SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 January 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
General Studies – 1;
Topic: Poverty and developmental issues; population and associated issues,
1) Despite some success, it’s argued that there is a key binding constraint to achieving Swachh Bharat under the Swachh Bharat Mission(SBM). What’s this constraint? Discuss it’s importance for the success of SBM. (200 Words)
Swachh Bharat Mission has been bold move in eradicating the menace of Open defecation and in bringing cleanliness and hygiene. Movement is taking roots in villages and cities. However there is key binding constraint resulting primarily due to the way it is being carried out by administrative authorities.
The key constraint and its importance for the success of SBM-
- The key constraint is ‘The lack of institutional capacity at the grassroots to deliver sanitation services’.
- Political visibility has brought with it serious pressure to meet targets. District collectors are being monitored frequently resulting in a competition to meet targets, at speed. But in the absence of corresponding investments in administrative capacity, these targets have created conditions for a race to the top that undermines the core objectives of the program.
- In the last few months, Accountability Initiative researchers have been following the ODF process in several villages in Himachal Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. In all these states, as officers joined the Open Defecation Race (ODF) race, penalization of citizens, rather than awareness raising and demand creation has become the preferred tool to achieve success. In one state, it has been found that district orders issued to threaten to cut off electricity and ration supplies for households that refused to build toilets. In others, government financial incentives are being withheld until village-level construction targets are met; fines are being imposed and reluctant households are being coaxed to take loans to build toilets since government money is given after construction.
- While threatening citizens may enable officials to participate in the ODF race, past experiences about sanitation drives tells us that ODF will only be achieved and sustained when communities demand sanitation facilities rather than be coaxed and threatened into building them.
- In the current architecture, penalization may well be the only option to meet targets. Experience from around the world, including some states in India, highlight that collective action through intensive community mobilization, repeated interactions with civil society and community organizations, and innovation are the key ingredients to success. This approach is the anti-thesis of the top-down guideline driven, technocratic approach that bureaucrats are trained in and that the SBM has adopted.
- Experience also highlights that sustained community engagement, at scale, is most effective when local governments become active stakeholders in the ODF movement. But this requires long-term investments in local governments—a process made impossible with high pressured targets. In fact, the initial research suggest that sanitation officials have not received any specific training in community mobilization and the ODF race is being run through orders and checklists.
- Government has heavily dependent on engaging film stars and outside players in propagating the message of SBM while without strengthening the local institutional capacity and community engagement. A phone survey conducted by RICE economists in July 2016 found only 2.6% respondents in rural Uttar Pradesh and 5.4% in Delhi were aware that SBM promotes toilet use. One reason for this is the lack of on-ground engagement. A survey by Accountability Initiative in December 2015 found that less than 10% respondents had heard of an awareness programme on sanitation being conducted in the village and only 3% had been visited by government or Panchayat officials to discuss sanitation.
Bringing behavioral changes among the people is most important part of the movements like SBM. For this, strengthening local institutions, engaging communities and creating awareness would be the most appropriate ways.
Topic: Globalization; Poverty and developmental issues
Brief note about Globalization-
- Globalization is the tendency ofinvestment funds and businesses to move beyond domestic and national markets to other markets around the globe, thereby increasing the interconnection of the world. Globalization has had the effect of markedly increasing international trade and cultural exchange.
- Globalization is used to explain the recent integration of domestic economies, industries, cultures and government policies around the world. This integration has occurred through increases in the technological capabilities and efficiency of world trade, communication and transportation. Primarily, globalization refers to theeconomic integration of the global markets, but it is also used to describe the socio-cultural integration that has been brought on by the rise of the Internet.
- Public policy and technology are the two main driving factors behind current globalization. Recent implementations of government policy, both domestic and internationally, have opened economic borders for countries across the world. Over the past 20 years, world governments have integrated a free-market economic system into fiscal policies, monetary policiesand trade agreements. This evolution of economic systems has stimulated domestic production potential and opened countries to increased financial opportunities abroad. World governments now focus on decreasing barriers to trade and actively promote international commerce in relation to investments, goods and services.
