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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 AUGUST 2017


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 AUGUST 2017


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 

Topic:  Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. 

1) The urban poor, slum dwellers, and migrants are dispossessed as a result of urban restructuring and gentrification. Examine how urbanisation affects women migrants in particular. (200 Words)

EPW

Introduction:

Introduction Urbanization is a continuous process. By the year 2008, more than fifty percent of total world population was living in urban areas. The process of urbanization is very fast in developing countries. It is projected that by the year 2025, more than half of Indian population will be living in urban areas. It has coloured the life and changed the civilization. It has led to migration of people from villages to cities. Though it has contributed to better quality of life, increased tolerance and better socio-cultural stimulation, at the same time; it has devastated mental health of people by heightened social tension, increased conflicts and has caused an increase in overall stress.

Impact of Urbanization

Due to urbanization, a lot of changes occur in every individual, family, society as well as the country as a whole. Urbanization have both, a positive and a negative impact on the society and on the individual itself. Therefore some of the important and authentic impacts of urbanization can be summarized as below:

  1. Change of family dynamics
  2. Increased burden on female members
  3. Immigration
  4. Unemployment
  5. Poverty
  6. Crime
  7. Increased stress
  8. Disturbance of biological rhythm
  9. Stressful life events
  10. Poor social network

Impact of urbanisation on woman migrants are:

  1. The main chunk of woman migrants is from rural areas to cities due to the marriage. This migration is highest and has its own peculiar character. The new comers to cities from rural areas goes under stressful transition that that may affect the mental health of many woman.
  2. Nowadays many young girls are migrating to cities in search of better opportunities for education and career. The variation in terms of living style between migrants and urban woman remarkably affect their behavior creating a sense of self criticism and loss of confidence.
  3. Studies show that illiterate women have a higher propensity to migrate than illiterate men (Singh et al 2016). Thus, the emerging labour market seems to be segmented, with women migrants relegated to informal jobs with low pay and little security, for which they require few skills. This shows that cities have become exclusionary; the patriarchal pressure to migrate continues, resulting in the increased confinement of women migrants to the home.
  4. Women in the city suffer the consequences of being migrants and women, in addition to inherent sociocultural prejudices and economic deprivations. Migration adds to the existing baggage of inequality and discrimination.
  5. Migrant women not only face wage discrimination, but also sexual violence and various types of exclusion, such as restricted access to the public distribution system for food, to shelter and medical facilities, and may even have limited voting rights.
  6. A large proportion of women migrants live in slums, although this proportion varies from city to city. In some cases, women are affected more than men migrants in their access to housing, water and sanitation.

Conclusion:

Conclusion Urbanization is a continuous process and cannot be stopped. Coming years shall further witness expansion of cities and all the associated problems. Rapid urbanization, has stolen the focus of policy makers to invest in the cities, keeping the rural development aside, even though a larger chunk of population still reside in the rural areas.49 This also increases the stress of rural population. A few more might add to the list. The need of the hour is to pause and to have a look at the problems that are likely to trouble us the most. Women are the most important pillars of the society. In the current society, the social role of a women is quite different from what it is expected from them decades back. Expectations have been changed to a greater extent by the process of urbanization which attribute to increasing stress.

 


Topic:   Structure, organization and functioning of the Judiciary

2) Discuss why lawyers’ strikes in India contribute to the problem of judicial inefficiency and examine the Law Commission recommends on this issue. (200 Words) 

EPW

Introduction :- Report No 266 of the Law Commission of India, published on 17 March 2017, touches upon several aspects and issues regarding the state of the legal profession in India. The problem of lawyers’ strikes and consequent wastage of judicial time is discussed vis-à-vis the report. Lawyers’ strikes in India contribute to the problem of judicial inefficiency and the Law Commission recommends taking strong institutional actions to end these.

