I-Learning Test 8 : 10 – 24 September 2017
- Concept of a ‘Seed Village’, National Seed Grid and Policy
A seed village is one wherein trained group of fanners are involved in production ‘of seeds of various crops and cater to the needs of themselves, fellow fanners of the village and fanners of neighbouring villages in appropriate time and at affordable cost is called “a seed village”.
Major focus areas are:
- Organizing seed production in cluster (or) compact area
- Replacing existing local varieties with new high yielding varieties.
- Increasing the seed production
- To meet the local demand, timely supply and reasonable cost
- Self-sufficiency and self-reliance of the village
- Increasing the seed replacement rate
This allows seed to be available at the door steps of farms at an appropriate time and at an affordable cost. It also facilitates fast spread of new cultivars of different kinds.
The National Seeds Policy, 2002
It envisages timely availability of quality seeds, compulsory registration of seeds, quality assurance, promotion of the seeds industry, abolition of licences for seed dealers, import of best quality seeds and creation of Seed Banks and National Seeds Grid.
The policy seeks to encourage investment in research and development to ensure availability of high yielding varieties of seeds.
National Seeds Grid
It was set up by linking all seeds producing agencies the national and particularly to ensure that seeds are available on demand by States or farmers. The Grid would provide district wise information regarding the requirement, production and distribution of seeds through a computerized network.
- Centralized Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS)
CPGRAMS is an integrated application across all the ministries and departments of GoI and a standardized web based solution.
This provides online access to all citizens, including those in Armed Forces personnel, to report their grievances. The new system allows the Ministry to monitor the grievances and ensure their time-bound redressal.
- Grievances can be received online, by post and by hand.
- A local language interface of CPGRAMS has been provided to the state governments.
- A Public Grievances Call Centre has also been set up for reminding the Ministries and Departments concerned receiving bulk of the grievances in the Central Government, for expediting action on grievances pending on CPGRAMS for more than two months.
Source: PIB Features: (Release ID :170528)
- Largest artificial island in India
Willingdon Islands is the largest artificial island in India and forms a part of the city of Kochi.
- The idea of developing a new port in Kochi was first felt by Sir Robert Bristow, who was appointed by Lord Willingdon, then-the Governor of Madras Presidency, to create a new modern port on the West coast of India at Kochi.
- Much of the present Willingdon Island was claimed from the Lake of Kochi, filling in dredged soil around a previously existing, but tiny, natural island.
- It is a major port in India, and a landmark in the city of Kochi. Willingdon Island is connected to the mainland by Venduruthy Bridge, which has road and railway links.
- The headquarters of the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy is located on the island. Cochin shipyard is also located near this island. It is also a major tourist centre.
Source: Additional Research: Page 13: 8th NCERT Resource & Development
Members of this phylum are commonly known as the sac fungi. They are the largest phylum of Fungi.
The ascomycetes are a monophyletic group, i.e. it contains all descendants of one common ancestor.
- This group is of particular relevance to humans as sources for medicinally important compounds, such as antibiotics and for making bread, alcoholic beverages, and cheese, but also as pathogens of humans and plants.
- Familiar examples of sac fungi include morels, truffles, brewer’s yeast and baker’s yeast, dead man’s fingers, and cup fungi.
- The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens (loosely termed “ascolichens”) such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota.
- Information Technology Act, 2000
It is the primary law in India dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce. It is based on the United Nations Model Law on Electronic Commerce 1996 (UNCITRAL Model) recommended by the General Assembly of United Nations
- It provides that rules are to be framed to prescribe modes or methods for encryption
- It gives out a legal framework for electronic governance by giving recognition to electronic records and digital signatures
- It defines cybercrimes and prescribed penalties for them. It established a Cyber Appellate Tribunal to resolve disputes arising from this new law.
- It also introduced penalties for cyber terrorism and voyeurism.
- The formations of Controller of Certifying Authorities was directed by the Act, to regulate issuing of digital signatures.
The Act also amended various sections of Indian Penal Code, 1860, Indian Evidence Act, 1872, Banker’s Book Evidence Act, 1891, and Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 to make them compliant with new technologies
Source: In news due to Draft National Encryption Policy release
- Consumers international (CI)
It is a not-for-profit company, a registered charity and a confederation of consumer groups fighting for consumer rights.
- The organisation was first established in 1960 as the International Organisation of Consumers Unions (IOCU) by national consumer organisations who wanted to create cross-border campaigns and share knowledge.
- CI has over 250 member organisations in 120 countries.
- These members include independent consumer organisations and government organisations.
- About two-thirds of member organisations are in economically developing countries, the other third in industrialised countries.
Source: World Consumer Rights Day 2017: Consumers International (CI) organises WCRD
The “doldrums” is a popular nautical term that refers to the belt around the Earth near the equator where sailing ships sometimes get stuck on windless waters.
- Known to sailors around the world as the doldrums, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, (ITCZ), is a belt around the Earth extending approximately five degrees north and south of the equator.
- Here, the prevailing trade winds of the northern hemisphere blow to the southwest and collide with the southern hemisphere’s driving northeast trade winds.
Due to intense solar heating near the equator, the warm, moist air is forced up into the atmosphere like a hot air balloon.
- As the air rises, it cools, causing persistent bands of showers and storms around the Earth’s midsection.
- The rising air mass finally subsides in what is known as the horse latitudes, where the air moves downward toward Earth’s surface.
Because the air circulates in an upward direction, there is often little surface wind in the ITCZ. That is why sailors well know that the area can becalm sailing ships for weeks. And that’s why they call it the doldrums.