- Technology has also been a major reason for the growth in globalization. Advancements in information technology (IT) and the flow of information across borders have empowered individuals to take control of their financial lives. Technology has helped people become more informed about economic trends and allows people to transfer financial assetsand take advantage of investment opportunities. Technology has increased the ability to communicate internationally, closing the gap between different cultures.
- The terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference. The term “internationalization” refers to the importance of international trade, relations, treaties etc. International means between or among nations. “Globalization” means erasure of national boundaries for economic purposes; international trade (governed by comparative advantage) becomes inter-regional trade (governed by absolute advantage).
Challenges created by Globalization-
- The benefits of economic integration have primarily extended to the industrialized countries thusit has exacerbated the gap between rich and poor, both among and within countries.
- It has undermined labor and environmental standards
- The globalization of financial markets has been accompanied by devastating financial crises in emerging market economies.
- Globalization have undermined the sovereignty of nations particularly for developing and least developed countries making them vulnerable to the pressure from industrially advanced countries.
Has Globalization made world a better place?
Above mentioned challenges are the points which suggest that globalization has not helped in making world a better place.
Arguments in favor-
- Certain countries have managed to dramatically improve their living standards by deregulating their domestic economies and opening up to global markets. The Four Tigers of East Asia—Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea—are the most prominent examples. From typical Third World poverty in the 1950s, each has achieved a standard of living today equivalent to that of industrialized nations, with per-capita incomes in Hong Kong and Singapore rivaling those of the wealthiest Western nations.
- The greatest beneficiaries of globalization are the long-suffering consumers in those nations that had been “protected” from global competition. Globalization expands the range of choice, improves product quality, and exerts downward pressure on prices. It delivers an immediate gain to workers by raising the real value of their wages. It transfers wealth from formerly protected producers to newly liberated consumers, with the gains to consumers exceeding the loss to producers because the deadweight losses to the economy are recaptured through efficiency gains.
- LDCs have the most to gain from engaging in the global economy. First, they gain access to much larger markets, both for imports and exports. On the import side, consumers gain access to a dramatically larger range of goods and services, raising their real standard of living. Domestic producers gain access to a wider range and better quality of intermediate inputs at lower prices. On the export side, domestic industries can enjoy a quantum leap in economies of scale by serving global markets rather than only a confined and underdeveloped domestic market.
- LDCs that open themselves up to international trade and investment gain access to a much higher level of technology. This confers on LDCs a “latecomer’s advantage”: rather than bearing the cost of expensive, up-front research and development, poor countries can import the technology off the shelf.
- Engagement in the global economy provides capital to fuel future growth. Most developing countries are people-rich and capital-poor. Global capital markets can fill the gap, allowing poor nations to accelerate their pace of growth.
- Openness to the global economy can provide the infrastructure a developing economy needs for growth. Foreign capital can finance more traditional types of infrastructure, such as port facilities, power generation, and an internal transportation network. But just as importantly, multinational companies can provide an infrastructure of what could be called “enabling services,” such as telecommunications, insurance, accounting, and banking. Countries like China and India have benefited on this front from globalization.
There is nothing inherent in the process of globalization that would cause the gulf between rich and poor nations to expand. In fact, the access to capital, new technology, and larger markets that comes with global integration should be expected to accelerate the convergence of less developed regions of the world and to make global trade and wealth less concentrated across countries. Thus globalization is indeed helping in making world a better place. Following are some steps that could help in minimizing the negative impacts of globalization.
- First: issues of international interdependence must be given greater priority in national policy agendas. Increasing mutual dependence requires that each country must give more consideration to the consequences of its actions on others. That in turn requires closer international cooperation and also institutions that are directly responsible for global problems;
- Second, globalization urgently requires international solidarity. Solidarity is, however, not just an ethical and moral duty. In actively combating world poverty I see an investment in stability and peace for the whole of mankind.
