SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 SEPTEMBER 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
Gorkhaland is a proposed statehood demand from the Indian state of West Bengal. The demand for a separate administrative unit in Darjeeling has existed since 1907, when the Hillmen’s Association of Darjeeling submitted a memorandum to Minto-Morley Reforms demanding a separate administrative setup.
Gorkhaland consists of Nepali-speaking people of Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Kurseong and other hilly districts. The people belonging to these areas hardly have any connection with the Bengali community and are different in ethnicity, culture and language.
Timeline of the Gorkhaland crisis:
1907- The first demand for Gorkhaland is submitted to Morley-Minto Reforms panel. After that on several occasions demands were made to the British government and then government of Independent India for separation from Bengal.
1952- The All India Gorkha League submits a memorandum to then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru demanding separation from the state of Bengal.
1955- Daulat Das Bokhim, the President of District Shamik Sangh submits a memorandum to the chairman, State Reorganisation Committee demanding the creation of separate state consisting of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar district.
1977- 81: The West Bengal government passes a unanimous resolution supporting the creation of an autonomous district council consisting Darjeeling and related areas. The bill is forwarded to Central Government for consideration of this matter. In 1981, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi receives a memorandum from Pranta Parishad, demanding a separate state.
1980-90: The demand for Gorkhaland was intensified in the 1980s under the leadership of Gorkha National Liberation Front supremo Subhas Ghising. The movement turns violent during the period of 1986-88, and around 1,200 people are killed. After a two-year long protest, the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council (DGHC) is finally formed in 1988.
2007- At the last phase of left front’s regime, the mass movement for Gorkhaland takes place under the leadership of Gorkha Janmurti Morcha (GJM) supremo Bimal Gurung. The 2007 Gorkha uprising intensifies, following the 2005 Centre and state government initiative for a permanent solution of this region by bringing it to the sixth schedule of the constitution giving some degree of autonomy to a predominantly tribal area. But the Gorkhas opposed this sixth schedule and demand statehood gains pace. The four-year long movement comes to an end after new CM Mamata Banerjee’s declaration of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) and Gurung is made its leader.
The demands for separate statehood in India have been there even before India’s Independence. Even after the state re-organization of 1956, there were demands from various corners of the country for the creation of a separate state. Linguistic, cultural, ethnic and economic distinctions can be traced as the core reasons behind these demands. What happens in Gorkhaland will affect India-Nepal relations too. Gorkhaland has a strategic location; it’s vicinity to the chicken neck that connects rest of India with North East. Its stability is must for India’s strategic and economic interests of the nation.
Topic: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC) is the bankruptcy law of India which seeks to consolidate the existing framework by creating a single law for insolvency and bankruptcy. The Code offers a uniform, comprehensive insolvency legislation encompassing all companies, partnerships and individuals (other than financial firms).
Insolvency and Bankruptcy: The Concepts elucidated
Insolvency is when an individual or organization is unable to meet its outstanding financial debt towards its lender as it become due. Insolvency can be resolved by way of changing the repayment plan of the loans or writing off a part thereof. If it cannot be resolved, then a legal action may lie against the insolvent and its assets will be sold to pay off the outstanding debts. Generally, an official assignee/liquidator appointed by the Government of India, realizes the assets and allocates it among the creditors of the insolvent.
Bankruptcy is a concept slightly different from insolvency, which is rather amicable. A bankruptcy is when a person voluntary declares him as an insolvent and goes to the court. On declaring him as ‘bankrupt’, the court is responsible to liquidate the personal property of the insolvent and hand it out to its creditors. It provides a fresh lease of life to the insolvent.
Background: Key Features of the code
- Insolvency Resolution: The Code outlines separate insolvency resolution processes for individuals, companies and partnership firms. The process may be initiated by either the debtor or the creditors. A maximum time limit, for completion of the insolvency resolution process, has been set for corporates and individuals. For companies, the process will have to be completed in 180 days, which may be extended by 90 days, if a majority of the creditors agree. For startups (other than partnership firms), small companies and other companies (with asset less than Rs. 1 crore), resolution process would be completed within 90 days of initiation of request which may be extended by 45 days.