Lawyers strike and judicial inefficiency :-

  • The Law Commission of India has noted in its 266th report that about 2.5 crore cases are pending in the lower courts. It has emphasised that wastage of judicial time on account of lawyers’ strikes is one of the leading reasons behind rising pendency and delay in courts.
  • However, this is not the first time that lawyers’ strikes have been criticised. In 1995, Justice J S Verma had already noted the “adverse effects of a lawyers’ strike on the course of administration of justice and the hardship caused to the litigants for whom the courts are meant” :- In Delhi, the subordinate courts remained closed on account of lawyers’ strikes for one day out of every four days during the last four years.
  • The Law Commission found that the reasons for these lawyers’ strikes had no relevance to the working of the courts. Some of the reasons were a bomb blast in Pakistan, amendments to the Sri Lankan Constitution, interstate river water disputes, attacks on lawyers, earthquake in Nepal.
  • In any case, lawyers in India seem to know that they do not have any right to strike But, they also know that there is no effective recourse available to the litigants and other affected parties under the Bar Council of India’s Rules on Professional Standards and Etiquette.

Recommendations of law commission :-

  • As per recommendation of the Law Commission, the state Bar Councils and Bar Council of India will consist of non-lawyers, including people from other professions like chartered accountants, architects, politicians, doctors etc.
  • Resultantly, the disciplinary proceedings against advocates would be conducted by people not connected with legal profession i.e., handing over the regulation and control of legal profession and legal education over to non-lawyers.
  • In light of the current recommendations of the Law Commission of India, judicial officer has been authorised to cancel even the licence of an advocate on grounds of contempt, serious misconduct or abstention from court functioning.
  • The Law Commission proposed a provision of compensation to clients in case of lawyer’s participation in strikes. Moreover, clients, who have not paid any fees to the lawyer, are also entitled for claim/compensation if the lawyer goes on strike.
  • As per the recommendation of the Law Commission of India, ‘misconduct’ has been defined in a very provocative manner that any judicial officer or client can term the behaviour/ conduct of the lawyer as ‘unlawful, disgraceful or dishonourable’. Hence, a client can easily blame his lost cause on lawyer’s negligence and question his work ethics for losing his case.
  • As per the Law Commission’s recommendation, the definition of misconduct will include criminal breach of trust. Hence, lawyers would not be able practice diligently and discharge their duties fearlessly.

 

 


Topic:  Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. 

3) The social boycott act passed by the Government of Maharashtra is an important step in arresting the abuse of power by in-group elites. What hurdles would this legislation face in realisation of its desired goals? Examine. (200 Words)

EPW

Introduction :- A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from dealing with a person, as an expression of protest, usually for social, political, or environmental reasons. The purpose of a boycott is to inflict some economic loss on the target, or to indicate a moral outrage, to try to compel the target to alter an objectionable behaviour.

 

Background:

  • The Issue of social boycott is historical and it is unfortunate fact that it exist even today. Though the boycott has reduced to a considerable extent at individual level, the Jat panchayats still practice this inhumane tool to suppress the acts which are considered as anti social or different from traditional practices.
  • The State of Maharashtra has seen several instances of social boycott of individuals most often for marrying within the same gotra (clan) or outside the prescribed boundaries of caste. The highest number of incidents was reported from the districts of Raigad, Ratnagiri and Nashik; and the largest number of cases of social boycott was provoked by inter-caste marriages.
  • Maharashtra’s social boycott law is best understood as one front in a long struggle to effectuate the Constitution’s guarantee against social exclusion, as expressed in Articles 15(2) and 17.
  • Article 17 of the Constitution and the Protection of Civil Rights Act outlaw untouchability in all its forms, but these are legal protections intended for the Scheduled Castes. In reality, members of various castes and communities also require such protection from informal village councils and gatherings of elders who draw on their own notions of conformity, community discipline, morality and social mores to issue diktats to the village or the community to cut off ties with supposedly offending persons and families.