- Third, international cooperation and solidarity should not weaken or even replace nationalself-responsibility. At the end of the day, what matters is also, and above all, good governance, sound institutions, and respect for the rule of law;
- Fourth, the market economy has proven to be the best mechanism in history for economic coordination. Nevertheless, market forces alone do not suffice. We need internationally recognized ground rulesfor participation in globalization.
- Fifth, we should regard the diversityof experiences and cultures as part of the wealth of our planet. Strengthening the international financial architecture should not therefore be an attempt to force all countries into a uniform, one-size-fits-all economic or cultural model.
General Studies – 2
Topic: Role of civil services; Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
(The term paramilitary forces has been used in the question with broader understanding including the Central Armed Police Forces)
Central Armed Police Forces were formerly referred as Paramilitary Forces however from March 2011, Ministry of Home Affairs adopted a uniform nomenclature of Central Armed Police Forces for five forces namely: CRPF, BSF, ITBP, CISF, SSB to avoid confusion. The term “paramilitary forces” in India has not been defined in any acts or by authorities officially however they are conventionally used to refer to two forces i.e. Assam Rifles and Special Frontier Force.
Issues plaguing paramilitary and state police forces-
- Politicization and criminalization –Nexus with corrupt politicians, bureaucrats and mafia have compromised internal security, eroding of forces authority and affected integrity of system.
- Poor working condition –Poor food quality, leakages in ration, Over-stretched working hours, lack of leaves, unavailability of adequate protection gear and inadequate accessories in some conditions to counter intense cold, hot environment in border areas. This has also resulted into high attrition rate.
- Ineffective grievance redressal –Collusion between corrupt superiors, poor accountability mechanisms and opaque structure, lack of alternative structure causes no heed paid to issues raised by force personnel citing some or other financial, administrative excuses.
- Mismanagement of manpower –139/1 lakh citizen police personnel as against 200/1lakh recommended, while haphazard expansion of paramilitary forces had lead to infra issues (inadequate housing capabilities).
- Lack of effective weapons –75% shortage in 9 mm bullets (primary ammunition) , causing paramilitary forces to run on empty weapons which affects their operation capabilities.
- Social Insecurity –No OROP like structure for paramilitary forces and pension amount not at par with armed forces and other Govt. services also leading to high attrition rate in such forces.
- Implementation of Prakash Singh case guidelines-
- State security commission with a view to insulating the police from extraneous influences.
- Police establishment board to give it functional autonomy.
- Police complaints authority to ensure its accountability.
- Separation of investigating police from the law and order police
- Set up of National Security Commissionfor the selection and placement of heads of Central Police Organizations and analysis of major issues.
- Providing effective grievance redressal mechanism by creation of independent bodywith transparent structure directly reporting to Home Ministry.
- Implement National Security doctrine, standardize and fasten procurement proceduresacross forces, developed indigenous ammunition generation capabilities.
- Provide OROP like structure, adequate infra and other incentives (concept of peace posting)to attract best of talent and Increase of manpower in a structured manner.
- Outsourcing of management of supply chain(food, basic provisions) through PPP to reduce officer intervention and maintain quality, timely delivery.
- Creation of ‘One Area One Allowance’, ‘national allowance grid’ systems where every soldier either from Army or Paramilitary would be treated equally on pay scale basis.
- Modernizing both Paramilitary and state police forces is need of the time. Naxalists and terrorists have been using modern weapons and tools to which preparedness these forces are proving ineffective.
Paramilitary and police state forces are the backbone of maintaining law and order inside the country. Central forces play an important role in disaster management, tackling extremism, election duty, securing border areas in the country, and are very important for effective internal security of our nation. However scant attention has been provided towards their preparedness and efficiency. Thus government of the day must focus on meeting the requirement of these forces and giving CAPFs equality with respect to armed forces.
Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary
Bihar government has taken a decision to allow 50 per cent reservation in subordinate and superior judicial services for direct appointment after due consultation with the Patna High Court and Bihar Public Service Commission. This stand of the Bihar government is not of recent origin. It could take this decision after a protracted legal battle of almost two decades. The final nod came in the light of a Supreme Court judgment of September 29, 2016, in the state of Bihar vs Dayanand Singh case. The judgment resulted in reservations for superior posts like district and additional judge. For subordinate services like judicial magistrate and munsif magistrate, a reservation policy for 27 per cent of the posts was already in operation. Within the new policy of 50 per cent reservation across the board for both the segments, 21 per cent is for EBCs, 12 per cent for OBCs, 16 per cent for SCs, and 1 per cent for STs. Over and above this, a vertical reservation of 35 per cent for women and 1 per cent for differently-abled persons was also provided.
Merits of the move-
- Promotes equality – The recent decision wouldreduce unfair treatment of Backward classes at the hands of government machineries owing to them being controlled by influential classes or traditional upper castes. For eg Poor conviction record under Protection of Civil Rights act 1955, SC/ST Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989. The decision is also in line with Preamble (Equality and justice), Art 14 (Equality before law) etc.
- Increased Sensitivity –As per judicial experts, Lower courts appear more sensitive than higher courts towards marginalized section in their judgments (greater proportion of Upper Caste judges in higher courts).
- Reduced Legal Lynching –Most of the under trials lodged in jail often belong to historical lower castes and courts in majority cases have remained insensitive to their cause.
- Increased representation –Marginalized population and historically oppressed classes would have more say in the decision-making and delivering justice.
- Increased trust –The decision could change the mindset of such sections who generally do not approach the higher judiciary due to court’s insensitiveness.
- Gender sensitivity –Women judges generally are more socially sensitive and vertical reservation of 35% for women would lead to women empowerment and 1% for differently-abled give representation to hitherto neglected section.
- The decision also considers economic backwardness as one of the criteria which would help poor among the other classes.
- Vote-bank politics –May turn into platform for excessive appeasement for lower caste through political class for their votes and unnecessary harassment of higher castes in some cases.
- Efficiency and Standard –Need to check that such reservation policy does not hamper the efficiency of judicial system.
- Overhaul at threshold needed –Make police social sensitive and increase representation of marginalized section to prevent harassment.
- Focus on skill development –Effective implementation of skill development programs needed to promote socio-economic development.
The Bihar Govt. decision is highly regarded as being ‘socially sensitive’ by many experts and promotes Judicial inclusion. However, such measures are needed at all levels of judiciary like HC to promote uniformity in decision-making and should be supplemented with other measures like faster-dispute resolution, check on judicial-political-police collusion to promote un-biasedness.
Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations
5) Write a critical note on the Rohingya crisis in Myanmar and Bangladesh. Critically examine why Aung San Suu Kyi and India, both champions of democracy, have not been able to resolve this issue within their capabilities. Also suggest how can India address Rohingya issue. (200 Words)
Introduction:- The Rohingyas are a people struck by tragedy: persecuted at home in Myanmar, rejected or barely tolerated abroad, and sacrificed at the altar of strategic calculations by powerful neighbours. To add to it, the refugee crisis in Europe has overshadowed their plight. Both institutionally discriminated and denied basic human rights in a legally-sanctioned manner as well as removed from the mainstream, over a million Rohingyas have no land they can call home. It is as though they have been expelled from humanity itself.
Rohingyas are the ethnic minority in Rakhine state of Myanmar. These people follow Islam religion. Rohingya are termed as one of the most persecuted minority in the world by UN (United Nation). Their numbers is around 800,000 in Myanmar. Around 1 Lakh of these are living in refugee camps for internally displaced people, forbidden by authorities from leaving. Linguistically they are related to Indo- Aryans of India and Bangladesh, as opposed to the mainly Sino-Tibetan languages of Myanmar. Rakhine state, which is a coastal state, is shown below in the map.
The mains points regarding this issue are mentioned below:
- Their origin is disputed with some saying they are indigenous people of Rakhine state, while others call them Muslim migrants from present day Bangladesh. Myanmar was ruled by military for more than 50 years and during its rule it heavily discriminated against minorities like the Rohingyas, Chinese people like Kotang people, Panthay (Chinese Muslim). Successive Myanmar governments have been accused of provoking riots against the minorities. Between World War II and 1962 military coup in Myanmar, Rohingyas demanded a separate nation for them. Later when military came to power there were crackdowns upon Rohingyas.