- Insolvency regulator: The Code establishes the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India, to oversee the insolvency proceedings in the country and regulate the entities registered under it. The Board will have 10 members, including representatives from the Ministries of Finance and Law, and the Reserve Bank of India.
- Insolvency professionals: The insolvency process will be managed by licensed professionals. These professionals will also control the assets of the debtor during the insolvency process.
- Bankruptcy and Insolvency Adjudicator: The Code proposes two separate tribunals to oversee the process of insolvency resolution, for individuals and companies:
(i) The National Company Law Tribunal for Companies and Limited Liability Partnership firms
(ii) The Debt Recovery Tribunal for individuals and partnerships.
- Important feature of the Code is that it does not make any distinction between the rights of international and domestic creditors or between classes of financial institutions. The Code has sought to balance the interest of all the stakeholders including alteration in the order of priority of payment of Government dues.
Importance of this judgement:
The Supreme Court’s judgement is important because it clearly states that the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 overrides the confusing maze of state laws that companies could use in the future to avoid insolvency.
The Judgement has cited Article 54 of the Constitution to say that a Central law should prevail over state law whenever the two are contradictory.
The judgement will give strength to future creditors against defaulters that have traditionally resorted to state laws to avoid insolvency.
The court ruling comes even as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has asked banks to move against another 28 large defaulters. The central bank action is a clear signal that regulatory forbearance is not an option given the mounting bad loans that now constitute the biggest risk to economic stability. Such firm action is now possible because the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code empowers creditors for the first time ever.
This judgement has clearly mentioned that Control should be passed to creditors in case of default. This clear stance will surely avoid future possible ligations.
The judgement will play an indirect role in the enhancing the rational culture of dealing in case of default that will help to improve ease of doing business.
Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability,
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation’s own assessment of the countries’ press freedom records in the previous year. It intends to reflect the degree of freedom that journalists, news organisations, and netizens have in each country, and the efforts made by authorities to respect this freedom. Reporters Without Borders is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom and does not measure the quality of journalism nor does it look at human rights violations in general.
Freedom of Press in India: Legal position
The Freedom of the Press is nowhere mentioned in the Indian constitution. The Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression is provided in Article 19 of the Indian Constitution. It is believed that Freedom of Speech and Expression in Article 19 of the Indian constitution include freedom of the press.
Freedom of expression enables one to express one’s own voices as well as those of others. But freedom of the press must be subject to those restrictions which apply to the freedom of speech and expression. The restrictions mentioned in Article 19 are defamation, contempt of court, decency or morality, security of the state, friendly relations with other states, incitement to an offence, public order and maintenance of the sovereignty and integrity of India.
The status of freedom of the press is the same as that of an ordinary citizen. The press cannot claim any immunity from taxation, is subject to the same laws regulating industrial relations, and press employees are subject to the same laws regulating industrial employment
Why India’s ranking is falling:
- Poisonous rhetoric and other political pressures are huge in country that restricts the freedom of press to the considerable extent.
- Ethical issues came up in many ways. Most starkly in the English versus local language media is remarkable.
- Gender issues surfaced too in a number of ways. This has multiple dimensions as the role of woman in Indian journalism and genuine coverage given to gender issues in the society.
- Spying on sources is also the challenge. Journalists are “democracy’s watchdogs” and the protection of their sources is the “cornerstone of freedom of the press.” Although enshrined in such terms by the European Court of Human Rights, these principles are being attacked in an increasingly open manner all over the world, including in the democratic countries that first proclaimed them.
- There is no required protection given to the Whistle blowers in the country. Whistle blowers contribute to the large extent in the freedom of press and bringing reality in the public domain.
- The extensive training of journalism is getting back step in era of internet wherein entertainment is getting more Importance that truthfulness of the news and critical analysis of it.
- The issue of funding is getting more and more complicated nowadays. On one side there are giant media houses that have converted journalism into the business where in many small groups in vernacular are struggling for survival.
- The principles of neutrality, objectivity and quality analysis are getting eroded in more of economic model of journalism and media.
The expected reforms can be pointed out as:
- The journalism and media has to be more respectful of differing opinions.
- The media reports should be more data-driven and more focused on outcomes and quality.
- Dwelling on the credible-informational, critical-investigative-adversarial as well as ‘pastime’ functions of the press and listing the derivatives, there is need for contributing to the building of a worthwhile public agenda, where the media participate with others.