 

Salient features of the bill:

  • The Bill provides for prohibition of social boycott of a person or group of persons, by an individual or a group like caste panchayats.
  • The provisions of the law define social boycott as a cognisable, but bailable offence, and provide for an imprisonment of up to three years or Rs. 1 lakh fine or both.
  • The legislation had provisions for disbursing the fine amount to the victims and their rehabilitation.
  • The law recognises the human rights dimension to issues of social boycott, as well as the varied forms in which it occurs in a caste-based society.
  • The bill takes into account discrimination on the basis of morality, social acceptance, political inclination, sexuality, which it prohibits.
  • Bill makes it an offence to create cultural obstacles by forcing people to wear a particular type of clothing or use a particular language.

 

Hurdles can be faced by legislation :-

  • A maximum number of cases arise out of the issue of inter-caste marriages. As consent is an alien, intolerable concept in almost all caste and community traditions in India, these kind of marriages lead to divisions in communities and even lead to violence, causing caste panchayats to come together to resolve them. The worst affected in these cases are women, often young women, who are forcibly separated, their unborn killed, left to raise their ostracised children by themselves, sexually exploited, abandoned or forcibly remarried. The act has no provision for special protection or compensation and rehabilitation of these victims.
  • The act neither deals with the question of inter-caste/inter-community/inter-religious marriages clearly, nor takes a position on collective caste panchayats which are not intra-caste affairs. It must be underlined that rehabilitation and compensation to all victims of caste panchayats continues to be a consistent demand from activists working with these victims.
  • The act neither deals with the question of inter-caste/inter-community/inter-religious marriages clearly, nor takes a position on collective caste panchayats which are not intra-caste affairs. It must be underlined that rehabilitation and compensation to all victims of caste panchayats continues to be a consistent demand from activists working with these victims.
  • Given that something as basic as filing a first information report would require community identification in this matter, such communities largely remain outside the purview of the act, as the act makes no special provisions for them.
  • It cannot be ruled out that the rationale of the government behind this could have been the legal and constitutional hurdles that have sealed the fate of such laws in the past. The Bombay Prevention of Ex-communication Act, 1949 which was pulled back after the Constitution bench was divided on the matter, is an example.
  • It is this treatment of the problem, as one of mere law and order, that has led to the shift in the definition of victimhood as attached only to physical and material harm rather than also to “mental, psychological, emotional” harm—factors included in the draft bill but excluded from the act.
  • Though the definition of social boycott which lists 15 kinds of possible offences is detailed, it is by no measure exhaustive. The exclusion of affective harm—the driving force of the power of these panchayats—from victimhood creates tremendous scope for legal (mis)interpretation, and conflict is always likely to arise between the definition of victimhood and social boycott.

 

Nevertheless, this act is the first, and an important, step in pointing out the problems with parallel systems of justice dispensation that derive their authority from tradition, respect for “public” (mob) sentiment or the autonomy of community logic. Such systems abound in the state and the country—which makes it justifiable for groups to assume the responsibility, nay duty, to take up the flag of protection and conservation of tradition. In a democracy, no caste, community, religion or tribe can command such powers over individuals of their own group or on others. It is this principle that should carve our definition of group identity-based exploitation and not a list of crimes that comfortably box identifiable practices. In a “progressive” state like Maharashtra, we still have many more such boycotts to be made criminal—be they intra-caste, inter-caste or inter-religious. This act, nevertheless, has the potential to be a stepping stone to a broader and more inclusive anti-discrimination law.

 

 


Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

4) Strict adherence to treatment is critical for the effective management of HIV. Research suggests that adherence to treatment should be greater than 95% for maximum benefit from antiretroviral therapy. However, such adherence is not observed in India. Examine the reasons. (200 Words)

EPW

Ans –

The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) initiated free anti­retroviral therapy (ART) services in India in 2004 under the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP). According to NACO (2015), 355 ART centres functioned across the country. ART centres are assigned four major functions—medical, psychological, social and programmatic.