- Burmese Citizenship Law of 1982 was an important landmark in the history of Rohingya, when these people were officially excluded from the citizenship rights of Myanmar. This law sought to deny citizenship to people of Indian and Chinese descent and also targeted the Rohingyas. Myanmar government calls them as ”stateless Bengalis” and does not give them citizenship rights.
- 2012 riots in Rakhine state: Violence erupted between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims in the state of Rakhine which led large scale displacement (around 140,000) and killings of Rohingyas in hundreds. Emergency was imposed in the Rakhine state which allowed military and police to directly control administration, which have been accused of targeting Rohingyas with arbitrary arrest and violence. With this event Rohingyas got international attention.
- Recent census (1st since 1983) backed by UNFPA (United nation population fund): Myanmar government has asked Rohingyas to register themselves as ”Bengalis” and not as Rohingyas in the census. It is said that terming them Bengalis would help in targeting and denying them citizenship rights as these would be called as Bengali migrants. But recently various nations, UN (United Nations) have urged Myanmar to give citizenship rights to Rohingyas.
- Rohingyas in India: Rohingyas influx into Bangladesh from nearby Rakhine state of Myanmar is further continuing into India via Bangladesh. It is estimated that there are thousands of Rohingyas in India. Since 2013 Bangladesh has closed its door for Rohingyas, now they are entering India via North East; causing internal security concerns. The refugees detained under Foreigners Act, 1946 are now supposed to be sent to Tihar jail in Delhi as the UNHCR (United Nation High Commission for refugee) has only jurisdiction in Tihar. And once these are recognised as refugee they will be sent to only refugee camp in India in Jammu. Rohingyas are entering into other neighboring nations of Myanmar including Thailand, Bangladesh etc.
MS.SUU KYI’S POLITICAL POSITION AND INABILITY TO DEAL WITH ISSUE:-
- Suu Kyi’s precarious political position makes it hard for her to respond to the crisis as effectively as she could have. Despite the return of democracy in 2015, the military continues to have a strong hold over the civilian government in Myanmar, especially on key issues such as defence, border affairs and home affairs.
- The country’s constitution also reserves one-fourth of the seats in Parliament for the military. And though Ms. Suu Kyi’s party is in power, she herself is barred from becoming the country’s president (she holds the post of State Counsellor) since her children are British citizens.
- Under such circumstances, her ability to take on the powerful military establishment remains limited.
- Ms Suu Kyi formed anadvisory committee under Kofi Annan, but it has been largely ineffective to investigate the violence against Rohingya
INDIA’S INCOMPETENCE TO DEAL WITH SITUATION
- Being a protector of democracy and humanity India does not have refugee law not even signatory of UN refugee convention’51 and its ’62 protocol, and under indigenous Foreign Law, they are considered as illegal migrants and thus ended up their lives in jails.
- Also Citizen Amendment bill’16, only considered other minority from neighbor countries, leaving “MUSLIMS”, thus if become act, Rohingya’s Muslims will remain in contention.
- Also, can’t take up the matter into the “international forums”, as this will pressurize India to bring own “disturbed areas” into the open.
- Chinese factor – India raising voice against Myanmar’s military can push Myanmar closer to China, against India’s geopolitical interests.
- Insurgency in North-east: India needs the support of Myanmar to tackle insurgency in North-east and cannot afford to antagonize its military. India is in the process of improving its traditionally weak relationship with military Myanmar and a move against current democratic government might be a step backward.
WHAT INDIA CAN DO:-
- Although New Delhi’s reluctance to speak out publicly about the violations against the Rohingyas is understandable, it can ill afford to ignore the crisis in Myanmar. Even if human rights considerations are the least of New Delhi’s worries, it is clearly in its interest to ensure that stability and peace return to the Rakhine state.
