I-Learning Test 2 : 24 – 30 July 2017
- A ship’s crew comes from a number of different countries. Not everyone has English as first language or can communicate very clearly in English.
- Misunderstood communication can lead to serious and even dangerous situations.
- To avoid such confusion, in 1983 a new system of communication called Seaspeak was devised.
- English was chosen as the principle lexicon for Seaspeak because it was the most common language spoken on ships at that time, and, importantly, it was also the language of civil aviation.
- In 1988, the International Maritime Organization made Seaspeak the official language of the seas.
Seaspeak defines the rules of how to talk on a ship’s radio. The number of words is limited to ensure that messages and conversations are short and clear.
- Eight words, called message markers, precede each sentence. These words are Advice, Answer, Information, Instruction, Intention, Question, Request, and Warning.
- An important rule of Seaspeak is that numbers made up of two or more digits are spoken in single digits. For example, the number 33 is spoken as “three three” and the time 9:33 a.m. is spoken as “zero nine three three.”
- Scheme for “Protection and Preservation of Endangered Languages of India”
It is an initiative of MHRD.
Under this Scheme, the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore works on protection, preservation and documentation of all the mother tongues/languages of India spoken by less than 10,000 speakers keeping in mind the degree of endangerment and reduction in the domains of usage.
According to the criteria adopted by the UNESCO, a language becomes extinct when nobody speaks or remembers the language.
Dialects being part of a language are covered under this programme.
- The University Grants Commission (UGC) has a Scheme for “Establishment of Centres for Endangered Languages” under which centres were approved in respect of nine Central Universities.
- Presently, 117 languages have been listed for the documentation.
- You can see the list of these languages in the source.
- Castor Seed Plants
It is one of the sturdiest plants that can grow in areas where the soil is highly polluted, including in areas where mining is carried out.
Castor is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India.
- Castor seed is the source of castor oil, which has a wide variety of uses.
- The seeds contain between 40% and 60% oil that is rich in triglycerides, mainly ricinolein.
- The acid and its derivatives, inhibits many microbes, whether viral, bacterial or fungal.
- It is a popular medicine as well as used in cosmetics. The use of castor bean oil (“eranda”) in India has been documented since 2000 BC in lamps and in local medicine as a laxative, purgative, and cathartic in Unani, Ayurvedic, siddha and other ethnomedical systems.
- Common Rail Electronic Direct Injection Fuel System (CReDI)
Indian Railways (IR) plans to procure several loco sets of Common Rail Electronic Direct Injection Fuel System (CReDI).
CReDI is a two-stage fuel distribution system which offers greater flexibility than a normal engine.
It has three major advantages over conventional rail engines:
- Fuel savings
- Reduced noise in operations
- Lower emissions
It reduces particulate/soot and gaseous emissions (e.g. (NOx emission) because the efficacy of the catalytic converter (device that filter pollutants) is increased under this method.
A catalytic converter is an emissions control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (reduction and oxidation reaction).
Source: IR initiatives
- Radiation Processing of Food
Radiation processing is controlled application of energy of short wave length radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum known as ionizing radiations and includes gamma rays, accelerated electrons and X-rays to have desired effect on the product.
Impact on Food
- Gamma rays, X-rays and electrons prescribed for food irradiation do not induce any radioactivity in foods.
- The food itself never comes in contact with the radioactive material.
- In comparison to other food processing and preservation methods, the nutritional value is least affected by radiation.
- Like any other food treatment, radiation processing cannot reverse the spoilage process and make food good.
Some of the major objectives of radiation processing are:
- Sterilization of medical and packaging products
- Phytosanitation to overcome quarantine barriers in fruits and vegetables
- Insect disinfestations of food products
Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is an independent unit of department of atomic energy which provides products and services based on radiation & isotopes for applications in healthcare, agriculture, research and industry.
Q Source: Additional Research: PIB 19th July (Release ID :168647)
It is the IISFM (Integrated Information System for Foodgrains Management for Food Corporation of India).
It provides the online Stock Position of buffer and procurement by FCI.
The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production to ensure food security. E-grains improves accountability and transparency in this operation.