Adherence is the ability of a patient to follow a treatment regimen and the practitioner’s instructions carefully. Adherence to medication means that a person has to take the prescribed pills and follow a consistent schedule and dietary advice. People living with HIV (PLWH) need sustainable adherence in order to suppress the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and maintain immunity of the body. Strict adherence to treatment can help PLWH manage their illness effectively. Adherence to medication is recommended for management of chronic illness and adherence to ART has considerably decreased the mortality and morbidity rate worldwide.

Following advances in HIV medicine and prevention, HIV has become a manageable chronic illness. Adherence has been identified as one of the major factors affecting ART outcomes. Research suggests that to get the maximum benefit from ART, adherence to treatment has to be greater than 95%. Non-adherence to ART results in drug resistance.

Despite this, such adherence is not observed in India. The reasons are –

  1. Economic Constraints-

NACO provides free medication, but certain poverty-related issues continue to prevent regular visits by PLWH to the ART centre. The relationship between poverty and HIV is bi-directional—poverty increases the risk of HIV, and HIV enhances poverty.  Most of them have the additional burden of other family members who are also HIV-positive. Many PLWH suffer a loss of daily income in order to visit ART centres, which results in an additional financial burden.

  1. Availability of CD4 Test Kits-

The HIV care provider recommends the CD4 test, generally once every three to nine months, depending on the health status of the patient. A six-monthly CD4 test is suggested to PLWH who are on ART (NACO 2012). Those on pre-ART are also closely monitored and are required to take the CD4 test on a regular basis as directed by the care provider. An appropriate number of CD4 test kits are required to monitor all these people. However, the CD4 test poses a major barrier to treatment adherence: either the test kit is unavailable, or there is an absence of technicians to take blood samples.

  1. Shortage of medicines-

Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, once begun, must be continued for life, and with proper adherence, otherwise the drugs lose their efficacy, creating resistance, which may lead to further viral replication. ARV drugs are expensive and the Government of India bears this expense. Over the past few years, a massive shortage of HIV drugs has been reported in India.

  1. Lack of transportation-

ART centres are located at district hospitals and are often quite distant from the patient’s place of residence. Given that many rural areas are not well-connected with cities, it is difficult for PLWH to travel long distances for medicines.

  1. Infrastructure at ART centres-

Seating is inadequate; drinking water and toilet facilities exist but are unhygienic and damaged. The absence of these primary facilities discourages people from atten­ding ART clinics.

  1. Stigma and discrimination-

Fear of stigma keeps people from disclosing their seropositive status to society, and even to their families. PLWH tend to keep their visits to ART clinics secret, because of which they are often not able to take the treatment seriously. They often do not reveal their status to their employers, so they cannot ask for frequent leave, which leads to low adherence to treatment regimens. Stigma and discrimination are also prevalent in healthcare settings and cause PLWH to hide their HIV-positive status from healthcare affecting quality of care.

Way forward –

The success of any therapeutic intervention depends on adherence. Adherence rates to HIV treatment must be improved, because visits of PLWH to ART centres will not only help their healthcare but also increase awareness to stop the further spread of the virus.

  • The fear of stigma can be resolved by proper counselling.
  • Use of technology like comprehensive database and monitoring tools.
  • Streamlining the policy implementation (ex: 90-90-90 strategy) from district to village levels.
  • Problems of transportation can be resolved by providing travel support for people with low income.
  • Issues of infrastructure, waiting time and availability of healthcare facilities should be governed at the organisatio­nal level.
  • A well-structured system to evaluate the facilities provided at ART centres and systematic reviews of these facilities can help in dealing with these problems.

 


Topic:  Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. 