- As and when peace returns to Myanmar, India can ask the latter to rehabilitate the Rohingyas (like it did vis-à-vis East Pakistan refugees after the 1971 war).
- A stable and democratic Myanmar will naturally gravitate towards New Delhi.
- The Rohingya crisis, if it remains unsettled, can become a path toward radicalisation and pose a greater security threat for India. There are reports of increasing radicalisation among sections of the Rohingya community. A December 2016 report by the International Crisis Group spoke precisely about this challenge and highlighted how rights violations can lead to radicalisation.
- Citizen amendment bill can considered “rohingya muslims”, but first infrastructure needs to be erect first
- Engaging withASEAN to mandate refugee guidelines and exert pressure on Myanmar to stop discrimination.
New Delhi should use creative diplomacy to persuade Myanmar to resolve the Rohingya crisis. It should perhaps consider appointing a special envoy for this purpose who should hold discreet negotiations with Myanmar’s military, Ms. Suu Kyi, Dhaka and Beijing in order to bring an end to the crisis.
Topic: Role of civil services; Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive
6) Critically comment on the significance of the Central government’s recent decision to compulsorily retire two Indian Police Service (IPS) officers and one Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer for ‘non-performance’. (200 Words)
Introduction:- The Central government’s recent decision to compulsorily retire two Indian Police Service (IPS) officers and one Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer for ‘non-performance’ is bold and laudable. One of the officers is reported to have been under investigation for disproportionate assets. The compulsory retirements are in pursuance of the service rules that contemplate a review either when an officer reaches the age of 50 or completes 25 years of service.
All central government employees are governed by the Fundamental Rules (FR) and also the Central Civil Services (CCS) rules. Compulsory retirement as a provision is contained in both FR & CCS pension rules.
Rule 56(j) of Fundamental Rules (FR)
The fundamental rules governing all central government employees contain provisions for the compulsory retirement of any official. Rule 56(J) of the FR says that “The appropriate authority has the absolute right to retire, if it is necessary to do so in public interest, any Government employee as per provisions of Rules”
Rule 48 of CCS Pension Rules
The provision of compulsory retirement is also contained in Rule 48 of the CCS Pension rules. Rule 48 says that All Government servants covered by CCS (Pension) Rules, 1972 who have completed 30 years of qualifying service can be asked to compulsorily retire by the appropriate authority in public interest.
- We need to support the effort to convert the bureaucracy into an accountable body that is sensitive to public demands. As it is evidently found that the prestigious IPS is more inclined towards becoming more force than service so such move has potential to make it more service oriented.
- Last year finance ministry sacked 33 non performing IRS officer to remove general perception that officers can get away without performing their duties. So it gives strong message to other non performers that there is no other way besides faithfully doing their duty.
- Bureaucracy is mainly feeded upon public exchequer’s money and their non performance leads to waste money.
- It will act as warning Bell to under-performing officers.
- This would make officers more vigilant in their duty improving productivity ending corruption, indirect reward for honest officers
But at same time government must focus upon why these officers are becoming non-performers:
- Most of the higher posts lack the component of Job Enrichment so the job itself no longer motivates the officer to perform decently.
- Lack of integrity is another major reason this happens mainly because either the officer himself has corrupted mindset or that officer is not posted under high integrity possessing persons under during probation or both.
- At the same time proper care must be taken that such precedence of removal should not lead to witch hunting of honest officers. And as this ‘Steel Frame’ has not collapsed since independence shows that there is significant presence of honest civil servants.
- Cynics may say this is a gimmick or a symbolic act that would hardly mend the ways of the bureaucracy. This is a defeatist approach.
So onus lies on government that work upon job Enrichment process and try to enhance quality of probationary period. This is an appreciable move as it will help to change perception of citizens that once you bag a government job, you can keep that job without performing your duty responsibly.
General Studies – 3
Topic: Resource mobilization
The goods and services tax (GST) will help integrate this vast and diverse country, transform it into one common market, eliminate inefficient taxation, and go a long way in boosting the manufacturing sector.
