I-Learning Test 10 : 01 – 08 OCTOBER, 2017
- Operation IceBridge
IceBridge is a 2009–2018 NASA mission that aims to monitor changes in polar ice from a fixed-wing aircraft.
It is a temporary replacement for the ICESat satellite until the ICESat-2 launch in 2018.
- Since 2003 NASA has used a satellite, ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), for observing polar ice.
- ICESat was retired in 2009 due to a technical malfunction, leaving NASA without a satellite dedicated to ice observance.
- NASA therefore introduced the IceBridge program which utilizes an aircraft to make similar measurements.
- IceBridge flights began in 2009. There are tradeoffs to using an aircraft instead of a satellite.
- One drawback is that a satellite can observe a far wider area. Also, satellites take measurements full-time, while IceBridge aircraft measurements are limited to annual campaigns that are several weeks long.
- Aircraft, however, have the advantages of being able to carry more instruments and target and focus on scientifically interesting areas instead of just flying a fixed path.
In international law, a condominium is a political territory in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium or rights
- One example is Antarctica which is a condominium governed by the Antarctica Treaty system.
- Another example is Austria and Germany consider themselves, together with Switzerland, to hold a tripartite condominium (albeit on different grounds) over the main part of Lake Constance (without its islands).
States can exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into ‘national’ zones.
A major problem, and the reason so few of such territories have existed, is the difficulty of ensuring co-operation between the sovereign powers; once the understanding fails, the status is likely to become untenable.
- Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
Also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, or the Madrid Protocol, it is a part of the Antarctic Treaty System.
- Any activity relating to mineral resources, other than scientific research, shall be prohibited.
- Environmental assessment for all activities, including tourism, shall be done.
- Member states should be prepared for emergency response actions in the area.
Other provisions are:
- Article 3 states that protection of the Antarctic environment as a wilderness with aesthetic and scientific value shall be a “fundamental consideration” of activities in the area.
- Article 11 creates a Committee for Environmental Protection for the continent.
- Articles 18-20 arrange for arbitration of international disputes regarding Antarctica.
The main mineral resource known on the continent is coal. The most valuable resources of Antarctica lie offshore, namely the oil and natural gas fields found in the Ross Sea. Exploitation of all mineral resources is banned until 2048 by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.
- The International Cospas-Sarsat Programme
It is a treaty-based, non-profit, intergovernmental, humanitarian cooperative of 43 nations and agencies dedicated to detecting and locating radio beacons activated by persons, aircraft or vessels in distress, and forwarding this alert information to authorities that can take action for rescue.
The system utilizes a network of satellites that provide coverage anywhere on Earth.
- Distress alerts are detected, located and forwarded to over 200 countries and territories at no cost to beacon owners or the receiving government agencies.
- The Indian National Satellite System also incorporate transponder(s) for receiving distress alert signals for search and rescue missions in the South Asian and Indian Ocean Region, as ISRO is a member of the Cospas-Sarsat program.
- Cospas-Sarsat was conceived and initiated by Canada, France, the United States, and the former Soviet Union in 1979.
- TRIFED Signs MoU with Amazon
In order to have institutional support to marketing initiatives, TRIFED has formally signed an MOU with M/s Amazon Seller Services Pvt. Ltd for sale of tribal products through leading e-commerce giant www.amazon.in at a mutually agreed terms & conditions.
- “TRIBES INDIA” showrooms managed by TRIFED, offer a wide range of Tribal Products from different parts of the country, which include Metal Craft, Tribal Textiles. These can be outsourced to amazon for sell.
- As a part of the MOU, exquisite authentic tribal art and craft items crafted and sculpted by tribal artisans from all over the country will be showcased on the online portal www.amazon.in for sale.
- To promote tribal handicrafts like handloom products, cane and bamboo products, tribal jewellery, Dhokra craft, tribal weaves and embroidery, tribal paintings etc by cashing in on the online retail space reach to boost sales.
Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India is the Nodal Ministry for implementation of the scheme which will announce Minimum Support Price (MSP) for the selected MFPs with the technical support from TRIFED.