5) In India, even now between 9% and 20% of maternal deaths are on account of unsafe abortions. What does law say about abortion rights of child victims of rape who are pregnant? Do you think children who are pregnant should have abortion rights? Critically comment. (200 Words)

EPW

Ans –

Background –

While the 10-year old pregnant girl awaits deli­very in a hospital in Chandigarh, a 12-year old girl in Mumbai has been found to be 27 weeks pregnant. Both are victims of rape by men known to their families. The family  in the first case app­roached first the Chandigarh High Court to grant her permission to abort and on being denied approached the Supreme Court. The apex Court asked the medical experts at the Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to review the case and give their opinion.

Laws related to abortion rights of child in India –

  • MTP act 1971(Amended) which provides for termination of pregnancy on certain grounds upto 24 weeks with the consent of women above 18 and if below 18 then with the consent of a guardian. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act was passed in 1971 based on the recommendations of the Shantilal Shah Committee which was set up to ­review the high number of maternal deaths due to septic abortion.
  • POCSO act to protect a child below 18 years from sexual offences.
  • section 312 of IPC – MTP law is needed only because the Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sections 312–316 exist and Section 312 states: Whoever voluntarily causes a woman with child to miscarry, shall, if such miscarriage be not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both, and, if the woman be quick with child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. A woman who causes herself to miscarry, is within the meaning of this section. If Sections 312 to 316 were to be ­removed from the IPC then all abortion procedures would be under the purview of medical guidelines similar to the way in which other surgical and medical proce­dures are. India does not have a separate law for open heart surgery or bariatric surgery or endoscopy. These are left to the domains of those who have specialised clinical training.

 

Children who are pregnant should have abortion rights –

  1. Clinical issues –
  • threat to life to child as well as foetus.
  • As vaginal delivery is difficult in younger girls, the abortion itself poses much less risk to the girl than a delivery by surgical intervention in terms of anaesthesia, major abdominal surgery, complications, blood loss and wound healing.
  1. Rights issue –
  • It is the right of a woman to be a mother, so also it is the right of a woman not to be a mother and her wish has to be respected.
  • This right emerges from her human right to live with dignity as a human being in the society and is protected as a fundamental right under Article 21 of the Constitution of India with reasonable restrictions as contemplated under the Act.
  1. Social issues –
  • to reduce physical and mental trauma to victim child, as most of the times she is the victim of rape.
  • to prevent child from social stigma, harassment.

Criticism –

  1. Pro-life argument – right of unborn is not taken into consideration.
  2. Forced choice – pressure on a girl child to abort thus hampering her right to choose.
  3. Unsafe abortions – girls are forced to undergo unsafe abortions due to social stigma and unawareness.

Conclusion –

Woman owns her body and has a right over it and woman alone should be the choice-maker for abortion. Unborn foetus cannot be put on a higher pedestal than the right of a living woman.

Safe abortion is not only about terminating an unwanted pregnancy but is also one of the critical life- saving/ life changing episodes in the life cycle of a woman, and part of the continuum of her sexual and reproductive health and rights.

Way forward –

We need to work together with those in allied fields of work to prevent child marriages, prevention of dowry, recognising marital rape, improving the status of the girl child, and all other facets of women’s empowerment.

We need to place the conversation around abortion rights within the context of women’s sexuality, patriarchy and gender equality.

We need to do better at making the public sector more accountable for providing abortion services and pushing for the private sector to be better regulated. We need to invest in training of health care providers, in the pre-service years and beyond, to ensure gender and rights ­sensitisation.

We need to create a future where it is unacceptable for a girl or a woman to suffer grievous physical or mental harm because she was unable to access a timely, sensitive and safe abortion service.

