terms of population by 2022, but to overtake its per capita GDP, the Indian economy needs to grow more than 30 percent annually.
- These calculations supported the ill-informed thesis that it is easier to achieve economic growth in a top-down command economy like China than a messy democratic system like India.
- There is no clear consensus on casual relationship between democracy and economic development. Several impoverished countries like Chile, Singapore achieved rapid growth under authoritarian regimes while many autocrats brought economic miseries to their people like Congo, Mobutu, North Korea etc.
- Most of the rich countries in the West are developed democracies.
- At the same time, some democracies have paid the price for the irresponsible macroeconomic policies of their ruling elite, including Columbia, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
- Thus it is prudent not to argue about the political system and economic progress relationship. What is indeed necessary for an economy to grow is an enabling internal as well as external security environment.
The reality :-
- The common narrative has been that China has beaten India in its government’s ability to aggressively invest in infrastructure, encourage more foreign direct investment, build city-like special economic zones, increase access to credit and promote trade with a vengeance.
- For India, the problems were achieving unity in diversity and accommodating various languages and religions in a democratic set up. On the contrary, China’s hard state enabled it to pursue a single goal with determination and mobilise maximum resources to achieve its goals.
- The primary difference between the performance of the Indian and Chinese economy has been the faster growth of capital stock in China.
- The problem in India has always been implementation. In a noisy political democracy, problems are compounded by the existence of multiple political parties with no coherent approach to development.
India has an excellent chance of catching up with China if it can increase its labour force participation rate (particularly women), increase the average level of education, improve the quality of its labour force through special training programmes, reduce impediments to let foreign capital participate in its development process, design policies to cultivate a culture of entrepreneurship, and reduce corruption at all levels.
Topic: Environmental pollution
Introduction :- The Great Delhi smog is the ongoing sever air pollution in Delhi. Almost 99% of Delhi population lives in areas of above normal air pollution. The PM particles crossed 1000 mark recently. This shows the urgency required in tackling the air pollution problems.
A WHO survey of over 1,600 cities ranked the national capital as the most polluted. Air pollution was 40 times higher than the permissible safety limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and approximately 15 times higher than the Indian standards.
Technology can help in numerous ways :-
Preventive measures with help of technology :-
- Stubble burning in neighboring states is one of the most important factor in Delhi pollution. It is important to reduce the paddy crop’s duration, which, in turn, increases the farmer’s time to prepare for the sowing of the next wheat crop. Breeding for a reduced duration can help extend the planting window for wheat.
- To find alternative to stubble burning the most viable technology seems to be what is called Turbo Happy Seeder (THS). This is a tractor-mounted machine that basically cuts and lifts the standing stubble, drills the wheat seeds into the bare soil, and deposits the straw over the sown area as a mulch cover.
- Other sources of pollution like power plants needs technological intervention in the form of modern chimneys, washing of coal before it’s use, policies for ash collection and disposal in order not to release them into atmosphere.
- Big data analysis can be helpful in order to understand the pattern of pollution in Delhi. To know the favorable area and conditions and to take necessary steps then can be done with big data analysis.
Protective and adaptive technological measures :-
- Vacuum cleaning of roads regularly, use of sprinklers, sprayers systems to settle dust in roadways etc. will be helpful to curb dust getting into atmosphere. Spray water from helicopters or aircraft to tackle dust pollution in emergency can be explored.
- Switching over to green technologies, green energy, making the green buildings, reducing carbon footprints by institutions for ex. Indira Gandhi airport became zero carbon emitting airport recently.
- Air purifiers, portable and car air purifiers, air quality monitoring devices can be installed in homes in order to protect people in emergency cases.
The sever air pollution problem faced by Delhi indicates the gross faults in urban planning and irresponsible attitude by government agencies and people. Increasingly moving towards a green ways of living, interstate co-operation, de-urbanization, developing satellite towns, developing public transport systems, shifting industries outside cities, adopting international practices like promoting bicycles, odd-even policy, car pooling, parking rules etc. is the way out
Introduction :- The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to restore 150 million hectares of the world’s degraded and deforested lands by 2020. It was hosted and launched by Germany and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Bonn on 2 September 2011, in collaboration with the Global Partnership on Forest/Landscape Restoration and targets delivery on the Rio Conventions and other outcomes of the 1992 Earth Summit.
- Efforts at world level are being made :- As at 2013 over 20 million hectares of land had been pledged for restoration from countries including Brazil, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Rwanda, and the United States. South Korea, Costa Rica, China, Rwandaand Brazil have embarked on successful landscape restoration programmes.