- Broadcasting Content Complaint Council should be given more autonomy to implement laws and take necessary steps against any corruption.
- The global best practices should be brought to the Indian environment as well. The multistakeholder approach can achieve the better cooperation in terms of training and information exchange.
- There is need to unlock transparent investments and linked job opportunities in creative content sector.
Thus it is the high time to establish the Indian media as one of the strong pillar of democracy based on peoples mandate and participation. Rousseau said “the most general will is also the most just”, however the context of this statement can only be true with ‘informed public opinion’ especially in this post-truth era. True democracy can only be achieved when public and media understand and accept their responsibility towards achieving it. And the true role of public opinion in policy making will be witnessed only when people will start waiting for a ‘hero’ to herald a new world and will ‘be the change they want to see in the world’
Topic: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
4) The Supreme Court recently said that the attacks on innocents by cow vigilantes must stop. What directions did SC give in this regard? In your opinion, what is the constitutional mandate of the union government in stopping such attacks by vigilantes? Critically comment. (200 Words)
Supreme courts’ direction:
The Supreme Court asked all States and Union Territories to appoint nodal police officers district-wise to crack down on and prosecute cow vigilante groups that engage in violence and mayhem.
The court directed the Centre to respond to a submission by senior advocate Indira Jaising that the Centre cannot wash their hands of its constitutional responsibility under Article 256 to instruct the States to take “necessary” steps in law to save innocent human lives from fury of the mobs.
The court directed the Chief Secretaries and the Directors General of Police of States to consult each other and respond to the court. The Centre shall also indicate its views on this issue.
Article 256 of constitution of India:
Obligation of States and the Union The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as to ensure compliance with the laws made by Parliament and any existing laws which apply in that State, and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for that purpose
Under President’s Rule: The State Governments cannot ignore the directions of the Union Government, otherwise the President can take the action against the Government of the State stating that the administration cannot be carried on the accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and thus can impose President’s rule on the State. In such an eventuality the President shall assume to himself all or any of the functions of the state Government.
Under Proclamation of National Emergency: During a Proclamation of National Emergency, the power of the Union to give directions extends to the giving of directions as to the manner in with the executive power of the State is to be exercised relating to any matter.
Maintain means of communication of National or Military importance: The Union Government can give directions to the state with regard to construction and maintenance of the means of communication declared to be of national or military importance.
Cow vigilantism is commonly used in India to describe the current lawlessness happening under the rubric of Cow protection. The word “vigilant” means keeping lookout for possible difficulties or danger. The term “vigilante” refers to a self-appointed person or a group of persons that undertakes to enforce the law without any legal authority. It also includes persons who take the law into their own hands to avenge what they may perceive to be crime. No definition of “vigilante” includes what is happening in India: Murder and violence of men by other men in illegally and extra-judicially enforcing religious beliefs. As a euphemism, Cow vigilantism conceals more than it reveals. It bestows a measure of social, moral and legal legitimacy to the so-called Cow protectors. More tragically, and to a large degree, it hides their criminality: It conceals the truth of men killing other men in the name of the Cow. Cow vigilantism as an expression has sadly become a convenient cloak for violence, brutality, murder and mayhem in the name of the Cow.
There is need of strong and immediate police action against the Cow vigilantism and violence linked with it.
The media must play constructive role in educating the people about the threat of such kind of tendencies in society. This is the high time for the civil society of country to show the resistance towards the religious beliefs of all religions.
The Indian constitution aims at reconciling the national unity while giving the power to maintain state to the State governments. It is true that the union has been assigned larger powers than the state governments, but this is a question of degree and not quality, since all the essential features of a federation are present in the Indian constitution. The issue of cow vigilantism needs a mature public discourse accompanied by efficient law and order maintainance.
Topic: e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential
5) Discuss the merits and demerits of recent moves by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) to pilot public open WiFi hotspots through a nationwide model of pay as you go public data offices (PDOs). (200 Words)
Introduction :- The Internet is the single most self-empowering infrastructure available for a citizen in the 21st century. The World Bank observed that a 10% increase in Internet penetration leads to a 1.4% increase in GDP. Access to the Internet is considered a basic human right by many countries globally, including Estonia, Finland and France. In India, access to data is still limited due to poor coverage of fiber/telecom and prohibitive pricing of cellular data.