 


Topic:  Agriculture

6) The farming systems followed by small farmers in Asia, Africa and Latin America have the potential to deal with the problems thrown up by climate change. Discuss the nature of these farming systems, their advantages and need for changing of our understanding about ecological benefits of small farming systems. (200 Words)

EPW

Introduction :- In a country like India, where rain-fed agriculture is the dominant source of food production, drought inherently coexists with farmers, society, and the economy. Approximately, 16% of India’s geographic area—mostly arid, semi-arid, and sub- humid land—is drought-prone. In the past, communities in developing countries have shown the greatest resilience to droughts, fl oods, and other catastrophes. For example, pastoralists in the West African Sahel were able to cope with decreased rainfall by 25%–33% in the 20th century, while contrasting resilience in the face of changing climates has been documented in smallholder farmers in Bangladesh and Vietnam, and indigenous hunting communities in the Canadian Arctic.

NATURE AND ADVANTAGES :-

  • Sourcing food from non-agricultural lands (uncultivated systems such as forests, wetlands, pastures, etc) in addition to agricultural land enables a systemic approach to food consumption.
  • Farmers in rain-fed areas and in tougher agroecosystems (mountains, uplands, arid conditions, etc) have evolved unique spatial and temporal mixes of crops according to monsoon rain patterns and other physical limitations.
  • Sensitivity to droughts is minimised by reducing dependence on vulnerable systems by diversifying food production and moving away from drought prone crops.
  • Adaptive elements to climate change, including diversification, low external input/energy use, weather forecasting/adjusting, traditional natural resource management (moisture, nutrition, and pest management), cropping practices (mixed/inter/relay cropping, crop rotation, etc), and collective food and seed storage and distribution are inherent to small farmer agriculture.
  • Food production in these farms has undergone tremendous change over the last two decades with respect to crops, varieties, cropping patterns, and crop management. This change is in response to the external market, research, and stimuli of ex tension programmes

NEED TO CHANGE OUR UNDERSTANDING :-

  • Despite evidence that gender-informed approaches are required to bolster the role of women, productivity, and farm resilience, such approaches are not yet common in agriculture.
  • Traditional instances of collective action in adapting to drought by small and marginal farmers and rural communities in vulnerable ecosystems exist but have not been emphasised in mainstream drought management.
  • Apart from involving farmers, these collective action initiatives have the potential to include other stakeholders like researchers, development specialists, extension workers, and corporate and social entrepreneurs in a collaborative platform with a common objective.

 


Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life 

7) Recently, union government announced that only electric vehicles (EVs) will be sold in India from 2030. To achieve this target what needs to be done? Examine. (200 Words)

The Hindu

 

Introduction :- Recently announced decision that only electric vehicles (EVs) will be sold in India from 2030. The current National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) has set a sales target of only 5-7 million EVs and hybrid electric vehicles annually by 2020. On the other hand, the Indian automobile market, which includes two-, three- and four-wheelers, is expected to clock an annual sales figure of around 23 million by 2030. Replacing these with EVs would require a significant push as far as vehicle-charging infrastructure and batteries are concerned.

STEPS NEEDED :-

  • The transition would require a battery capacity of about 400 GWh (gigawatt hours) each year, equivalent to increasing the current global EV battery production by a factor of five, just to cater to the Indian EV market. This gigantic demand for batteries is an ideal opportunity for the domestic manufacturing industry and job creation.
  • Manufacturing lithium-ion batteries would require critical minerals such as cobalt, graphite, lithium and phosphate. Among them, lithium is of particular importance. The resource endowment is limited to only nine countries and 95% of global lithium production comes from Argentina, Australia, Chile and China. To meet India’s demands amid a global surge in electric vehicle demand, the entire mineral supply chain needs to be overhauled and expanded.
  • China and the U.S., which have ambitious electric mobility targets, are way ahead in the race to secure lithium supplies. In order to avoid a scenario like the one that played during the oil crises of the 1970s and the price shocks of 1980s and 2000s, it is imperative that India secure mineral supplies for its domestic industry by acquisition of overseas assets such as mineral reserves and the associated production.
  • India needs to further diversify the supply risk by including lithium in existing PTAs or establishing new PTAs with other lithium-producing countries. However, the move will only enable and not ensure risk-free mineral supplies to India.
  • There is a need to formulate policies incentivising domestic public and private mining companies to invest in overseas lithium mining assets.
  • India must focus on creating a vibrant battery research and development ecosystem domestically.
  • Currently, the domestic battery market is largely dominated by lead-acid battery technologies. Research should focus on developing alternative technologies containing minerals with low supply risks and battery recycling techniques to recover associated minerals and materials.
  • Recycling lithium batteries present in the waste stream will significantly reduce the burden in procuring fresh resources.