But much more can be done. Logistics is a series of services and activities that constitute supply chains—such as transportation, warehousing, brokerages and so on. Although these activities are essentially carried out by private firms, their efficiency depends upon public infrastructure. This includes both “hard” or physical infrastructure as well as “soft” or institutional infrastructure such as systems, procedures and regulations.
- Smooth transport availability:- roads, water ways needs to develop according to trade movement, re-paring facilities/loading unloading machines/warehouse capacity needs to grow.
- ICT deployment: – check-posts need to be flexible, information from one posts to another can be shared to reduce the transit delays; vehicles can be traced via GPS and CCTVs arrangements to curb any illegal movement.
- GST tribunal:- in case any dent on co-operative federalism, branch of it should be there in every state.
- Administrative setup:- proper training regarding handling and management of database should be there.
- Monitoring:- to check its proper implementation in ground, an independent monitory system should be deployed, whose report should be laid in front of parliament to scrutinize any discrepancies.
- GST council:- needs to remain awake, to bring gradual changes according to the developments in the market in pro-consumer way.
According to, World Bank’s 2016 Logistics Performance Index , India grows to 35th place/54th, a good news for GST . Other than that seven new multimodal freight corridors are on the anvil, and work on some is well under way, includes the Western and Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridors where high-speed trains will run along electrified freight-only tracks from the hinterland to ports on the western and eastern coasts.
“Co-operative and competitive federalism”, a national objective, for overall growth of the nation, therefore govts at both union and state needs to paid heed toward its long term benefits and sincere efforts toward it should be there
Topic: Economics of animal rearing; IPR issues
8) It is argued that the jellikattu sport will help preserve indigenous breeds of cattle. What are the other options people should be encouraged to practice to preserve indigenous breeds? Examine. (200 Words)
Jallikattu is 1500 years old tradition and is played during the Pongal festival. During the event coins are tied to the bull’s horns and one who unties the bundle of coins are awarded. The event is considered as matter of pride to the Thevar community in Southern Tamil Nadu. However, it has been criticized by many on grounds of inflicting unnecessary pain and death to animals
Argument in favour of preserving indigenous breed-
- Farmers will be forced to abandon the raising of native livestock, which already stands threatened due to the extensive mechanization in agriculture and urbanization, preference to foreign breeds for their higher milk content (137 native breeds in India a century age, now only 37)
- Possession of such indigenous humped bulls is amatter of social prestige due to such events and also promotes organic farming practices in the region (source for farmyard manure, organic treatments like panchagavya, jeevamritham, and as a source of A2 milk) – also maintains healthy male-to-female ratio of native cattle
- Proper care like nutritious food, and optimum maintenance is done tomaintain the superiority of indigenous breeds and also prevents slaughtering of bulls (In line with Gandhian principle Art. 48)
- Native cattle are both an input as well as insurance to the livestock keepers – Also help in better price realization for such breeds and reduce economic inequality
Alternative options to conserve-
- Scientific methods:-Use of Artificial insemination (cryopreservation techniques) , Embryo transfer (IVF) to help in enhancing efficiency in progeny testing of bulls and maintaining genetic uniqueness.
- Offering incentives:-On lines of Rashtriya Gokul Mission (NLM), Dairy Development Boards (DDB) increasing effectivity of State Gauseva Ayogs to help further research and incentivize farmers and also provide adequate training to enable better integration with agri-practices
- Upgrade nondescript cattle:-(Consume more fodder, but has low productivity) by using elite indigenous breeds like Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Deoni to increase their value (Breed improvement programs)
- Increased investments:-Use of PPP methods to set up multiple Gokul Grams, and encourage investment in livestock
- Alternative festival:-Bulls show-case festivals, exhibition, racing events can be conducted by Govt. with hefty prizes while increased regulation of controversial events like Jallikattu (TN), Bull-fighting (MH)
Each breed has evolved over several ages and in a distinct way. One method of breed conservation will not work in another area, with another breed hence In-situ conservation is the best method for conserving any breed. An amalgamation of traditional practices and modern tech is required to promote development of our neglected indigenous breeds.