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai) issued draft design of public WiFi network project that aims to provide low-cost wireless Internet services. It hopes to achieve it by championing an open architecture based WiFi Access Network Interface (WANI) that would allow any entity to easily set up a WiFi access point and sell Internet data in small denominations to interested customers.
Under the proposed system, any entity with valid permanent account number (PAN) will be able to set up public data offices (PDOs), similar to public call offices (PCOs) of yesteryears, for providing public WiFi hotspots, as per the draft released by Trai.
- Not everyone can afford 3G and 4G connectivity with net neutrality a lost cause in India. Free Wi-Fi would mean good savings of the common people and even those who need an internet connection but could not afford it would benefit greatly from it.
2. Students and youth can benefit largely from free public Wi-Fi. They can easily refer to e-books and online learning methods while on the go. With distance learning becoming popular in India, cost of data has always posed a problem. Broadband compromises speed and 3G/4G is priced beyond affordability.
3. One look at the internet tariff plans of private telecoms and you know you have to limit your data usage to the least if speed is desired too. Downloading data and browsing internet has to be restricted to only a few MBs with good speed.
4. In emergency situations free Wi-Fi can work wonders. Earthquake in Nepal and adjoining areas of India recently left people short of communication measures to check on near and dear ones. While mobile phone and internet connectivity was a lost cause for hours in some and days altogether in many areas, it was a long spell of apprehensions for people trying to get in touch with their loved ones.
5. Internet has opened various ways in which people can develop their skills and businesses. Easy and free access is important for the middle and lower class to benefit from the wonders of internet.
6. Security tools and measures can be implemented to keep users protected from threats of hacking and cyber crimes. An expert team into safety measures can solve the problem and people can stay alert by not connecting to any other free Wi-Fi that does not call for SMS verification.
1. Crores would be spent on building of infrastructures and further in managing the cost of free Wi-Fi to the entire city or town. A larger part of the annual budget would be spent in this project and as the trend in India goes, there would be more scams from the executives involved.
2. Lot of people using free public Wi-Fi would eventually result in slowing down of data speed or limiting the data usage per device in a day or month. Where is the advantage in accessing free Wi-Fi when the speed is down to 2G?
3. A report by Economic Times said that a researcher at Bengaluru airport was able to hack into the devices of all users who had connects to the free Wi-Fi with a mere $100 device. Imagine the security threat when the entire city goes on to connect to the free Wi-Fi. Hackers can easily get access to “users’ WhatsApp conversations, credit card numbers and encrypted user names and passwords for good measure.”
4. Sharing confidential data over the internet would become risky as they can easily be subject to cyber crimes. Mobile banking is being used by most internet users and they can unknowingly become victims to hackers accessing their accounts.
5. Even if measures are taken to keep public Wi-Fi secure, hackers can create fake hotspot with the help of Wi-Fi pineapple, a portable router device. Unsuspecting users will become easy targets to cyber crime. Corporate espionage and stealing of data can result in huge losses.
6. In the words of Sajan Paul, director-systems engineering, India & SAARC at Juniper Networks, public Wi-Fi is raw internet: “At an average end-user level, it is very difficult to detect such scenarios. However, one must understand that anything that goes into the Internet is subject to snooping and other forms of attacks. The user should be vigilant while accessing and sending sensitive data over such mediums.”
The government should consider that there are definite cons of providing free Wi-Fi in cities and measures should be taken to provide complete security over public Wi-Fi. No loopholes should be left from wherein snooping could be possible. Awareness should be created especially in not so developed towns about ways to ensure security and confidentiality. Speed regulation should also be kept in mind before taking the major step. With these precautionary measures well implemented, India can benefit largely from free Wi-Fi in cities.
6) As per official data, Indian roads became deadlier than ever in 2016, with a total of 1.51 lakh people dying in 4.81 lakh accidents. What do these accidents indicate about infrastructure, road safety and governance? How can India prevent these accidents? Examine. (200 Words)
Introduction :- The frequency of traffic collisions in India is amongst the highest in the world. A National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report revealed that every year, more than 135,000 traffic collision-related deaths occur in India.