- Benefits to rural communities :- The IUCN estimates that fulfilling the goals of the Bonn challenge would create approximately $84 billion per year in net benefits that could positively affect income opportunities for rural communities. It is also estimated that a reduction of the current carbon dioxideemissions gap by 11-17% will be achieved by meeting the challenge
- Supplementary targets :- The Bonn Challenge is not a new global commitment but rather a practical means of realizing many existing international commitments, including the CBD Aichi Target 15, the UNFCCC REDD+ goal, and the Rio+20 land degradation neutrality goal.
- Comprehensive impact :- It is an implementation vehicle for national priorities such as water and food security and rural development while contributing to the achievement of international climate change, biodiversity and land degradation commitments.
INDIA BONN CHALLENGE :-
- India made a Bonn Challenge in 2015. It was decided to place into restoration 13 million hectares (Mha) of degraded land by 2020 and an additional 8 Mha by 2030 which will have potential climate benefit of 2 GtCO2 sequestered.
How can India achieve Bonn Challenge :-
- India needs to shun the attitude of large scale plantation and needs to design its tree-based programmes better to meet climate goals :- Traditional and current reforestation practices are inadequate to reverse the currents of increasing deforestation and desertification. Small-scale grass roots development projects are the future for development in India.
Ø Agroforestry: The nation practices at least 35 types of agroforestry models that combine different trees that provide timber, fruits, fodder, fuel and fertilizers with food crops.
Ø A simple, income generating, and self-promoting reforestation system called Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) has been developed at Maradi, Niger. It is a low-cost land restoration technique used to combat poverty and hunger amongst poor subsistence farmers by increasing food and timber production and resilience to climate extremes.
Ø In India, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development’s (NABARD’s) ‘Wadi’ model and the Foundation for Ecological Security’s re-greening of village commons project are good examples of tree-based interventions which are proving to have great value in terms of cost-effectiveness as well as the range of benefits they deliver to communities.
- Ø It is also important to have in place a performance monitoring system to quantify tree survival rates and the benefits to communities. This can be achieved through a combination of remote sensing, crowd sourced, ground-level monitoring with support from communities and civil society organisations.
- Ø A tool called the Restoration Opportunities Assessment Methodology (ROAM) is being used in 40 countries to find the best methods for landscape restoration. The tool includes rigorous analysis of spatial, legal and socio-economic data and draws on consultations with key stakeholders to determine the right type of interventions. In India, this tool is being piloted in Uttarakhand and Madhya Pradesh.
India has the policy framework, the political will and financing to endorse landscape restoration. What we really need now is innovation and imagination to build replicable and scalable models with a participatory approach to achieve the country’s climate goals through landscape restoration.
Topic: Ethical concerns and dilemmas
10) You are aspiring to become an IAS officer and you have cleared various stages and now you have been selected for the personal interview. On the day of the interview, on the way to the venue you saw an accident where a mother and child who happen to be your relatives were badly injured. They needed immediate help.
What would you have done in such a situation? Justify your action. (250 Words)
Introduction :- The above case study shows ethical dilemma on part of aspiring civil servant. She has invested a whole lot of efforts of one year into preparation and another into reaching the stage of interview. At such most important and crucial phase she has to risk all this to save the injured mother and child who happens to be her relatives.
Cources of action :-
- Rushing to the accident spot immediately.
- As the case shows that the victims are mother and child and they need immediate help.
- Arraging the first aid if possible, providing them with water etc and calling the nearby municiple persons, doctors, ambulance, police their relatives immediately.
- Immediate attention is required to minimise the impact of accident and fast shifting to hospital will save further loss.
- exploring the options for taking the injured to hospital. If nothing can be done taking them to hospital by herself.
The aspirant in case need to take the victims to hospital must ensure the treatment and doctors action immediately. She must get along with some relatives and concerned persons while on the way to hospital so that she can immediately give the responsibility of injured to them and can leave for interview as soon as possible. While leaving for interview it’s important that she should collect some necessary proofs, documents from hospital authority, police about the accident and course thereafter.
She then must appear to interview place. If everything is in time there is no need to worry. In case the interview time has been passed she must inform the administration there about the unfortunate incidence along with the necessary proofs. If chance given she can convince the UPSC interview board members about the delay.
- Empathy is the most important value of a civil servants and it should be same about an aspirant. If empathy is there nothing else matters. The immediate help to injured who is a mother and a child shows this value of the aspirant.
- Value of life is precious. India faces lacks of road accident deaths every year. Half of these deaths can be prevented if victims are rushed to hospital within one hour of accidents. However the resistance of viewers, apathy of people becomes barrier here. Hence even supreme court which recognized this problem came out with Good Samrtian rules. This justifies the actions of the aspirant.
- She risked her interview means she bended the timing rules if one see in reality. Rules are made for normal situations and not for emergency situations. Even working civil servant can violate rules and regulations in adversity. They can be set free and not guilty when they present the necessary explanation for their actions. The same is being done by the aspirant.