Policies that incentivise domestic manufacturing, address the need for virgin resources and recycling of used batteries, while constantly pushing R&D for substitutes and alternatives are vital to secure electric mobility.

 


Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

8) Define following with suitable examples:

a) Absolutism

b) Beneficence

c) Consequentialism

d) Duties

e) Normative ethics

f) Environmental ethics

 

Introduction :-

  1. a) Absolutism :- The term ‘absolutism’ has both a moral and political connotation. In terms of morality, ‘absolutism’ refers to at least two distinct doctrines. Firstly, absolutism may refer to the claim that there exists a universally valid moral system, which applies to everyone whether they realize it or not. Secondly, absolutism may refer to the claim that moral rules or principles do not admit any exceptions. Immanuel Kant, for instance, is an absolutist (in this sense) with respect to lying, because he held that it is never permissible to lie.

In terms of politics, ‘absolutism’ refers to a type of government in which the ruler’s power is absolute, that is, not subject to any legal constraints. The European monarchies, especially those of France, Spain, and Russia, between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries provide perhaps the clearest examples of absolute rule

  1. b) Beneficence :- The term beneficenceconnotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons.

Many policies initiated by government for welfare of people is an act of beneficence.

  1. c) Consequentialism :- Consequentialismis the class of normative ethical theoriesholding that the consequences of one’s conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. In an extreme form, the idea of consequentialism is commonly encapsulated in the saying, “the end justifies the means”, meaning that if a goal is morally important enough, any method of achieving it is acceptable.

Helping weaker sections of society in getting into service delivery benefits by neglecting formal routes in some cases by civil servants is example of consequentialism.

  1. d) Duties :- Dutyis a term that conveys a sense of moral commitment or obligation to someone or something. The moral commitment should result in action; it is not a matter of passive feeling or mere recognition. When someone recognizes a duty, that person theoretically commits himself to its fulfillment without considering their own self-interest. This is not to suggest that living a life of duty entirely precludes a life of leisure; however, its fulfillment generally involves some sacrificeof immediate self-interest. Typically, “the demands of justice, honor, and reputation are deeply bound up” with duty.

Everyone must follows the civic and moral duties like doing their work honestly, keeping surroundings clean.

  1. e) Normative ethics :- Normative ethicsis the study of ethical It is the branch of philosophicalethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because it examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts. Normative ethics is also distinct from descriptive ethics, as the latter is an empirical investigation of people’s moral beliefs. To put it another way, descriptive ethics would be concerned with determining what proportion of people believe that killing is always wrong, while normative ethics is concerned with whether it is correct to hold such a belief. Hence, normative ethics is sometimes called prescriptive, rather than descriptive. However, on certain versions of the meta-ethical view called moral realism, moral facts are both descriptive and prescriptive at the same time.
  2. f) Environmental ethics :- Environmental ethics is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents. This entry covers: (1) the challenge of environmental ethics to the anthropocentrism (i.e., human-centeredness) embedded in traditional western ethical thinking; (2) the early development of the discipline in the 1960s and 1970s; (3) the connection of deep ecology, feminist environmental ethics, animism and social ecology to politics; (4) the attempt to apply traditional ethical theories, including consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics, to support contemporary environmental concerns; (5) the preservation of biodiversity as an ethical goal; (6) the broader concerns of some thinkers with wilderness, the built environment and the politics of poverty; (7) the ethics of sustainability and climate change, and (8) some directions for possible future developments of the discipline.