- Tamil Nadurecords the highest road accidents for a decade and its capital Chennai has more accidents than any other city in India.
- In New Delhi, the capital of India, the frequency of traffic collisions is 40 times higher than the rate in London, the capital of the United Kingdom.
- Traffic collision-related deaths increased from 13 per hour in 2008 to 14 per hour in 2009. More than 40 per cent of these casualties are associated with motorcycles and trucks. The most accident-prone time on Indian roads is during the peak hourat afternoon and evening.
- According to road traffic safetyexperts, the actual number of casualties may be higher than what is documented, as many traffic accidents go unreported. Moreover, victims who die some time after the accident, a span of time which may vary from a few hours to several days, are not counted as car accident victims.
- In 2015, one person dies every 4 minutes in roads accidents in India, according to NGO ‘Indians for Road Safety’.
- India stands out miserably in the latest World Health Organisation’s (WHO) “Global Road Safety Report-2015” with an estimated 207,551 deaths on roads.
The complexity of the issues and the multitude of agencies responsible for road safety has meant that it is easy to pass the buck. The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 is a Central law, while the agencies for enforcement, the police and the RTOs, are state-controlled. The enforcement of basic laws, such as traffic violations, is resisted by the public and the police often face a backlash with no political support. Wider roads coupled with more powerful vehicles have increased reckless driving — very significant reasons for not only more accidents, but also more severe ones.
The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has taken a number of steps to prevent road accidents as per details mentioned under:
- The Government has approved a National Road Safety Policy. This Policy outlines various policy measures such as promoting awareness, establishing road safety information data base, encouraging safer road infrastructure including application of intelligent transport, enforcement of safety laws etc.
- The Government has constituted the National Road Safety Council as the apex body to take policy decisions in matters of road safety.
- The Ministry has requested all States/UTs for setting up of State Road Safety Council and District Road Safety Committees, and to hold their meetings regularly.
- The Ministry has formulated a multi-pronged strategy to address the issue of road safety based on 4 ‘E’s viz. Education, Engineering (both of roads and vehicles), Enforcement and Emergency Care.
- Road safety has been made an integral part of road design at the planning stage.
- Road Safety Audit of selected stretches of National Highways has been taken up.
- High priority has been accorded to identification and rectification of black spots (accident prone spots) on national highways. Around 700 such black spots have been identified for improvement.
- The threshold for four laning of national highway has been reduced from 15,000 Passenger Car Units (PCUs) to 10,000 PCUs. About 52,000 Km of stretches of State Highways has been identified for conversion to national highways.
- Setting up of model driving training institutes in States and refresher training to drivers of Heavy Motor Vehicle in the unorganized sector.
- Advocacy/Publicity campaign on road safety through the electronic and print
- Tightening of safety standards for vehicles like Seat Belts, Power-steering, anti-lock braking system etc.
- Providing cranes and ambulances to various State Governments under the National Highway Accident Relief Service Scheme for development on National Highways. National Highways Authority of India also provides ambulances at a distance of 50 Km. on each of its completed stretches of National Highways under its Operation & Maintenance contracts.
- Launch of pilot projects for providing cashless treatment of road accident victims on Gurgaon – Jaipur, Vadodara – Mumbai stretch of National Highways No. 8 and Ranchi – Rargaon – Mahulia stretch of National Highway No. 33.
STEPS TO BE TAKEN :-
- Auto manufacturers need to meet global safety standards and not blame road quality or driver behaviour, the police need to enforce the law and not blame the RTO for granting licences without proper testing, the National Highways Authority of India and the various PWDs need to focus on better road design, and engineering, and cities need to aggressively improve public transport and non-motorised transport infrastructure and curb use of private vehicles.
- Finally, vehicle operators need to follow traffic rules, wear helmets and seat belts and not blame corrupt officials or cite traffic congestion for their behaviour.
- The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill 2017 is on the anvil there is a need to pass the bill and ensure that the right provisions for improving road safety become the law.
- Penal provisions need to be made stricter. Fines, currently set at 1988 levels, need to be revised to make them an effective deterrent. Petrol prices have increased 10-fold in this period; so, an increase of fines by five times is eminently justified.
- Since speeding is a leading cause of accidents and deaths, limiting the speeds or acceleration capability of vehicles manufactured for use in India must be set by the law.
- Drunken driving is a serious offence and must be effectively stamped out. The government must consider allowing random sobriety tests and reducing allowable blood alcohol levels for young and novice drivers to 20 mg per 100 ml of blood.
- A scientific investigation of road crashes and criminal liability of officials and contractors found responsible for poor road quality is also essential.
Conclusion :- Road traffic accidents spare no one, be they rich or poor, urban or rural, young or old, man or woman or of any caste or religion. A tough law is not the end, but only the beginning of reforms that are needed to halve road traffic accidents by 2020, a commitment we have made by adopting the Brasilia Declaration for Road Safety.
Topic: Environmental pollution
Introduction :- According to the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ASSOCHAM) predictions, “India will generate 130 million tonnes of e-waste by 2018 from the current 93.5 million tonnes in 2016. And by 2020, India is expected to generate 260 million tonnes of e-waste.
The collapse of a great wall of garbage in east Delhi’s Ghazipur area, sweeping people and vehicles into a nearby canal, is a stark reminder that India’s neglected waste management crisis can have deadly consequences.
India’s waste management crisis :-
- Neither are urban local governments treating the 62 million tonnes of waste generated annually in the country as a potential resource. They have left the task of value extraction mostly to the informal system of garbage collectors and recyclers.
- Improving on the national record of collecting only 80% of waste generated and being able to process just 28% of that quantum, requires behaviour modification among citizens and institutions.
- In the absence of stakeholders at the local body level, recoverable resources embedded in discarded materials are lost due to dumping. Organic refuse, which forms about 50% of all garbage, readily lends itself to the generation of compost or production of methane for household use or power generation.
- But it is a major opportunity lost. Organic waste that could help green cities and feed small and affordable household biogas plants is simply being thrown away. It is also ironic that while some countries such as Rwanda and Kenya have introduced stiff penalties for the use of flimsy plastic bags, India is doing little to prevent them from drifting into suburban garbage mountains, rivers, lakes and the sea, and being ingested by cattle feeding on dumped refuse.
- A new paradigm is needed, in which bulk waste generators take the lead and city managers show demonstrable change in the way it is processed. There has to be a shift away from large budgets for collection and transport by private contractors, to the processing of segregated garbage.
- As the nodal body for the implementation of the new rules, the Central Pollution Control Board should put out periodic assessments of the preparedness of urban local bodies in the run-up to the deadline.
Conclusion :- Without a rigorous approach, the national problem of merely shifting city trash to the suburbs, out of sight of those who generate it, will fester and choke the landscape. Considering that waste volumes are officially estimated to grow to 165 million tonnes a year by 2030, many more suburbs are bound to be threatened by collapsing or burning trash mountains.
Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems;
a) Law, Regulation and Rule
b) Conscience and Mind
c) Accountability and Governance
d) Ethical concern and Ethical dilemma
- a) Law, Regulation and Rule
The main difference between rules and laws is the consequences associated with breaking them. While each is developed to invoke a sense of order, fair play, and safety, the weight of a law is much heavier than the weight of a rule. Laws are like the legal version of rules.
- c) Accountability and Governance
Governance refers to directing & controlling. Whereas, accountability refers to being answerable for the actions and decisions taken. However, both go hand in hand. Where there is governance, accountability is a must.
- b) Conscience and Mind
The “mind” and “consciousness” are both informal and somewhat overlapping terms that refer to a broad collection of interrelated phenomena. Although generally speaking, the mind is a broader term that includes consciousness plus memory and cognition. Consciousness being energy of the soul is spiritual, whereas mind is material, being one of the constituents of the subtle material body. Its like the mind is like the screen of the TV whereas the soul is the person watching the TV and consciousness is like the vision of the person that is focused on the TV.
- d) Ethical concern and Ethical dilemma
Ethical Issue is when a matter has both aspects of right and wrong. Ethical Dilemma is when one is faced with a binary or multiple options of choice, or a confusion of understanding, based on ethics or the lack of it. Ex. Allowing surrogacy openly in India is an ethical issue while giving one’s womb for surrogacy purpose can be an ethical dilemma for a women.